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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COL . I :ON 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC UbKAHY 



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GENEALOGY 
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IL682J 
1916-1917 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/journalofillinoi09illi 



Illinois i:State Historical Society 
Journ al 

volume 9 
April 1916-January 1917 



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VOL. 9 APRIL, 1916 NO. 1 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



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Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C, as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16, 1S94. 



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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



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Volume Nine, Nos. 1-4 
April 1916— January 1917. 



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JOURNAL 

OF THE 

IU4N0IS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Jessie Palmer Weber, Editor. 

Associate Editors: 
J. H. Burnham, George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



Honorary President 

Hon. Clark E. Carr _ _ Galesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice-President 

Hon. W. T. Norton— _ _ Alton 

Second Vice-President 

Hon. L. Y. Sherman.. _ Springfield 

Third Vice-President 

Hon. Eichard Yates _ Springfield 

Fourth Vice-President 

Hon. George A. Lawrence _ _ Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham _ _ _ Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp _ __ Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 

J. 0. Cunningham _ Urbana 

George W. Smith _ Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. Meets e Moline 

Eichard V. Carpenter...... _ Belvidere 

Edward C. Page _ _ _ DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton _ Polo 

Andrew Eussel _ ~ Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer _ __ Albion 

James A. James _ _ Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin _ Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber — Springfield 

Honorary Vice-Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies throughout the 

State of Illinois. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Abraham Lincoln. Governor Edward F. Dunne 7 

A Modern Knight Errant. Edward Dickinson Baker, 
James H. Matheny _ _ 23 

Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in Illinois. Mrs. Edwin S. 
Walker _ _ _ _ 43 

Some Interesting Old Letters : 

John P. Richardson to P. P. Enos _ _ 46 

Daniel P. Cook to P. P. Enos _ _ 47 

Ninian Edwards to P. P. Enos 48 

Journey from Urbana, Illinois, to Cooke County, Texas, 
in the Spring of 1846. William R. Strong _ _ 49 

Early Settlement of Walnut Grove. William E. Epler 61 

EDITORIAL: 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting, Illinois State Historical 

Society, May 11-12, 1916 _ _ _ 69 

Illinois Centennial Celebration 70 

Indiana Centennial Celebration 76 

St. Clair County Historical Society _ 76 

Gifts of Books, Letters and Manuscripts to the Illinois 

State Historical Library and Society 77 

Necrology : 

F.M.Woolard _..._ _ _ : _ 81 

Dr. William Jayne _._ _ _ 82 

Charle s E. Hay _ _ _ _ 95 

Alba Honeywell _ _ 96 

Henry Talbott _ 102 

Publications Illinois State Historical Library and Society 105 



1 i 



V 



i t- 






EDWARD F. DUNNE 



Abraham Lincoln 

Address of Edward F. Dunne, Governor of the State of 

Illinois, Before the Annunciation Club of Buffalo, 

New York, February 15, 1916. 



At your kind invitation I come to participate with you in 
the celebration of the anniversary of the birth of a great 
American President and statesman, Abraham Lincoln. 

I come from a State which is proud of its history and 
achievements ; from a State which although not yet a century 
old, has advanced into the front rank of the States of the 
Union. 

We are proud in Illinois of the fact that this comparatively 
young State has distanced her sister States, excepting two, in 
population, wealth, manufacturing and political importance; 
that she stands first in agricultural wealth, fertility of soil 
and railway development. But proud as we are of her ma- 
terial prosperity, we are prouder still of her history and the 
part she has played in the history of the Nation. 

We are proud that it was on the soil of Illinois that the 
gentle Pere Marquette made most of his important discoveries 
and planted the cross of Christianity in 1673, his mission being 
one for the salvation of souls and not the subjugation of the 
bodies of men. 

We are proud of the achievements which La Salle and Joliet, 
Tonti and Hennepin accomplished on Illinois soil. 

We are proud of the fact that the hardy pioneers who dwelt 
in the wilderness around Kaskaskia in what is now the State of 
Illinois, anticipated, in 1771, the demands of the colonists in 
Massachusetts, New York, Virginia and the rest of the Thir- 
teen colonies when they repudiated Lord Dartmouth's 
" Sketch of Government for Illinois," as "oppressive and 
absurd," and declared "should a government so evidently 



8 

tyrannical be established, it could be of no duration. There 
would exist the necessity of its being abolished. ' ' This declar- 
ation of independence antedates that of 1776 in Philadelphia 
by five years. 

We are proud of the fact that on Illinois soil took place, on 
July 4, 1778, the struggle resulting in the capture from the 
English by George Eogers Clark of the fort of Kaskaskia, 
which wrested forever from the British crown all of the terri- 
tory west of Pennsylvania lying between the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rivers. 

We are proud of the fact that it was on the soil of Illinois 
that its two intellectually gifted sons argued out before the 
people sitting as a jury the greatest moral issue that this 
country has ever faced — the issue as to whether this country 
could long endure as a republic with human slavery legally 
enforced in one part of it, and legally prohibited in another. 

We are proud of the fact that that great issue, as the result 
of that great debate, was finally settled right in the awful ar- 
bitrament of war under the leadership of the great soldier fur- 
nished by Illinois in the nation's crisis, backed by the valor of 
125,000 sons of Illinois upon the battlefield. 

We are proud of the fact that Illinois produced in the na- 
tion's crisis a U. S. Grant to lead her soldiers to final victory, 
and that in the great war for the preservation of the life of 
the nation she produced such brilliant generals as Logan, 
Shields, McClernand, Oglesby, Mulligan and Lawler, and 
others, who have shed illustrious honor upon the State, but 
above and beyond all, Illinois is proud of the fact that she 
gave to the nation and to the world in 1S61 the greatest human- 
itarian and statesman of the nineteenth century, one of the 
most wonderful men in history, in the person of Abraham 
Lincoln. 

We are celebrating tonight the natal anniversary of this 
great man and I am called upon to speak appropriately to 
the theme. I fear that in calling upon me for this purpose 
you have overrated my powers. Since the death of Lincoln, 
his name has been upon the tongues and pens of most of the 
great orators and writers of the world. With the single excep- 



tion, probably, of Napoleon, no name has so engrossed the 
attention of the civilized world in the last century as has that 
of Lincoln. Orators, poets and historians have vied with each 
other in doing honor to that illustrious name and yet the 
theme has not become threadbare nor exhausted. 

Four men who have reached the presidency of this great 
Republic stand out among their fellow presidents as titanic 
figures in American history — "Washington, the ideal patriot; 
Jefferson, the ideal statesman; Jackson, the ideal citizen-sol- 
dier ; and Lincoln, the ideal humanitarian. 

"We are gathered tonight to honor the last but not the least 
of these great men. 

Lincoln's character is remarkable in that it seems to grow 
and increase in public estimation as the years go by. I doubt 
that his contemporaries appreciated in his lifetime the won- 
derful character of the man. "When one stands alongside of 
some great architectural triumph with his hand upon its 
base, he fails to drink in the symmetry and grandeur of the 
structure. It is only when he stands away from the base of 
the monument that he begins to appreciate its dignity and 
symmetry, and so it is with the character of Lincoln. Those 
who lived and worked with him, it seems to me, never appre- 
ciated at its full worth the marvelous character of the man. 
It is only as the years roll by and as we get the perspective of 
time that we recognize the simplicity and noblility of his 
character. 

Lincoln's personal history is one of the saddest and strang- 
est in all history. Born in a miserable log hut, in the direst 
poverty, without the education of schools, without influential 
friends, without physical attraction, without money or prop- 
erty and without antecedents, by virtue of his innate moral 
rectitude and intellectual ability alone, he struggled upward 
and onward until he died in the White House, President, Chief 
Executive, of the greatest Eepublic on the face of the earth. 

Thomas a'Kempis in his beautiful work, the "Imitation of 
Christ," has pointed out in the choicest language how to 
become a follower of the Christian Redeemer. It is a work 
that is written for, and appeals to Christians. Lincoln was 



10 

not a Christian. I doubt if lie was ever affiliated with any- 
church. Indeed, his biographers show that in the early days 
of his manhood he read much of Thomas Paine and Voltaire. 
He was probably a deist, a believer in the existence of an 
all-wise Providence, but a disbeliever in miracles, revelation, 
the atonement, and punishment after death. 

He probably never read or heard of the ''Imitation 
of Christ," and yet fate or destiny made him uncon- 
sciously a man who was surrounded all his life by many 
circumstances such as we read of in the life of Christ. He 
was born in a lowly cabin in the outskirts of civilization. He 
was the son of a rude and unlettered carpenter. He lived 
in the direst poverty. He preached the doctrines of human 
equality. He was filled with sympathy for the poor and 
distressed. He demanded equality before the law, and died 
a martyr to the cause of humanity. 

I will discuss his character tonight from three standpoints. 
First, from the standpoint of his profession as a lawyer; 
second, from the standpoint of statesmanship, and third, as 
a man of many sorrows. 

For twenty-three years of his life Abraham Lincoln 
practiced law for a living in the Springfield District of 
Illinois. It was known as the Eighth Judicial Circuit, and 
comprised one-seventh of the whole state. "Without schol- 
astic education, or in fact any education, except that which 
was acquired through his own efforts, and without even 
examination as to his legal attainments, he was early ad- 
mitted to the bar. Prior to that admission his whole life had 
been that of a. manual laborer. Despite his early handicaps, 
he soon discovered in himself that strength of character and 
mental force which makes men great. Imbued with a natural 
facility of speech and a lucidity of thought which found 
expression in the simplest of language, he felt himself quali- 
fied to become a pleader of the rights and demands of others. 
His confidence in himself was well founded. After receiving 
his license to practice, he commenced a professional career 
as a lawyer which rapidly developed into a successful 
practice. 



11 

No man in the profession in this time worked so tirelessly 
and incessantly. Astride a powerful horse, with his saddle 
bags containing his briefs and pleadings, or in a wobbling, 
dilapidated buggy, he followed the Circuit Judge from 
county seat to county seat through fourteen counties, over 
almost impassible roads, sleeping in impossible taverns, 
often sharing a bed with fellow lawyers, or sometimes with 
the Circuit Judge himself. For weeks at a time he was away 
from his home and office, constantly trying cases in the then 
obscure and widely separated county seats of eastern central 
Illinois. No farmer or mechanic of to-day did half of the 
physical labor performed by Lincoln in making these fearful 
pilgrimages. The remarkable feature of these laborious 
trips is the fact that throughout them all he preserved his 
health and good temper. The physical hardships of his early 
life seemed to have inured him to all kinds of harassing 
wear and tear, his temperate habits preserved his extraor- 
dinary physical strength, and the unfailing good, humor and 
light-heartedness with which his Maker endowed him, en- 
abled him, after a hard day's work, to cast off his cares as 
easily as he discarded his overcoat. 

No lawyer in the circuit tried as many nisi prius cases as 
did Lincoln. For a time in his career on the circuit he was 
almost incessantly in court, being retained on either side of 
nearly every case on trial. 

Nor were his labors confined to the Circuit Court. The 
labor performed by him on briefs filed in the Supreme 
Court was prodigious. In the first twenty-five volumes of 
the Supreme Court reports his name appears as counsel 173 
times. In some of these cases doubtless the briefs may have 
been prepared by associate counsel, but no lawyer could 
have had 173 cases in the Supreme Court within twenty-three 
years without having done an enormous amount of work on 
the same, both in the Circuit and Supreme Courts. The 
wonder of the thing grows upon us when we reflect that for 
many years he prepared his own pleadings in long hand; 
that his brief book was kept in his pocket and sometimes in 



12 

his hat, and that, in his early days in the profession, he was 
very careless and unmethodical. 

His industry, however, marvelous as it was, never equaled 
his modesty. Lincoln was not a commercial lawyer. He 
knew not how to capitalize anything; least of all did he 
know how to capitalize his own wonderful genius. The 
possessor of rude but convincing eloquence that persuaded 
juries and convinced courts, endowed by God with a nobility 
of character and a love of truth which shone through his 
every act and work, and brought success to nearly every 
cause he championed, this great man and this great lawyer 
was possessed of an instinctive modesty that refused to rate 
his own worth in mercenary cash. 

The man, who within a few years afterward gave utterance 
to that immortal classic at Gettysburg and penned the like- 
wise immortal Emancipation Proclamation, in his own esti- 
mation as a lawyer was not worth $25.00 a day. On one of 
his circuits, it is said, Lincoln only collected $5.00 in cash. 
On many of them, most of his fees were $5.00 a trial, and 
in but very few cases did he receive $50.00. 

His guileless and uncommercial character as a lawyer is 
but illustrated by his notes made preparatory to a law 
lecture. 

"The matter of fees is important," he wrote, "far beyond 
the mere question of bread and butter involved. Properly 
attended to, fuller justice is done to both lawyer and client. 
An exorbitant fee should never be charged. As a general 
rule, never take your whole fee in advance, nor any more 
than a small retainer. "When fully paid beforehand, you 
are more than mortal if you can feel the same interest in the 
case as if something was still in prospect." 

On one occasion, when he learned that an attorney who had 
retained him had charged $250.00 for their joint services, he 
refused to take any share of the money until the fee had 
been reduced to what he deemed a reasonable amount. 

For this and other outrages of this character upon the 
legal profession, he was denounced by Judge David Davis, 
who said: "Lincoln, you are impoverishing the bar by your 



13 

picayune charges," and he was tried by his brother lawyers 
in a mock court, condemned, found guilty, and paid his fine 
with the utmost good nature. 

The lack of financial acquisitiveness, amounting at times 
to self-deprivation, characterized his every station in life, 
from grocery clerk to the presidency, and impelled him at 
all times to side with the under dog and to champion the 
cause of the poor, the lowly and the oppressed. 

But Lincoln, the lawyer, was not only industrious and 
modest; he was incorruptibly honest. He could not, and 
would not, lie, dissemble, pettifog or corrupt. Lincoln fought 
his legal battles in the open. xVlthough a power in politics, 
he never maneuvered and intrigued to get a man on the 
bench that he could own. Although a member of the Legis- 
lature and of Congress, he never was a lobbyist, either during 
his term of office or afterwards. He never joined swell 
clubs or fawned upon the wealthy. He never invited judges 
on the bench to stretch their legs and consciences at private 
dinner parties. He never dosed them with Ruinart and 
Oliquot, or furnished them with private cars and free trans- 
portation. He had no systematized departments in his law 
office, called ''Tax Department," wherein the duties of the 
tax lawyer was to fix the assessor; "Legislative Depart- 
ment," wherein the legislative lawyer was detailed to see 
the councilmen and assemblymen; "Publicity Department," 
wherein the publicity lawyer was employed to fix the news- 
papers; "Claim Department," wherein the claim lawyer was 
detailed to get to the hospital with a receipt in full before 
the injured claimant was operated upon; "Coroner's De- 
partment," wherein the deputy lawyer arranged to draft the 
verdict for the accommodation of the coroner's jury; nor 
a "Settlement Department," whose duty it was to settle 
cases with litigants behind the backs of the lawyers who had 
brought suits and got them in readiness for trial. Lincoln 
would have scorned to preside over, or be found in such a 
law office. 

Lincoln tried some important lawsuits for corporations, 
but his ability could be hired and not his conscience. He 



14 

could never be hired to advise a client, no matter how 
wealthy, how to violate the law, how to cajole or corrupt a 
court or jury, how to fix an assessor, or debauch a councilman 
or legislator. 

Even when retained in a case where be owed the duty of 
giving his best efforts to his client, he insisted that the client 
must act with honor. 

It is said that during the trial of one of his cases he 
detected his client acting dishonorably, whereupon he walked 
out of the court room, and refused to proceed with the trial. 
Upon the judge sending a messenger after him, directing 
him to return, he positively declined, saying, "Tell the judge 
my hands are dirty and I've gone away to wash them." 

Nor would he accept a retainer in a case which was legally 
right, but morally wrong. 

To a prospective client, seeking his services, he once said : 

"We can doubtless win your case, set a whole neighbor- 
hood at loggerheads, distress a widow and six fatherless 
children, and thereby get you six hundred dollars, to which 
you have a legal claim, but which rightfully belongs to the 
widow and her children. Some things that are legally right 
are not morally right. We would advise you to try your 
hand at making six hundred dollars some other way." 

Such were the principles that actuated and governed 
Lincoln in the practice of his profession. A remunerative 
practice in any profession is a laudable ambition, but too 
often that ambition is tainted with the "get-rich-at-any-cost" 
spirit of the age. 

Judged by the test of the accumulation of money, Lincoln 
was not a great lawyer, but judged by the test of probity, 
integrity, loyalty to clients and adherence to the right, 
Lincoln was among the greatest lawyers of his day. 

Let us now turn to the career of Lincoln as a statesman 
and a leader of men. 

When he first appeared in public life he had many draw- 
backs and disadvantages to contend with. He had neither 
a good education nor a good personal appearance. Truth 
compels us to admit that Lincoln was homely in face and 



15 

ungainly in figure. Both his portraits and the pen descrip- 
tions of him by his contemporaries unite in picturing him 
as a very homely-faced man with a singularly awkward and 
ungraceful carriage. Six feet four inches in height, with long 
arms and long legs, when seated he did not seem to he larger 
than the ordinary man. His vocabulary was rude, simple 
and at times coarse, the natural result of his early environ- 
ment. 

Notwithstanding these drawbacks, his clear, lucid mind, 
backed by his facility of speech, early enabled him to discover 
the vital point in the discussion of any great issue, as it 
enabled him to discover the vital point in the trial of a 
lawsuit. While still a young man, as the central figure of a 
combination of nine energetic men in the Legislature, he 
succeeded in transferring the Capital of the State from 
Vandalia to his home city, Springfield. To accomplish this 
required tact, diplomacy, industry and compelling ability, the 
same quality that brought about his election as captain of 
his company in the Black Hawk War. 

Upon turning his attention to the general national issues 
of the country, he early discovered the moral weakness and 
untenability of human slavery as being a part of the institu- 
tions of the Republic. He early recognized the fact that the 
American Nation was born with a disfiguring birth-mark 
upon his brow and that that birth-mark must eventually be. 
effaced before the Nation could stand perfect among the 
other nations of the world, and yet with the full conscious- 
ness that slavery must be ultimately abolished in the United 
States, he was practical enough to know that the time for 
bringing about this great change must be selected under 
propitious and favorable surroundings, and that a premature 
attempt to abolish slavery, particularly by confiscation, 
would be apt to be ruinous to its advocates. Therefore, 
while determined to abolish slavery, he refused to join the 
abolitionists. 

Lincoln preferred to bide his time and let the leaven of 
anti-slavery sentiment do its work in its own good time. He 
knew that, under the Constitution of the United States, 



16 

slavery was recognized and tolerated, but also that, under 
the same Constitution, the confiscation of property rights 
was illegal. He, therefore, favored a moderate policy in the 
firm belief that a time would come in the history of the 
country when slavery could be abolished by compensation. 
None the less, he had no patience with the devious and 
shifting devices resorted to by statesmen of his day for the 
further extension of slavery into free territory. 

If the abolition of slavery must await until a propitious 
time, nevertheless its extension to free territory, he insisted, 
should not be tolerated. The attempted extension of slavery 
to free territory he knew would be the rock upon which the 
party in power must be shipwrecked. There he took his 
stand, and there he remained in the advocacy of the opposi- 
tion to such extension until he found himself the leader in 
the Nation of those who opposed slavery. Fortunate for 
Lincoln was it that the great leader of the opposite doctrines 
of compromise and extension lived in his own State and city, 
where Lincoln could watch his career, analyze his mistakes 
and note his errors. 

Douglas, at heart, was not a believer in slavery, but his 
long career in public life, particularly in the Senate of the 
United States, brought him in contact with all the leaders 
of the pro-slavery forces. He knew their strength, power 
and ability. He knew the tenacity with which the slave- 
holders of the South had labored to preserve the institution 
of slavery. He was a patriot and lover of his country and 
he feared the power and strength of the pro-slavery people 
and feared that that strength and power would be utilized to 
rend in twain the Nation if the abolition of slavery by con- 
fiscation were attempted. Douglas believed he was strug- 
gling for the preservation of the integrity of the Union, and 
all his policies and all his speeches were designed and 
delivered with the purpose of preventing that calamity. 

Pie was possessed of the idea that the slave-holding 
element had strength and power enough to bring about a 
severance between the States, and a division of the Republic. 
He submerged the great moral issue in the interest of the 



17 

integrity of the Nation. Lincoln took higher and loftier 
ground. He believed the time must come when slavery must 
be abolished and that when that time came no attempt to 
sever the Republic upon such an issue could prevail with 
the American people. 

But until the time became ripe for the enunciation of the 
doctrine of abolition he was content to stand and fight along 
the line of opposing the extension of slavery to the territories 
of the West. He determined that the citadel of slavery must 
eventually be stormed, impregnable as it seemed to be at 
the time. Outside of that citadel and in front of the citadel 
the friends of slavery had advanced their troops and erected 
entrenchments for the extension of slavery to the free terri- 
tories. The citadel could not be captured until these en- 
trenchments were stormed. 

When Douglas maintained, under the specious doctrine of 
state sovereignty, that each state and territory had the 
inherent right to determine for itself within its own boun- 
daries whether slavery should exist, and thus aligned him- 
self with the slave-holders of the South in endeavoring to 
extend slavery into the free territories of the West in 
defiance of the Missouri Compromise, Lincoln was the first 
of American statesmen to see that a breach could be made in 
these entrenchments. He challenged Douglas to an open 
debate on the prairies of Illinois on his views of state 
sovereignty, and in that debate it is conceded by all historians 
that he unhorsed his great opponent. 

When he compelled Douglas to answer his adroit question 
in this memorable debate, the answer to which necessarily 
would and did commend him to the Democrats of the NorHi, 
but incensed against him the Democrats of the So"-h. h? 
destroyed forever Douglas' prospect for the Presidency. 
When Lincoln's friends and adherents advised him agains L , 
putting the question, pointing out that Douglas might, rvn.'t 
probably would, answer in such a way as to strengthen his 
hold upon the Democrats of Illinois for the United Stages 
Senate, the answer of Lincoln was, "I am gunning for birrr^r 
game," and his prediction proved true. Douglas' answer to 



18 

that celebrated question propounded by Lincoln saved him 
in his candidacy for the United States Senate, but lost him 
the Presidency of the United States, and eventually made 
Lincoln that President. His conduct in that marvelous joint 
debate between Douglas and Lincoln so enhanced Lincoln's 
reputation that his name was upon the tongues of most of the 
anti-slavery people of the United States. 

Up to that time Senator Seward, of New York, and Mr. 
Chase, of Ohio, were the leaders of anti-slavery sentiment. 
Both of them were men of superior education, of the highest 
culture and of the most powerful intellect. Both of them 
for years were in official positions, trained in public office, 
far excelling Lincoln in the usual qualities which go to make 
up the ordinary statesman, and yet so powerful was Lincoln's 
rude but convincing logic in this memorable debate that it 
impelled the rank and file of the Republican party to choose 
him as their candidate for the Presidency in the convention 
of 1860. Lincoln had, by his merciless logic, carried the 
state sovereignty entrenchments which Douglas had so cun- 
ningly constructed in front of the citadel of slavery. 

Once installed in these entrenchments by his election to the 
Presidenc}', he proceeded to construct in and upon them a 
fortress from which he could afterwards batter down and 
storm the citadel of slavery. 

In the selection of his cabinet Lincoln displayed extraor- 
dinary sagacity and acumen. To the position of Secretary 
of State he invited the cultured and seasoned statesman, 
Senator Seward, who was the best known and ablest opponent 
of slavery, except himself, in the United States. That 
great man, disappointed in his ambition for the Presidency, 
was reluctant to accept, but Lincoln appealed to his patriot- 
ism and his humanity, and would not take "no" for an 
answer. When he finally did accept, it was upon condition 
that Lincoln must disclose the names of the other members 
of his cabinet. 

Among these was Senator Chase, of Ohio, another ardent 
Free Soil Republican, between whom and Seward there was 
a violent personal antipathy. Seward refused to sit in the 



19 

cabinet with Chase, and again Lincoln's wonderful sagacity 
and diplomacy was put to the test. How he accomplished 
the bringing together of these men will never be fully known, 
but they finally yielded to Lincoln's firm demands and both 
were appointed. 

To the great astonishment of the country two Union 
Democrats were appointed, presumably for the purpose of 
assuring the South that it was not his design to commit an 
injustice or take from them their property without due 
process of law and just compensation. Prom thence on 
Lincoln's career in the White House was a marvel of 
ingenuity and statesmanship. Confronted with rebellion on 
the part of the Southern States and with constant friction 
in his cabinet; with threats of resignation constantly re- 
newed on the part of Chase ; with insubordination and brutal 
opposition on the part of Stanton; with contempt and inso- 
lence on the part of Seward; assailed by an unfair and 
vituperative press ; afflicted with incompetence among his 
generals in the field, he nevertheless piloted the ship of state 
through the most perilous period in American history when 
the very life of the Nation was at stake. 

Men at his elbow in the cabinet intrigued against him, 
aspired to the position he held; obstructed his orders and 
nursed their own political ambitions and enmities in a way 
and to a degree that would have made the ordinary man lose 
heart and abandon the contest. Yet with a constancy, 
patriotism and ability but seldom if ever equaled in history, 
the dominant will of Lincoln prevailed. Finally, when he 
found himself strong enough and when the situation was 
opportune, he prepared and submitted to his cabinet the 
immortal Emancipation Proclamation, and, despite the oppo- 
sition of many of his most influential friends and sagest 
advisers, he gave the Proclamation to the world and fired 
the final batteries which in the end dismantled and destroyed 
the citadel of slavery. Nor was this done without an exhibi- 
tion of remarkable sagacity and exalted statesmanship. It 
was promulgated to the world as a war measure. It an- 
nounced to the people of the South that those in rebellion 



20 

against the Union must suffer the loss of their human chattels 
if they persisted in their treason, and that that property must 
be utilized against them on the battlefield. He was prudent 
enough, however, not to have the emancipation of the slaves 
of those in rebellion against the Nation to take effect imme- 
diately. He fixed a time in the proclamation in the future 
when the emancipation would go into effect unless those who 
were in rebellion laid down their arms and ceased their war 
of treason, and it contained the proviso that if those in 
resistance to the Nation would cease their rebellion they 
would be compensated for their property. 

The time and the cirenm stances for the abolition of slavery 
had arrived. The hour had struck upon the dial of time. 
Without violating law or the Constitution and in furtherance 
of the preservation of the integrity of the Union, he at last 
succeeded in effacing the birth-mark of slavery from the fair 
face of the American Republic. No statesman was ever so 
tried and so beset under trial or so triumphant in a great 
crisis as was Abraham Lincoln in the Presidency of the 
United States in the greatest crisis of its history. 

And now let us consider the man as the man of sorrow. 

His whole career, from cradle to the grave, was pathetic 
with its burdens, its humiliations, its privations and its 
sorrows. His birth was sorrowful. His boyhood days were 
sorrowful. His youth, his manhood, his public career and 
private career all through his life were filled with the strain 
of unending sorrow. 

His infancy was barefooted and ragged. He was forced 
to work at the coarsest manual labor from the time ho was 
six years of age. When a mere lad he led the horses while 
another held the plow. 

His father was a shiftless, unskilled carpenter, incapable 
of saving, or acquiring property. As soon as he was able to 
earn a wage Lincoln was hired out by his father to neigh- 
boring farmers and woodsmen for the most exacting physical 
labor, doing cho v es, chopping wood, splitting rails, acting 
as a flat-boat man on the rivers, as general chore-man around 



21 

country stores. A more cheerless boyhood is not disclosed in 
history. 

In his young manhood Lincoln appears as an awkward, 
angular youth, ugly in face and ungainly in carriage, 
unlettered and untaught. He went to school but one year 
in all his life, and the marvel is that he acquired a 
vocabulary and a diction such as is disclosed in some of his 
speeches and State papers. His love affairs were unfor- 
tunate. Spurned by most young girls of his 'age, he had the 
misfortune to lose by death his first sweetheart, which af- 
fected him so keenly that his friends despaired of his reason. 
After her death, his despondency was so acute and pathetic 
as to develop eccentricity from which he slowly recovered. 

His married life was unhappy almost from its inception. 
So doubtful was he of the prospect of married felicity that 
he failed and refused to be present on the appointed day for 
the marriage. Later on his courtship of his future wife was 
renewed and he finally consummated the marriage, only to 
have his most gloomy fears verified by many years of acute 
and constant married infelicity. So unhappy was his mar- 
ried life that his most reliable biographers state that while 
on the circuit when other lawyers went home on Saturday 
to spend their time with their wives and children that he 
(Lincoln) remained in some obscure hotel rather than return 
to his own fireside. 

The most pathetic picture drawn of Lincoln's unhappiness 
is that given by his law partner, who states that during the 
lunch hour, in Springfield, Lincoln, instead of walking four 
or five blocks to his home for the mid-day meal, would go 
down to the grocery store underneath his law office and buy 
a few cents' worth of cheese and crackers, and munch them 
in his office to satisfy his hunger. Nor was his domestic 
infelicity alone filled with sorrow. His financial affairs were 
never prosperous. Scrupulously honest and desirous of 
paying his debts, he was for years at a time constantly in 
debt, and, in order to pay these debts, he was depriving 
himself of the necessities of life. It is said that when he was 
elected to the Legislature he had to borrow money to go to 



22 

Vandalia, and when elected to the Presidency he was so short 
of ready cash, although he owned his home in Springfield and 
a small farm, that he was compelled again to borrow money 
to pay the expenses of the trip to Washington. 

His public life, while glorious in its results, was every- 
where bestrewn with vexations and annoyances. A consid- 
erable portion of the press was vituperative and abusive 
towards him. Members of his cabinet obstinate and irascible 
and, at times, insulting; all these things leading up to the 
final tragedy when he fell a victim to the bullet of an assassin. 
Such was the life of Lincoln, the man of sorrows. 

His whole life and his death were a martyrdom. 

If the spirits of the dead can, as we believe, look down and 
become conscious of the affairs of this world, what a glorious 
consolation must the spirit of Abraham Lincoln now be 
receiving beyond the grave. The burdens and sorrows of his 
life have been glorified to him, to his children and to his 
country by the incomparable, magnificent name and fame 
that he has left in history. 

No agonies that a human being could endure in this world 
could or would be shrunk from by any man who values fame 
if they could acquire such a fame and such a name as has 
been left by this incomparable American, the greatest 
humanitarian of his age and country. 

I know of no man in profane history who has so endeared 
himself to men of all races, nationalities, religions or color 
as has the great American statesman and beloved son of 
Illinois, Abraham Lincoln. 



""'• "-™ ■ - ■ -' ■■ I- ■-. 



■"■ ..-•". ■~ r ~:- 



,- :^-~- 



4 



I 
> 




23 



A Modern Knight Errant — 
Edward Dickinson Baker 

By James H. Matheny.* 



Tradition hath it that one hundred years ago, soon after 
the close of the war of 1812, in the good city of Philadelphia, 
a little boy was crying bitterly because he had just learned 
from his comrades the momentous truth, that, having been 
born in England, of English parents, he could not be the 
President of the United States. There is also a part of the 
story — possibly somewhat apocryphal — that, in response to 
the consolation offered, he threw back his head in a way that 
afterward became famous, and with a flash of the eye that 
was later to inspire his friends and alarm his enemies, he said, 
"In justice to me they might have come to America a few 
years earlier." 

This incident, possibly true, and certainly characteristic, 
introduces into history Edward Dickinson Baker. 

The father whose lack of foresight was thus condemned 
was Edward Baker, one of those pathetic figures — an edu- 
cated Englishman — without fortune or established income. 
The mother was of somewhat superior birth and was a sister 
of Captain Thomas Dickinson of the British navy, an officer 
of ability and distinction, who fought under Collingwood at 
Trafalgar. They had migrated to our country at the close 
of our second Avar only to find that, while America was indeed 
the land of hope, yet too often it was a deferred and uncer- 
tain hope, and the early years of the son were years of 
poverty and struggle. 

After a few years in Philadelphia, their eyes were turned 



•This address was delivered before the Association of Collegiate Alumnae of 
Spring-field, Illinois. Januarv 14, 1916. The members of the Sunnyside Club and 
of the Anti-Rust Club were invited to be present, and many of them attended. 



24 

toward the western waters. They came to the Indiana terri- 
tory and lived for a time at Mew Harmony, near the Wabash 
River. Thence they migrated to Belleville, in Illinois, near 
the Mississippi River, the son making the journey from the 
"Wabash alone and on foot. 

The father established a little school at Beileville, which 
was conducted with success for a few years. Here the son 
attracted the attention of Ninian Edwards, the first terri- 
torial governor, the father of Benjamin S. Edwards, whose 
home in Springfield has lately been devoted to art. Governor 
Edwards has been described as "a magnificent old gentleman 
in fair-top boots and ruffled wristbands, who added to a 
character of great generosity and executive ability the grand 
seigneur airs of the old school." Young Baker was often a 
guest at his home and was admitted to the use of his library 
and doubtless these opportunities aided in the formation of 
the grand manner combined with intellectual force that was 
so characteristic of Baker in later life. 

Seeking a greater field than Belleville afforded, Baker, now 
grown to manhood, crossed the great river to St. Louis and 
maintained himself by strenuous physical labor. It was said 
of him at this period that he could win his rights in a team- 
sters' rush on the St. Louis levee, or hold his own in a 
discussion of the deeper themes of literature and life, or 
dance the colonial minuet, all with equal success and appar- 
ently with equal enjoyment. 

After a few years in St. Louis an opportunity came to him 
to pursue the study of the law at Carrollton in Illinois, and 
to support himself as an assistant in the office of the county 
clerk. Carrollton was the county seat of Greene County. 
Its leading people had come from Virginia. They had 
brought with the name ''Carrollton" something of the cul- 
ture and learning of the older community. Among them was 
Samuel Lee, an educated gentleman of excellent family and 
some estate, trained for the bar but quite unfitted for its 
strife, and who was soon elected to office as clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court. He was married to a loving and lovable woman ; 
two charming children cheered their home — but there soon 



25 

came the fatal day Avhen his physician told him that his days 
were numbered, and that the number was not great. Upon 
this he sent for the books and papers of his office, he com- 
pleted what remained to be done, bade farewell to his wife 
and his children, and then with that noble equanimity, ever 
characteristic of his race, he calmly faced the unknown 
future. 

A few years later his widow became the bride of Baker, 
and her children became the children of his heart. Other 
sons and daughters came to them and all made up an ideal 
family life. 

With many, and perhaps most men, marriage and happy 
domestic life mark the decline of the spirit of adventure. It 
was not so with Baker. As one of his biographers has said 
of him : 

"Had he lived in the age of the Crusades, he would 
doubtless have assumed the Cross and led the van in one 
of those wild and extravagant expeditions to wrest the 
Holy Land from the dominion of the Moslems. Or, had 
he flourished in the days of chivalry, he would probably 
have turned knight-errant; put on a helmet and coat of 
mail; seized a lance and buckler, and sallied forth in 
quest of adventure and of glory." 
In the spring of 1831 he enlisted with the forces of the State 
in the Black Hawk War, and took part in the northern expedi- 
tion and in the battle of the Bad Axe, in which the Indians 
were defeated and driven to the North and West. His method 
of return was peculiar. Instead of marching homeward with 
his comrades through Wisconsin and Illinois, he embarked 
in an Indian canoe, with a friendly Indian, upon a voyage of 
three hundred miles down the Mississippi, landing opposite 
his home and walking over the intervening country. Nothing 
that he ever did was more characteristic or perhaps more 
reckless — with an Indian war scarcely ended and with one 
of that race as his only companion, he braved the solitudes 
of river and camp. 

His next venture was, in a way, equally courageous. 
Without friends or connections and with a young family 



26 

dependent upon Mm for support lie entered upon the prac- 
tice of law at Springfield, there to contend with a race of 
giants. 

The ability of the Springfield bar at that period has become 
historic. Logan, perhaps thn best type of the purely legal 
mind that the West has produced, Lincoln and Douglas, of 
whom nothing more can he said, Trumbull as keen and bril- 
liant as a rapier, and almost as cold, and a host of others, all 
were here. There was no work in the office; no estates to 
settle. Few were old enough to die and fewer still left 
anything for the heirs to quarrel over. Corporations were 
almost unknown. Success at the l)ar was sought in the court 
room. Here Baker first met his peers and professional 
success came rapidly to him. 

At this time his life was particularly happy. He had ideal 
family relations and a generous income. He was fond of 
society. Ill health and domestic cares often prevented his 
wife from accompanying him, but his step-daughter, Maria 
Lee, educated at Monticello, beautiful and charming, with 
every social and domestic grace, was his constant companion. 

Springfield then was crude in appearance and in fact. The 
streets were alternately rivers of black mud or Saharas of 
flying dust. The abundant water, the electric fan, the swiftly 
moving car that have done so much to make life endurable 
in hot weather were then unknown. In the winter people sat 
by wood stoves and open fireplaces, and roasted and shivered 
at the same time. In many ways the discomforts must have 
been great, but life and hope and youth were here, and 
where they abide all else is negligible. 

Aside from the practice of the law, the leading men of the 
bar cultivated in no little degree the intellectual life. Political 
oratory was perhaps their principal interest, but they deliv- 
ered occasional addresses and lectures upon themes, literary, 
historical, and even scientific. In this field Baker was easily 
first. He was chosen to deliver the address at the laying of 
the corner stone of the old State Capitol at Springfield, now 
the Court House of Sangamon County, though the committee 
had under consideration the names of Abraham Lincoln, 



27 

Stephen A. Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, James A. McDougall, 
James Shields and John A. McClernand. He delivered lec- 
tures on "The Influence of Commerce on Civilization," 
"Art," "Kobert Bums," "The Sea," "The Life and Death 
of Socrates." 

In my expressions concerning the oratory of Baker, I am 
relying much upon Dr. William Jayne, a scholar and man of 
affairs as well, who has vivid recollections of Baker while at 
Springfield, and who has been an appreciative student of 
the oratory and political history of the West. The recollec- 
tions and impressions of Dr. George Pasfield and the Hon. 
John W. Bunn, business men of the highest type, of wide 
reading and broad culture, agree with those of Dr. Jayne. 1 

It is a far cry from Springfield of the thirties to Spring- 
field of today — rich, luxurious, cold, blase'. It is a far cry 
from the audiences of those days, vast, noisy, tumultuous, 
impulsive, to this little circle — quiet, cultured, reposeful. It 
is a still farther cry from the magnetic orators, the giants 
of those days to the industrious breadwinners who make up 
the bar at this time and place, but I may presume to say that 
my humble effort of today is in a degree suggested by what 
they did outside the work of the profession — is born of a 
desire to do in a small way something that they did in such 
full measure. 

In 1845 Baker was elected to Congress from this District. 
During his term there came the war with Mexico. He raised 
a regiment of volunteers, which was accepted as the Fourth 
Illinois Infantry, he having the rank of Colonel. He shared 
in the siege of Vera Cruz and served with distinction at 
Cerro Gordo, and his gallantry was recognized by the 
Legislature of the State in the gift of a sword and scabbard 
of much magnificence. 

He returned to Springfield with his health somewhat 
broken. He had been succeeded in Congress by Abraham 
Lincoln and felt that his political career in Springfield was 
somewhat foreclosed. Inaction or ordinary professional life 
were now impossible to him, and in 1848 he removed to 

1 Dr. William Jayne died March 20th, 11)16. 



28 

Galena, in Northern Illinois, a community then enjoying 
great prestige on account of its lead mines, lie immediately 
became a candidate for a seat in the Congress of the United 
States. 

His opponent was a former lieutenant governor of this 
state, a man of standing and who had many claims upon his 
constituents in the Galena District. It was the custom then, 
as now, for candidates to attend rural gatherings of all sorts, 
barn raisings, corn hustings and harvests, and it was in the 
harvest field that Baker's opponent met his Waterloo. 
Baker's elegance of apparel and appearance were deceiving, 
if not deceitful. His rival challenged him to a friendly con- 
test in the field with the scythe and its superstructure that 
threw the stalks in even rows, the cradle. Baker had not had. 
much experience in farm life, nor was he a giant like Lincoln, 
but he was strong beyond the strength of men; a sort of 
Admirable Crichton, who could do all that any other man 
could do and do it better. 

But, getting back to the harvest field in the Galena Dis- 
trict, he not only conquered his opponent, but, elated by his 
success, he challenged the array of Johns and Joshuas and 
Jehus who stood around, and was victor over all comers. 
During the rest of the campaign the challenge, the contest, 
the victory with scythe and cradle were a feature of every 
rural meeting and no doubt contributed much to the result. 
Baker was elected in a Democratic District and was the only 
Whig elected to Congress in Illinois in that year. After his 
two years of service the District ''reverted to type." 

During the session that followed there occurred the death 
of General Zachary Taylor, President of the United States, 
hero of the war with Mexico. In the House of Eepresenta- 
tives, Baker was selected to deliver the eulogium. This was 
^the first of his addresses that has come down to us. It is 
a touching and inspiring bit of eloquence — a classic in form 
and expression. It was here that he spoke of the simplicity 
and modesty of Taylor — "as if no banner had drooped at 
his word — as if no gleam of glory had shone through his 



29 

whitened hair." And here he reached the great peroration, 
classic in simplicity, brevity and power — 

"Ah, sir, if in this assembly there is a man ivhose heart 
beats ivith tumultuous and unrestrained ambition, let him 
to-day stand by the bier on which that lifeless body is laid, 
and learn lioiv much of human greatness fades in an hour. 
But, if there be another here whose fainting heart shrinks 
from a noble purpose, let him, too, visit these sacred remains, 
to be reminded how much there is in true glory that can 
never die." 

And yet the voice that could sway the listening Senate 
or hnsh into silence the most turbulent assembly could sing 
"Annie Laurie" in a way that brought the tear unbidden 
to the eye, and the hand that grasped the sword or scythe 
with a grip of steel could touch the keys of the piano with 
marvelous taste and skill. 

Early in 1851 Colonel Baker entered upon an enterprise 
which has been said to be "as wild as it was engaging." He 
collected a force of about 400 men, and, in connection with 
his brother, Dr. Alfred Baker, he went to the Isthmus of 
Panama and undertook the construction of a portion of the 
Panama Eailroad. As to this I quote — 

"Here, under the vertical rays of an Equator's sun, 

amidst the tangled forests and luxuriant vegetation of 

the Isthmus, with its interminable swamps, teeming 

with noxious insects, venomous reptiles and reeking 

with deadly malaria, or beside the slimy banks of the 

tortuous river, Baker and his hardy band labored and 

toiled for many weary months until most of them were 

either disabled from further service, or had fallen 

victims to the fevers of the tropics. At last their 

gallant leader fell sick, nigh unto death; was compelled 

to give up his undertaking, abandon the country and 

return home to recruit his shattered energies." 

It is nrrlerstood that he could have been re-elected to 

Congress from the Galena District, but the excitements of 

practice and politics in Illinois paled before the light of the 

now day that was now shining in the golden west. In 



30 

February, 1848, gold was discovered in California. In a 
year the Argonauts of '49, afterward made famous by Bret 
Harte, had crossed the plains in search of the Golden 
Fleece. By 1852 San Francisco was filled with a cosmopol- 
itan and growing population, and commerce, speculation and 
litigation grew apace. There was, too, a charm in the 
political life and opportunities of a new country. A State 
was to be created, its laws and customs molded. In 1852 
Baker and his family sailed from New York to Panama, 
and thence to San Francisco to seek new fortunes, in new 
lands. His name and fame had preceded him. His magnetic 
manner and more than magnetic eloquence, his wide ex- 
perience and range of accomplislrments were exactl} r suited 
to the community he now found. He became at once a leader 
of the bar of city and state. Here again for eight brief years 
he lived in happiness and almost splendor. 

His professional income was large. He had a great 
practice and charged good fees. Probably his largest fee 
was in a case growing out of the failure of a bank in San 
Francisco. It was $25,000, quite a goodly sum for those 
days and not to be scorned in these. He was opulent both in 
earning and expenditure, always getting hard up and then 
paying up. Sometimes, as it is said, he had money to burn 
and sometimes was pressed for sums that seem small. 
However, he had none of the vices of profligacy, and in the 
end his professional zeal and ability triumphed and he 
accumulated a modest estate. 

And so the early fifties came and went — peaceful years, 
busy years, happy years. But the storm soon began to 
gather. The Irrepressible Conflict between "Slavery" and 
"Freedom," as they then called the anti-slavery sentiment, 
began to lift men from professional life into the stormy 
contests of the life political. In 1849 Abraham Lincoln had 
abandoned public life and settled down to the successful 
practice of the law. In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise and the possible extension of slavery to the 
territories had called him again into the arena, and he was 



31 

coming to the front as a national leader of the anti-slavery 
party. 

In California the feeling - was strong and high, but the 
weapons of political controversy were not always those of 
debate. We have all recoiled in horror at that most famous 
of political duels, the killing of Alexander Hamilton. The 
scene was now to be repeated in California in triple tragedy. 
The victims were not men of the brilliancy and repute of 
Hamilton — that, indeed, could not be — but they were as much 
beloved and of patriotism as pure as his. 

In 1852 Edward Gilbert was killed by James W. Denver. 
This was the first notable political duel on the Pacific Coast. 
For a time public feeling prevented its repetition, but in a 
few years the bitter spirit came again to life. 

In 1858 William I. Ferguson was killed by George Pen 
Johnston. 

In 1859 David C. Broderick was killed by David S. Terry. 

In each case the cause was a thinly veiled personal quarrel. 
All were in fact political and each died for his political 
faith as truly as did Henry of Navarre, or John Hampden, 
or Robert Emmett, or Hamilton, or Lincoln. 

Ferguson grew up in Springfield and was a brother of 
Benjamin H. Ferguson, whose home still adorns the city, and 
whose widow, Mrs. Alice Edwards Ferguson, has done so 
much for this community. 

It is often charged that there was a definite conspiracy of 
assassination under the guise of duels, that other men had 
been marked and that there was the trick of unequal 
weapons. Certain it is that the tragedies came in well- 
ordered sequence. If there was not inequality of weapon, 
or of position, there was certainly the inequality of aptitude 
and skill, and the result of each appeal to the Code was a 
foregone conclusion. The quarrel and the challenge were 
the death sentence of the chosen victim. 

Broderick was the son of a stone-cutter. He had risen 
by sheer force of personal worth from the humblest of 
beginnings to a seat in the Senate of the United States. He 
was perhaps not so brilliant as some of his contemporaries, 



32 

but was unquestionably a man of great ability and high 
character. His friends were intensely loyal to him. Under 
normal conditions his candor and his vigor might well have 
aroused bitter personal controversy. In California in the 
50 's they meant the pistol or tioe bludgeon. 

In September, 1858, Baker pronounced the eulogy at the 
grave of Ferguson. One year later his great heart seemed 
broken at the bier of Broderick. The place was the great 
Central Plaza of San Francisco. A vast audience of sad- 
dened friends had assembled, stricken with grief. The bells 
tolled mournfully and added tc the emotions of the hour. At 
the foot of the coffin stood the priest, at its head stood Baker. 
As has been said, the scene bore no faint resemblance to 
another and greater spectacle in another country, and more 
heroic age, when Mark Antony stood over the corpse of 
Caesar in the Roman Forum. 

For a time it seemed that the personal grief of Baker 
wojuld overcome him. It is said that "he did not look at 
the countenance of his friend — nay, neither to the right nor 
left, but the gaze of his fixed eye was turned within his mind 
and the tear was upon his cheek." And then began the 
solemn appeal — "Citizens of California, a Senator lies dead 
in our midst." Then came the tonching words of memory 
and affection, and then the bitter protest at the manner of 
his death: 

"Fellow citizens, one year ago I performed a duty, 
such as I perform today, over the remains of Senator 
Fergrsom vivo died as Broderick died, tangled in the 
meshes of tlfe co?ie of Imior. Today there is another 
and mo T 'o oraircnt sacrifice. Today I renew my protest; 
today I utler vo-^. Th° ode of honor i- a delusion 
and a snare; it pfdtsrs with the hooo of a trrte courage 
and binds it at the fe^t of crafty and ovrcl skill. It 
surrounds its victim wiHi tire p-mop and grace of the 
profusion, }vi leaves him bleeding on the altar. It 
substitutes cold and deliberate rvcoa^ation for courag- 
eous a -i d manly imprdso, and arm tbn one to disarm 
the other; it may prevent fraud between practiced 



33 

duelists who should be forever without its pale, but it 
makes the mere 'trick of the weapon' superior to the 
noblest cause and the truest courage. Its pretense of 
equality is a lie — it is equal in all the form, it is unjust 
in all the substance — the habitude of arms, the early 
training, the frontier life, the border war, the sectional 
custom, the life of leisure, all these are advantages 
which no negotiation can neutralize, and which no 
courage can overcome. 

"But, fellow citizens, the protest is not only spoken 
in your words and in mine — it is written in indelible 
characters ; it is written in the blood of Gilbert, in the 
blood of Ferguson, in the blood of Broderick; and the 
inscription will not altogether fade. 

"With the administration of the code in this particu- 
lar case, I am not here to deal. Amid passionate grief, 
let us strive to be just. I give no currency to rumors 
of which personally I know nothing; there are other 
tribunals to which they may well be referred, and this 
is not one of them. But I am here to say that whatever 
in the code of honor or out of it demands or allows a 
deadly combat, where there is not in all things entire 
and certain equality, is a prostitution of the name, is 
an evasion of the substance and is a shield, blazoned 
with the name of chivalry, to cover the malignity of 
murder." 
And then the last farewell : 

"But the last word must be spoken and the imperious 
mandate of Death must be fulfilled. Thus, brave heart, 
we bear thee to thy rest. Tims, surrounded by tens of thou- 
sands, we leave thee to the equal grave. As in life no other 
voice among us so rang its trumpet blast upon the ear of 
freemen, so in death, its echoes will reverberate amid our 
mofuntains and valleys, until truth and valor cease to appeal 
to the human heart. 
"Good friend! True hero! Hail and farewell." 
I have read with diligence, and I hope with some appre- 
ciation, the masterpieces of oratorical literature in our 



34 

language and some in other tongues, and I say with deep 
sincerity that to me this oration surpasses all. It has the 
nohle diction, the lofty thought, the swelling cadence, all in 
full measure, and, beyond and above all these, it has power 
to strangely move the human heart. 

And now a month has passed and the scene of Baker's 
life changes. A delegation comes from the new state of 
Oregon to invite him to migrate thither. There are a num- 
ber of former Illinoisans in the party and they say to him: 
"We know what you used to do in Illinois. We know 
how you moved from one district that you had made 
Whig into another, always Democratic, until you turned 
it over to the Whigs, and we believe you can repeat such 
triumphs in Oregon. Our election comes next spring. 
Come to us. Take the lead. Speak in every legislative 
district. The state is now Democratic. You can make 
it Republican, and we will make you United States 
Senator." 
And then it is Ho, for Oregon! It is no longer Colonel 
Baker, of San Francisco, but Colonel Baker, of Salem, a 
candidate for a seat in the Senate of the United States, and 
very much at your service. I may not stop to tell you of 
the issues of the campaign. Oregon had been a pro-slavery 
state from the first and seemed likely to continue. It was 
the home of Senator Joseph Lane, candidate for the Vice- 
presidency on the Breckenridge ticket in 1860. I may tell 
you the result in the words of Caesar, "I came, I saw, I con- 
quered," and Senator Baker is enroute to Washington and 
is stopping at San Francisco on the way. 

He had now reached the summit of his political ambition. 
The accident of birth had denied the Presidency to him. 
What more could he ask and Avhat more could his friends 
desire? It was the time to give him the most perfect tribute. 
It was the hour of his greatest triumph. The Presidential 
election of 1860 was but a few days away, and Abraham 
Lincoln and opposition to slavery were the issues of the hour. 
The place selected for Baker's appearance was the Ameri- 
can Theater, a vast structure, seating perhaps four thousand 






35 

people. Before the doors were opened twelve thousand 
crowded the streets and clamored for admittance. It was 
perhaps the greatest meeting ever held in America, inspired 
and dominated by the personality of one man. The speech 
that followed has been only tolerably reported. It is a 
popular speech — stump speech, if you will — replete with 
humor and personal thrust — the argumentum ad hominem 
in which the crowd delights. 

And now the time has come to renew his pledge to the 
faith for which he had fought and the magnetic climax — 

"In the presence of God — I say it reverently — free- 
dom is the rule, and slavery the exception. It is a 
marked, guarded, perfected exception. There it stands! 
If public opinion must not touch its dusky cheek too 
roughly, be it so; but we wall go no further than the 
terms of the compact. As for me, I dare not, I will not, 
be false to freedom. Where in youth my feet were 
planted, there my manhood and my age shall march. .1 
will walk beneath her banner. I will glory in her 
strength. I have seen her, in history, struck down on a 
hundred fields of battle. I have seen her friends fly 
from her; I have seen her foes gather around her; I 
have seen them give her ashes to the winds, regathering 
them that they might scatter them yet more widely. But, 
when they turned to exult, I have seen her again meet 
them face to face, clad in complete steel, and brandishing 
in her strong right hand a flaming sword, red with in- 
sufferable light." 
And here again I say that in all the imaginative oratory 
that I have known, in boldness of conception and in mag- 
nificence of execution, I find no parallel to these words of fire. 
According to a contemporary account — 

"During the utterance of these sentences the listeners 
were finding it difficult to repress their feelings. When 
Colonel Baker, always as graceful in gesture as in speech, 
came to the mention of the sword, he, a veteran officer 
of two wars, appeared to draw his own weapon, so that 
the last words were spoken with his arm uplifted, the 



36 

excited thousands again sprang to their feet, the pent-up 
enthusiasm broke loose, and such a wild tumult as 
greeted the hero on his introduction was repeated with 
wilder power. Cheer after cheer rolled from side to 
side, from pit to dome. Even the reporters were swept 
away in the frenzy, and left their desks and tables to 
fall in with the shouting multitude. A young fellow 
just come of age — a Mr. Hart — leaped upon the stage 
and frantically waved an American flag. It was nearly 
a quarter of an hour before the uproar ceased. Mean- 
time Colonel Baker stood motionless, intent, transfixed. 
When, at last, there was perfect silence, he spoke as if 
he had not been interrupted, and in a golden, throbbing 
tone that thrilled like an electric current said, 'And I 
take courage. The genius of America will at last lead 
her sons to freedom.' " 
It may be of interest to say that the young Mr. Hart here 
mentioned was afterwards famous as "Bret Harte." 

A pleasant incident of his visit was the presentation to 
him, by the merchants of San Francisco, of a set of silver 
plate of extraordinary splendor, and which was said to have 
cost the handsome sum of five thousand dollars. The gift 
had special reference to his services toward the building of 
a transcontinental railway and the designs were accordingly 
appropriate. 

But he was soon sailing for Panama and thence for "Wash- 
ington. He appeared in the Senate in the early days of 
December. At the Christmas vacation he came to Spring- 
field to visit his friends and former associates, and especially 
to visit my mother, whom he still affectionately remembered as 
"Maria Lee." It was on Christmas day of 1860 that t 
remember seeing him. He was at our home — an old- 
fashioned dwelling, somewhat in the colonial style. There 
was the long hall and north of it the long parlor with French 
windows reaching to the floor — a room seldom used and a 
bit mysterious. The door was at the east end and I, a child 
not yet five, tiptoed down the hall, held to the door frame, 
leaned forward and looked in at the man of mystery. He 



37 

was walking back and forth wrapped in thought. As I first 
saw him he was walking westward — his back toward me. 
I waited till he had turned and caught a glimpse of his head 
and face. His head was slightly bowed. He did not see me. 
His face was glorious but solemn, and all left an impression 
that still remains — though two generations, then unborn, 
have grown to manhood. 

In January, 1861, he resumed his duties in the Senate, 
and, in a running debate with Judah P. Benjamin, Senator 
from Louisiana, on the questions that were soon to be sub- 
mitted to the arbitrament of arms, he placed himself at once 
in the front rank of the senatorial orators on the Northern 
side. Trumbull, his old associate and sometimes rival on the 
prairies of Illinois, knew what was in him and had much to 
do with giving him the opportunity. I may digress to say 
that Benjamin was perhaps the ablest and most learned of 
the Southern Senators of the period. He became an active 
member of the cabinet of Jefferson Davis. When the Con- 
federacy crumbled he escaped in an open boat and inter- 
cepted a sea-going vessel bound for England. He arrived 
in London penniless and almost friendless. He entered the 
English bar and became its unquestioned leader, and held 
his place until he retired from practice. 

The debate alone would make material for an hour's dis- 
course. I cannot summarize or even describe it. I can only 
say that it seemed to those of the North that the mantle of 
Webster had fallen upon Baker, and that he most worthily 
wore it. 

But by the spring of that year the scene of action had been 
transferred from the Senate to the field of war. Lincoln 
had been inaugurated, with Baker and Douglas by his side. 
The scene is memorable. Lincoln, conscious of the crisis 
that his inauguration would precipitate, seemed to have 
wanted the presence of his old-time acquaintances — Baker, 
one of his closest friends and whose name he had given to 
his second son, Douglas, his chief antagonist. Douglas held 
Lincoln's hat. Baker made the introduction. The first 
inaugural address with its pathetic plea for the Union had 



38 

been delivered. Its message of peace had failed, the war 
had begun and Lincoln had made his call to arms. 

The patriotic citizens of New York City conceived the idea 
of a central mass meeting of loyalists. It became an aggre- 
gation of meetings of more than one hundred thousand men. 
The central stand, on which President Lincoln sat, was 
chosen for the address of Baker, and here he reached perhaps 
his greatest oratorical climax. 

"And if, from the far Pacific, a voice feebler than the 
feeblest murmur upon its shore may be heard to give 
you courage and hope in the contest, that voice is yours 
today. And if a man whose hair is gray, who is well- 
nigh worn out in the battle and toil of life, may pledge 
himself on such an occasion, and in such an audience, 
let me say as my last word that as when, amid sheeted 
fire and flame, I saw and led the hosts of New York as 
they charged in contest on a foreign soil for the honor 
of the flag, so again, if Providence shall will it, this 
feeble hand shall draw a sword, never yet dishonored, 
not to fight for honor on a foreign field, but for country, 
for home, for law, for government, for Constitution, for 
right, for freedom, for humanity — and in the hope that 
the banner of my country may advance, and wheresoever 
that banner waves, there glory may pursue and freedom 
be established." 
The President's call for volunteers was issued on the 15th 
of April. One week later there was a meeting of citizens 
and former citizens of California and Oregon at the Metro- 
politan Hotel in New York, and it was resolved "to raise 
and offer to the Government a regiment to be composed, 
as far as possible, of persons at some time residents of 
California." By unanimous vote Baker was chosen as 
colonel. He at once accepted and wrote to the Secretary of 
War offering the regiment for service. 

There was some recruiting in Pennsylvania under the 
leadership of Isaac L. "Wistar, who became lieutenant colonel. 
Technically the regiment was credited to the State of Penn- 
sylvania, but its popular, and in fact descriptive, name was 



39 

the "California Regiment." With Baker and Wistar-in 
command and some sixteen hundred strong, it goes to the 
front on the first of July, 1861, and Baker is in camp per- 
fecting discipline and drill. 

Again the scene changes. Senator Breckenridge, of 
Kentucky, is about to make his final declaration of principles. 
He had been Vice-president of the United States. He had 
been a candidate for the Presidency. He was of a distin- 
guished Southern family and an eloquent speaker. The 
Northern leaders feel that with the words of Breckenridge 
there must also go out the reply, and the question is asked, 
"Where is Baker?" The message goes quickly to the camp — 
the oration of Breckenridge is heard and Baker in the dual 
role of soldier and statesman, and in full uniform as colonel 
in the army, rises to reply. 

The scene is most dramatic and the feeling tense. The 
secession of the cotton states is a foregone conclusion, but 
the decision of Kentucky and the other border states still 
hangs in the balance. The powers of the Government under 
the Constitution — the rights of the states — the ever present 
and paralyzing questions of policy are in the mind. Then 
comes the famous question — 

"What would have been thought, if in another capitol, 
in another republic, in a yet more martial age, a Senator 
as grave, not more eloquent or dignified than the Senator 
from Kentucky, yet with the Roman purple flowing from 
his shoulders, had risen in his place, surrounded by all 
the illustrations of Roman glory, and declared that 
advancing Hannibal was just and that Cartilage ought 
to be dealt with in terms of peace? 

"What would have been thought, if, after the battle 
of Cannae, a Senator there had risen in his place and 
denounced every levy of the Roman people, every ex- 
penditure of its treasure, and every appeal to the old 
recollections and the old glories? 

"Sir, a Senator, learned far more than myself, tells 
me, in a voice that I am glad is audible, that he would 
have been hurled from the Tarpeian Rock." 



40 

And thus at last treason is portrayed in its proper form 
and feature. 

And the calm acceptance of the future — 

" There will be some graves reeking with blood, 
watered by the tears of affection; there will be some 
loss of luxury; some privation, somewhat more need for 
labor to procure the necessaries of life. When that is 
said, all is said. If we have the country, the whole 
country, the Union, the Constitution, free government — 
with these there will return all the blessings of well- 
ordered civilization; the path of the country will be a 
career of greatness and glory, such as, in the olden time, 
our fathers saw in the dim visions of years yet to come, 
and such as would have been ours now, today, but for 
the treason for which the Senator too often seeks to 
apologize." 
This noble address closed the political and oratorical 
career of Edward Dickinson Baker. 

There is a world of things I ought to tell you; of the 
contest for California in 1861; of the boldness and zeal of 
those whose sympathies were with the South ; of the treason- 
able hearts of Senator Gwin, of California, and Senator Lane, 
of Oregon, and the perilous situation with Albert Sidney 
Johnston in command of all the forces of the United States 
on the Pacific Coast. I ought to tell you of Baker's part in 
the assertion of the dignity and power of the government; 
his part in the great loyalist revival that sent Lane into 
obscurity, and Gwin and Johnston into the open service of 
the Confederacy. But I must forbear. From this the war 
of the 60 's is the subject of my story. 

In attempting to learn something of the war that I might 
tell it here today, I have heard the bugle call ; I have seen the 
men upon the march; I have heard their mighty tread; I 
have seen their banners and their gleaming guns. I have 
heard the long roll; I have felt the shock of battle; I have 
heard the cheers of victory ; I have seen the agony of defeat ; 
I have heard the death rattle of ihe slain and the piteous 
pleadings of the wounded — sometimes in the loneliness of the 



41 

deserted field, sometimes as the onrushing cavalry crushed 
out their lives, and sometimes as the burning woods of the 
Wilderness enveloped and destroyed them. And there are 
yet darker lines in the picture that I need not draw. 

I have seen the closing day — the campfire and the tented 
field; I have heard their songs of home; I have seen the 
lights go out and tired soldiers sink to rest, while faithful 
pickets walked and watched, "and in the far-off homes of 
the North heartbroken mothers and stricken wives and little 
children prayed that the angels of the Lord might encamp 
round about the sleeping army." 

And again I have said, "What is war?" "War is hell," 
said Sherman. "What is a great victory like?" was the 
question asked of Wellington. "The saddest thing in the 
world," was his reply, "except a great defeat." War is 
the paradox of humanity as inexplicable as sin itself, and 
yet sometimes we may see that war has been a part of thp 
Providence of God in the affairs of man. 

In October, 1861, the troops of the North and South faced 
each other across the swift running Potomac. Baker's 
command, some sixteen hundred strong, in obedience to 
orders and assurances of support as clear and definite as the 
utterances of the Delphic oracle, had crossed the river and 
climbed a wooded hill known as Ball's Bluff, there to face 
perhaps twice their number. From early afternoon till 
nearly five the slender lines stood bravely, expecting that 
support would come. As the sun went down Baker saw that 
the day was lost. In the enemy's country with the foe in 
front, and the river in the rear, without adequate means for 
rapid crossing, he saw his fate and stood, a shining mark, 
at the head of his troops. At once it seemed that the fire 
was concentrated upon him. No less than seven bullets 
pierced his frame. He had drawn the sword never yet dis- 
honored and now Death's gleam of glory shone through his 
whitened hair. 

Quoting the words of the French commander concerning 
the charge at Balaklava, the crossing, with insufficient means 
of return, and his position in the field "were magnificent, 



42 

but they were not \var' ? — not even the warfare of the last 
century. It was the spirit and the heart of Godfrey, of 
Tancred, of Richard of Ed gland, stripped of the panoply of 
steel, and bared to the bullet and the ambuscade. 

There was a bitter fight — hand to hand — for the poor 
remaius and for the faithful sword, but his loyal men stood 
true, and, though defeat and rout followed his fall, the 
stricken body was saved from desecration and perhaps a 
nameless grave. 

It has often been said that America should have a last 
home for her greatest sons, like that great Abbey, where the 
noble sons of Britain sleep together; and so we may feel it 
should have been with Baker. But the place of interment 
was not ill-chosen. Back to the City of Saint Francis between 
the mountains and the Goklen Gate — the city which he loved 
and which so much loved him — was he now to come. To Lone 
Mountain Cemetery, which he had dedicated with words of 
wondrous eloquence, they tenderly bore him. There Brod- 
erick had preceded him, and there, after a time, the remains 
of Gilbert were to follow him, and there they left him to 
await, in solemn majesty, the Resurrection Morn. 



And now, my friends, by the magic of history and affection 
we have summoned from the shades this heroic spirit, that 
we might spend the hour in loving contemplation of his 
virtues and his valor. We can see the noble form, the 
glorious face, the eagle eye. We can hear the clarion voice — 
we can almost feel the beating of his throbbing heart. We 
must now return to the thoughts and labors of this time and 
place, but let us say to him as he said of Broderick, "Brave 
friend, true hero, hail and again fareivell." 



43 



Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in Illinois 

Research by Mrs. E. S. Walker. 



CLINTON COUNTY. 

John Carrigan served in the war from Georgia. Coming 
to Illinois, lie settled on Crooked Creek six miles east of 
Carlyle, Clinton County. He died and is buried on the land 
where he located. — Clinton County History, Pub. Phila. 1881. 

Elias Chafin was a native of South Carolina, where he 
served in the war. He came to Illinois before 1825, settling 
in Clinton County in Sugar Creek Precinct. He served on 
the grand jury in 1825. He was born in 1760. He was 
pensioned. 

John Duncan served in the war from Virginia. He re- 
moved to Kentucky and from there to Illinois, settling in the 
southwest part of Clinton County. He died on the farm 
where he settled, in 1842. He was pensioned. 

John King served in the war from South Carolina. He 
came to Illinois in 1817, settling in Shoal Creek Precinct, 
Clinton County. He was pensioned. 

Hugh Johnson served in the war from North Carolina. 
After the war he removed to Kentucky, and in 1812 he came 
to Illinois, but removed to Missouri, returning to Clinton 
County, Illinois, settling near Trenton, where he died, aged 
85 years. — North Carolina Records, and Clinton County 
History. 

Moses Land served in the war from Virginia. Coming to 
Illinois, he resided for a time in St. Clair County but removed 
to Clinton County, where he died. He was pensioned. 

Thomas L. Moore served with George Rogers Clark, as a 
sergeant in Capt. Uriah Springer's company Virginia 
troops. He came to Clinton County, Illinois, where he ap- 
plied for a pension. He received a grant of land for his 
service in the war. — Virginia Records. 



44 

William Myers served as a privateer in the Virginia 
troops. He removed to Clinton County, Illinois, where he 
applied for a pension. He was granted a body of land for 
his war service. — Virginia Records. 

Peter Outhouse enlisted in Fredericktown, Maryland, in 
the Seventh Eegiment, serving from August, 1780; again 
from October 26, 1780, under Lieutenant Wm. Lamar, Capt. 
Lloyd Beall, in the ninth company, serving until November, 
1783, when he was discharged. He removed to Kentucky, 
and in 1818 came to Clinton County, Illinois, settling in the 
southwest part of the county, where he died. He was pen- 
sioned. 

Jacob Seagraves enlisted in Granville County, North Car- 
olina, in 1778, serving two and one-half years under Capt. 
Joseph Rhodes, Col. Dixon. He was in the battle of Eutaw 
Springs and several skirmishes. He removed to Tennessee 
and from there to Clinton County, Illinois, where he died 
June 7, 1835. He was pensioned. 

Michael Tedrich was from North Carolina; he was born 
at sea May 10, 1752. He enlisted in Anson County, North 
Carolina, serving three different times, three times each with 
Capts. "William Hay, Solomon Wood and Robert High, under 
Col. Malmerday. He came to Clinton County, Illinois, where 
he died February 10, 1834. He was pensioned. 

McDonough County. 

Jonas Hobart was born in New Hampshire November 15, 
1744. His brother, Isaac, was killed at the battle of Bunker 
Hill; hearing of his death, Jonas determined to enter the 
service and enlisted March 17, 1777, serving as corporal in 
the Fourth Company, First Regiment, New Hampshire 
troops. He was in the battle of Ticonderoga, where he was 
wounded, a bullet striking his cheek, knocking out two teeth 
and finally lodging against his left collar bone. This was 
removed by the use of a pocket knife. The bullet and one 
tooth are preserved by a descendant. He was discharged 
January 1, 1781. Coming to Illinois, he lived for a time in 
Schuyler County, but removed to McDonough County, where 



45 

he died November, 1833, and is buried in the Foster Ceme- 
tery, Eldorado Township. He was pensioned. 

Moses Justus was born in Maryland in 1755. He enlisted 
in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, serving as a "Min- 
ute Man" under Capt. John Fifer, July, 1775; again in June, 
1779, and in February, 1781, under Capts. Samuel Patton, 
Caleb Fifer and James Newell, with Cols. John Fifer and 

■ Tinnon. He was in the battles of Stono and 

Wetzell's Mills. Coming to Illinois, he settled in Schuyler 
County, but removed to McDonough County, where he died 
at an advanced age. He was pensioned. 

William Willaed was born in Loudoun County, Virginia, 
in 1755; he entered the service in July, 1778, serving under 
Capt. James Ratekin and Col. Abraham Shepherd. Later 
he served with Capt. William Douglass and Col. William 
Russell. He first resided in Morgan County, Illinois, but 
died in Emmet Township, McDonough County, near Col- 
chester, November 9, 1846. He was pensioned. 

JERSEY COUNTY. 

William Bates was born in Pennsylvania in 1759. He 
served in the First South Carolina Regiment, commanded by 
Col. Charles Pinckney, from April 14, 1776, to December, 
1776. Coming to Illinois in 1835, he located in Madison 
County, where he died February, 1848, but was buried at 
Jersey Landing, now Elsah, Jersey County. He was pen- 
sioned. 

Jonathan Coopee was born in Maryland, but served in the 
war in Pennsylvania as a drummer. He removed to Ken- 
tucky and came to Illinois in 1835, settling four miles south- 
west of Jerseyville, where he died August, 1845. He was 
pensioned while living in Kentucky. 

William Gillham was one of the famous Gillham family 
of sons, who served in the war from South Carolina. 
He came to Madison County, Illinois, with his brothers, but 
removed to Jersey County, where he died. — Family History 
and County Records. 



46 
SOME INTERESTING OLD LETTERS. 



The originals of the following three letters have been pre- 
sented to the Illinois State Historical Society by Miss Louise 
I. Enos, a member of the Society. The letters were written 
to Pascal P. Enos, the grandfather of Miss Enos. Mr. Enos 
was one of the founders of the town of Springfield, 111., and 
he was prominently connected with the development of the 
town. 

Miss Enos has made many generous gifts to the Historical 
Society from the correspondence and libraries of her grand- 
father and her father, the late Zimri Enos. 

John P. Richabdson to P. P. Enos. 

Burlington, Vt., April 26, 1821. 

Sir: I have it in view to emigrate west in September, 
next ; and, should Illinois present as fair prospects as repre- 
sented in our papers, it is my determination to establish 
myself in that state. My object in addressing you is to 
arrive at greater certainty as to the encouragements she holds 
out to farmers and professional men of eastern habits and 
small capitals. Quite a number of young men, dissatisfied 
with Vermont, will join me in the enterprise if there is any 
prospect of bettering their condition. Among them are 
farmers, mechaniks, merchants, doctors and lawyers. 

Two years since, I was in the Territory of Michigan, which 
is an excellent farming country, but rather too interior and 
remote from market to suit men of the different professions 
above enumerated. It is, however, so far preferable to our 
state, that many will locate themselves there, should Illinois 
not open a fairer field. I understand, upon good authority, 
that 100 from Windsor County, and 400 from the vicinity 
of Boston, Mass., are making arrangements to emigrate to 
your state, this fall. Such immense influxes will soon popu- 
late the country, raise the value of lands and produce, and 
afford great encouragement to young men of talents and 
industrious habits. I saw your brother in town yesterday; 
he appeared to be in good health. He makes no complaint 



47 

upon assuming the matrimonial bonds. I think he has no 
just cause for it, as he has one of the best wives in Christen- 
dom. 

Give my respects to your wife and her family. 
Yours respectfully, 

John P. Bichardson. 
P. P. Enos, Esq. 

Daniel P. Cook to P. P. Enos. 

Washington City, January 10, 1823. 

Dear Sir: I received your letter of the 10th Dec. re- 
questing me to cause a newspaper to be forwarded to you. I 
have accordingly ordered the National Journal to be for- 
warded to you. I think you will find it probably the most 
satisfactory in relation to the presidential contest, though 
not so much so as the Intelligencer in relation to the debates 
of Congress. 

There have, a few days back, been some able and highly 
interesting articles in the Journal. 

The contest is yet going on sharply and each man seems to 
think that his man must be elected. 

This cannot last much longer, and, in all probability, the 
course that may be taken by New York within two weeks 
from this time will pretty distinctly settle the question. I 
think myself that Adams will be the man. Should he not be, 
you may rely on it Jackson will run it hard. Calhoun, who 
is a noble, manly fellow, I think lacks age to give him suffi- 
cient stability of standing to be elected. I think, however, 
the time will come when he will be the first man on the stage. 

I believe I shall be able to get another relinquishment law 
passed, so as to allow those who have retained more land on 
further credit than they can pay for to relinquish a part and 
wind up their debt with the Gov't. 

I am very respectfully, ob. servant, 

Dan'l P.Cook. 1 



1 Daniel P. Cook, early Illinois statesman and congressman; born Ken- 
tucky. 1795; died, Kentucky, 1827. 



48 

Ninian Edwards to P. P. Enos. 

(Private.) 

Washington City, January 27, 1823. 

Dear Sir: You were nominated by the President for 
Register and Colo. Cox for Receiver of the Sangamo land 
office. Some representations, however, were afterwards 
made which induced the President to withdraw the nomina- 
tions, and renominate you for Receiver and Colo. Cox for 
Register. The first intimation I had of this was from the 
President, himself. Mr. Cook had no agency in it. "Why 
this movement should have been made I cannot pretend to 
say. I would, however, advise you to spare no pains to be 
prepared to give good security. Mr. Palmer has promised 
to write to your friends in Vermont to procure security for 
you there. He has no doubt it can be effected with ease. He 
has proved himself a true friend to you, and I trust you 
will let your friends in Vermont know it. 

Let me not be misunderstood. It is not my wish to convey 
an idea that I wished you to be Receiver. I could not have 
wished it, because my honor required that I should try to 
procure that office for Colo. Cox, and I recommended him for 
it. The Receiver's office, however, will be the best in the 
end, for there is no doubt that either at this, or the next 
session, additional compensation will be allowed. 

I think I may say I have never authorized any man to 
expect more from me than I have been ready and willing to 
perform. For you, I have done fully as much as you had any 
reason to expect from me, and I have done so from principle. 

The object of this letter is to warn you of my own antici- 
pations, in which, however, I may be mistaken. My advice, 
however, vail do no harm. 

Your friend sincerely, 

Ninian Edwards. 



49 



A Journey from Urbana, Illinois, to Texas in 
1846 by William R. Strong 

The following account of a journey of a pioneer family to 
Texas, written by a member of the party sixty-nine years later 
is of interest, largely from the fact that in retrospect the 
writer of the account, who was a child during the journey and 
who writes as a very old man, tells in a pathetic way of the 
bravery and fortitude of these pioneer men and women. He 
says: "They told some pretty hard tales about Texas, but 
we felt that it was just another part of the United States. 
* * * We had come to Illinois and father and mother 
found it not very different from Ohio. * * * "\y e m0 ved 
from Ohio to Illinois in a wagon and we would move to Texas 
in the same way. ' ' The account is given in a simple and direct 
way, and presents a typical picture of such pioneer journeys. 

This account of the journey was sent to The Journal by 
Mr. P. L. Windsor, director of the Library School of the 
University of Illinois, he having received it from Miss Lillian 
Gunter of Gainesville, Texas, who in collecting historical 
data relating to Texas, asked Mr. Strong to write an account 
of his journey from Illinois. Since that time Mr. Strong has 
died. 

The following letter explains the journey and the circum- 
stances under which it was obtained : 

Gainesville, Texas, Nov. 1st, 1915. 
My dear Mr. Windsor : — 

In collecting historical data about early days in this part 
of the world, I happened to ask Mr. Strong, our oldest inhabi- 
tant, to tell me all he could remember about his trip from 
Urbana, Illinois, to Cooke, County, Texas in the spring of 1816. 

When he made this trip 69 years ago he was a boy of twelve 
years, now he is eighty-one and beginning to fail in strength. 
I have endeavored to use his own language as far as possible, 
and you can tell it is genuine from the things he has remem- 



50 

bered ; in every instance the very ones that would, most impress 
a boy. It seemed to me you would find as much to interest in 
this paper as I did, so I am sending you a copy. When I told 
Mr. Strong what I thought of doing he asked me to enclose the 
list of names, hoping to hear from some of these former ac- 
quaintances. 

The following are the names of a few people who lived near 
Urbana, 111., in 1845. They all lived on Salt Fork of the Little 
Vermilion Eiver and Mr. William E. Strong who tells of his 
journey from that place to Texas in 1846, would like to hear 
from them or their descendants : 

John E. Strong, son of Orange Strong. 

John Strong, son of Ambrose Strong. 

Joseph Staton, who married Mrs. McCollum, sister of W. 
E. Strong's father, William McCollum, Elias Thomas, Jake 
Thomas, Dave Thomas, Christian House, Cole Shreaves, 
Henry Sweringan, John Patterson, Hiram Eankin, George 
McCleffin, Ben and Dave Argyle, and Mr. Martin who kept 
the tavern on the road to Urbana. 

Cordially yours, 

Lillian Gunter. 



51 



A Journey from Urbana, Illinois, to Cooke 
County, Texas in the spring of 1846 

By 
WILLIAM E. STEONG. 

I was eleven years old when father commenced to talk of 
going to Texas. Several years before, we had moved from 
Ohio to Illinois, but I was too young to remember that trip. 
Father had followed his father and married brother? and sis- 
ters to this new country, and bad bought forty acres of land 
from the government, and we seemed to be settled down ; but 
times were hard. It was no easy matter to pay for forty acres 
of land at even $1.25 an acre, with what you made on the land, 
when all you could raise was corn at ten cents a bushel. Then 
the country was mighty sickly, with lots of chills and fever, 
just like all new countries have when the land is cleared and 
the ground first turned over. So we were not as happy and 
contented as we had expected to be when we left Ohio. When 
father happened to read about "Peters Colony" in the papers, 
he decided that Texas was the only place for a poor man to get 
a home. Peters was a man who had a contract, first with the 
Eepublic and then with the State of Texas to bring settlers 
into a certain part of the State, which now comprises the 
counties of Grayson, Cooke, Clay, Denton, Montague, Wise, 
Collin, Dallas, and perhaps others. 

He advertised to give 640 acres of land to every head of a 
family, who settled in this particular part of Texas. He fur- 
ther agreed to build a house upon the land and to break and 
fence forty acres of it. In return for this last, the settler was 
to deed half of his section or three hundred and twenty acres 
back to Peters at the end of three years. This seemed fair 
enough to my father and others; for having a house already 
built and forty acres of land fenced and broke, would enable 



52 

them to make a crop a year sooner, and eliminate most of the 
hardships of pioneering. 

Let me say right here that Peters never did any of the 
things he advertised to do. But we settled our headright six 
miles east of where the town of Gainsville was later located, 
and when Peters tried to get half of our land for the work he 
did not do, the state protected us. I never knew just what his 
contract with the state was, but he had a lot of trouble in his 
final settlement, I have heard he was finally given several 
leagues and labores of land further West, somewhere; for 
while he had not kept his promises to the people he had 
brought many settlers into this section of the state, and so de- 
served some reward. 

They told some pretty hard tales about Texas, but we felt 
that it was just another part of the United States, and couldn't 
be any worse than Illinois, with its long hard winters, and 
sickly summers. We had come there from the East, and father 
and mother found it not so very different from Ohio. When 
I was a boy, life was just about like what you call pioneering 
everywhere. We moved from Ohio to Illinois in a wagon, and 
we would move to Texas the same way. We lived in a log house 
near Urbana and we expected to find a log house in Texas. 
Then the journey would be interesting, and when our travels 
were over we would be given three hundred and twenty acres 
of land with forty of it fenced and broke, and a good house. 
Isn't it a wonder that the whole state of Illinois did not come 
instead of just a few of us? I can remember hearing father 
and mother talk it all over at night when I was supposed to be 
asleep in my trundle bed. 

Father decided to risk it, and commenced to make prepara- 
tions to move before Christmas in 1845. We had bought forty 
acres of land from -the government for $1.25 an acre and he 
sold it to the uncle who had helped him make his payments on 
it. Then he sold his hogs and corn to a Dutch peddler named 
Van Gilley. This man first came into the country afoot with 
a peddler's pack on his back. He prospered and soon had a 
horse and wagon, and as he prospered he would buy the peo- 
ple's hogs and corn and after feeding the corn to the hogs he 



53 

would drive them to Chicago to sell. He gave father ten cents 
a bushel for his corn and three cents a pound on foot for his 
hogs. 

There were very few wagons in that part of Illinois in those 
days, instead most every one had big sleds or slides as they 
were often called. My grandfather had the only one in that 
particular settlement on the Salt Fork of the Little Vermilion 
river. We also would need one if we moved to Texas. A new 
one was not to be thought of so father hunted around till he 
found an old played out wagon that had pretty good irons, and 
bought it. He took the irons to a local woodworker to fill the 
wheels, and hired the blacksmith to make the skeins and fit the 
irons to the wood, and bore the holes to hold the lynch pins, 
which in turn kept the wheels on. My father made the wagon 
bed, bows, and rest of the running gear himself. Pie rove the 
bows by hand from hickory logs, and shaped them and 
smoothed them down with a drawing knife. He made the wagon 
tongue of a good sized sapling by splitting one end part of the 
way down and binding it with an iron band where he wanted 
the split to stop. He fixed the two split ends so they would go 
between the sand board and axle on each side, just as the 
hounds do now; then he fastened them with a bolt that went 
through the sand board, tongue and axle, and the axle had to 
work in the wheels when you raised the tongue. He dressed 
down the other end of the tongue and cut a deep notch in it 
about six inches from the end, and fastened a tongue board to 
it further up from the end with a bolt. To hitch oxen to a 
wagon like this you put the yoke over their necks and slipped 
the ring in the yoke into the notch on the wagon tongue, at the 
same time lifting the tongue board, which was the proper size 
to fit, and slipping it also through the ring. Then you were 
ready to travel, and you took a stick or a whip to guide your 
oxen with and walked alongside. You could lengthen out the 
tongue with a chain and hitch as many yoke of oxen as neces- 
sary to your wagon. Some times eight or ten yoke were driven 
to one wagon. Nobody seemed interested in our move to Texas 
till father brought our wagon home. The blacksmith told him 
not to grease it till he got home for the journey of four miles 



KA 

1J1 

would wear the hammer marks off of the skeins and make it 
run better later on. Of course it made a greai creaking and 
roaring as it came along, and wagons being scarce in that com- 
munity, every body began to notice oar preparations and to 
talk about our trip to Texas. 

Father had sold off his stuff, made his wagon and picked a 
good ox team, but we could not start on our journey till about 
time for grass to rise, and having no crop to pitch, father 
found he had lots of time for other things. He spent part of it 
making rails for a neighbor. He split three thousand rails and 
took a cow in payment, afterwards selling the cow for eight 
dollars. 

Then when Van Gilley got his hogs fat, he hired father to 
take his new wagon and go along when he drove his hogs to 
Chicago to sell. Father carried the provisions for the drivers, 
and corn to feed the hogs on the way, any hogs that gave out 
would otherwise have been left where they fell by the wayside. 
They were gone a good while, as they could only drive fat hogs 
a few miles a day. I do not remember to have ever heard what 
Van Gilley got for his hogs. 

Nearly all the houses in that part of Illinois were of logs. I 
only remember one frame house in that vicinity. It belonged 
to my uncle Elias Thomas, and had four rooms. It was built of 
black walnut lumber, got out at a near-by saw mill. My uncle 
had just built it, because his log house that he had always lived 
in had nearly rotted down. 

When grandfather moved to Illinois, he joined a little settle- 
ment on the Salt Fork of the Little Vermilion river, eight miles 
East of Urbana, but aftex..you had traveled three quarters of 
a mile there was only one house between his and Urbana, and 
that was the tavern on the state road that ran on to Springfield 
and East St. Louis. 

I cannot remember the exact date that we started on our 
Journey. The snow was off the ground, but we were still hav- 
ing frosts at night. The first day we left grandfather's and 
drove in to Urbana, where we stayed all night with an old 
friend of father's. The only people who started with us were 
the Slack 's, Henry and Harvey, and Henry 's family. We had 



50 

one cow with us, and Harvey and I were driving her. I did 
not know much about driving cattle or riding horses, and be- 
sides I was barebacked. The cow did not want to leave and 
would turn and run back and w T hen my horse turned after her, 
I w T as not expecting it, and fell off. Then Harvey Slack started 
after her and his horse got to pitching. We had some excite- 
ment before we straightened things out and got the cow T to mov- 
ing in the right direction. The second night out we made our 
first camp. Henry Slack cut two forked sticks and some poles 
which he drove in the ground with the forks up, then laid the 
poles across to make a V shaped frame and stretched bed quilts 
over it, and we make the feather beds down under that. It was 
a good thing we had some cover for there was a sharp frost 
that night. 

Another night we camped at the head of a hollow, and the 
next morning about daylight, while we were getting breakfast 
a doe and two fawns came out of the scraggly timber and 
crossed the head of the hollow right in front of us. These were 
the first deer I ever saw, and it was mighty exciting to me 
when Henry Slack got out Harvey's rifle gun and shot at them. 
He missed them. But I did not care much. I had seen my 
first deer. That is the only game I remember seeing on the 
entire journey. 

"We crossed the Oakall (Okaw) and Sangamon rivers in 
Illinois. When we came to Springfield, I saw, for the first 
time, a lot of car wheels that must have belonged to the first 
railroad that ever ran through Illinois ; or so the grown folks 
said. This w^as all the acquaintance I had with railroads until 
the Houston, Texas Central came to Sherman in 1873. I know 
I did not see a locomotive or even the tracks there in Spring- 
field for I would have remembered it. Soon after this we struck 
the Mississippi Eiver bottom where it is called the American 
bottoms. We were told that it was forty miles to the river, and 
it certainly seemed an interminable time till we reached the 
river bank. I only remember one incident that relieved the 
monotony. One day we met a man driving three fat steers to 
market. He said he would get $40.00 apiece for them, and 
every one thought that a mighty good price for a steer. They 



56 

must have been old oxen used to driving, that lie had fattened 
for the market for he was driving them by himself. 

We finally reached the river at twelve o'clock and stopped 
and cooked and ate our dinner on the bank. We found a man 
fishing with both nets and line and father bought a fish from 
him, for ten cents, for our dinner. I thought it must be the 
biggest fish in the Mississippi river. At least it made that im- 
pression on my mind. It was a buffalo and weighed ten 
pounds. 

We crossed the river at East St. Louis on a steam ferry. 
That itself was very new and interesting to my boyish mind; 
but I could not investigate it as I would have liked for I was 
very busy watching the boats on the river. There were so 
many of them and a lot of them were moving up and clown the 
river while others were tied up to the wharves unloading, my 
unaccustomed eyes never tired of gazing at them. It was a 
sight that I have never forgotten though it was sixty-nine 
years ago that I saw it. Father went into a house on the river 
frout and bought himself a gun, and then we started again on 
our journey. At the time I thought St. Louis must be the big- 
gest city in the world, and I reckon it was one of the biggest 
in the United States, for when night fell we were still in the 
city, with houses all around us so Ave could not camp out or 
turn our stock loose, but had to stay in a wagon yard. A day 
or so later we met a big drove of Texas steers. They were the 
regular old Spanish stock with horns a yard or more long, and 
were the first we had ever seen. They looked mighty queer 
and just a little bit scary. But the man at the head of the 
herd attracted my attention away from them. He had a sad- 
dle on one of those long horned animals and was calmly rid- 
ing along while the others were quietly following. The 
wagons all stopped to let the herd go by, and I felt a little 
uneasy as to what I would do if our cow should follow along 
too or get mixed up with those wild looking cattle. But she 
waited quietly by our oxen and the mare I was on stood by her. 

I next recall crossing the Big Piney river, for the river was 
up when we reached it, and we had to lay up for several days 
till it ran down so we could ford it. While the river was still 



57 

bank full, I saw rafts go by, lots of them. Some were just 
logs, and, some were of sawed lumber. Next we crossed the 
Boston Mountains, taking a whole day for it. We found a 
town called Waynesvilie just at the foot of the mountains on 
the far side ; and right in there somewhere we crossed a clear 
pretty stream called The Koubideaux. It ran around a steep 
high bluff, and people who lived there said that about half 
or three quarter of a mile above and around the bend, it boiled 
up from under these bluffs. We did not have time to go up 
there to see but I formed a resolution right then that if I ever 
came back that way, I would go and see where that river 
started. But to this day I do not know the truth about that 
strange river. On reaching Arkansas, we had a choice of two 
roads. One crossing the Mountains and one to the East going 
down Frog Bayou and Little Frog Bayou. Our party had 
increased to a regular caravan. The Dixons, Chadwells, 
Chambers, Sutherlands and several other families, all going 
to Texas, had fallen in with us at various places, and as it was 
much pleasanter travelling in a company, we decided to hold 
together. The men talked it over and decided to take the East 
road down the Bayou, which I have since heard have changed 
their names to Mulberry and Little Mulberry Bayou. 

Little Frog Bayou was the crockedest stream I ever saw. 
We crossed it thirty-five times, that first day, and one of our 
party who had four yoke of oxen to his wagon, would fre- 
quently have his lead oxen in the bed of the stream in one 
place while his wagon wheels would be in the water in another 
place. 

It set in to raining, and Big Frog Bayou was soon bank full; 
so we again had to lay up till it ran down, which took a week. 
There was not a tent in the whole crowd, and we camped just 
here and there as we saw fit. We did not have a leader or any 
order about anything; as we had to have later on in Texas, 
when parties of us camped together and hauled to the govern- 
ment forts, and to the piney woods of East Texas. We passed 
the time in mending things, cooking and building fires and in 
visiting back and forth among the camps. There did not seem 
to be any game to hunt ; and time hung heavy on my boyish 



58 

hands. I slipped away and explored the country whenever I 
could, and one day I got lost. There was a wide flat near the 
river, where people turned their stock to graze. That day I 
went clear across it and came out on the other side where 
there was a house, with a wheat field on the North and an- 
other one to the South just like it. I got so mixed up every 
time I tried to get back the way I came, that finally when I 
found an old road I was afraid to follow it until I went to the 
house and asked the woman of the house where it lead to. She 
said to the gin. I asked her if there was any other house or 
road to throw a body off their way. She said, "No, just go 
straight ahead for about five miles when you will come to the 
gin." So I followed the road through the bushes till I came 
in sight of the gin, there I struck a clearing, and went round 
the fence till I reached the main road which I followed for 
several miles back to the river and camp, where I told the 
folks I had been down to see the gin. None of us had ever 
seen cotton growing before, and everything connected with it 
was very interesting to the whole party. Y\ 7 e saw our first cot- 
ton patch just before we reached Big Frog Bayou. It was just 
coming up and I thought it was buckwheat, for when they first 
push through the ground, cotton and buckwheat have leaves 
nearly alike, except that cotton leaves are about four times 
bigger than buckwheat leaves. This man had checked his cot- 
ton and that looked like a queer way to plant buckwheat to me, 
and made me try to figure out in my own mind what the crop 
really was. 

When the Bayou seemed run down enough, everybody was 
anxious to make a start but Henry Slack, who was afraid it 
was still too deep for his light wagon. So the men cut chunks 
and put on the bolsters and raised the bed and took chains and 
ropes and tied the wagon bed so it could not float out of the 
standards if it struck deep water. After spending nearly half 
a day in all these preparations, I for one felt a little outdone 
when it turned out that the water was so shallow that it would 
not have come up to Mr. Slack's wagon bed if it had not been 
raised. 



59 

The country was mighty bad travelling', rough, rocky and 
sandy and all woods. We crossed the Arkansaw at Van 
Buren. There were no white men around when we got to the 
boat, just three negroes to ferry us over. One big slick negro 
seemed to be the boss. He was cavorting around, making lots 
of noise and splutter over getting the boat loaded to his 
notion. He had loaded on Chamber's wagon and team and 
our mare and cow. The cow tried to go to the upper end of 
the boat where the oxen were and bumped against him. The 
negro turned around and hit her with an oar and knocked her 
horn off. "When he did this she turned on him and butted him 
into the river, then knocked Chambers overboard and ran the 
mare into the river also. The negro rose up out of the water 
and yelled, "See, I popped up like a bad egg. :i But when he 
reached the boat again, he finished loading the boat in a peace- 
able, subdued manner and we had no more trouble. 

Fifteen miles beyond Van Buren we entered the Indian Ter- 
ritory, where the first thing I recall was the afternoon we 
drove through a Httle prairie and came up on a bunch of In- 
dians playing ball. They were, what was called "civilized 
Indians," Choctaws I think, and we stopped and watched 
them a long time. There was a big bunch of them. The bucks 
were all playing ball, and the squaws had long switches and 
black-snake whips and were running after the men and whip- 
ping them to make them play harder. The ball was a medium 
sized one and the struggle seemed to be to get the ball over a 
mark near either end of the field, after starting in the center. 
"When that was done the game was won, and they would rest 
awhile, then have another game with the squaws running and 
beating them all the time. They did not pay any attention to 
us though there was a big lot of us. 

We came on by Thompson's salt works and The Boggy 
Depot, and crossed the Red river into Texas at Colbert's 
ferry close to where Denison is now. Strange to say, there 
were three celebrated old time crossings on this difficult river, 
within a few miles of each other, Colbert's ferry, Old Preston 
and Coffe's upper crossing which is mentioned as a well- 



til) 

known crossing as early as 1840, in Kendall's Santa Fe Expe- 
dition. 

From Colbert's ferry we went on to Uncle Bob Atcheson's 
place on Iron Ore Creek where we stopped for a few days, 
then on to Baker's branch where we stayed for awhile and 
figured on locating. 

We had passed lots of people on our journey, going both 
ways; we met some people going back from Texas who gave 
it a hard name, saying their cattle all died ,and nothing would 
grow, and they could not make a living in Texas. One of our 
party got so discouraged that he turned around and went 
back, but all the rest of us came on and all of us located either 
in the edge of Grayson or in Cooke county. 

We tried several places, and my father died before we 
finally located our headlight several miles East of where 
Gainsville is, though the town was not thought of till three 
years later after the county was organized. 



<;i 



Early Settlement of Walnut Grove 

By 
WILLIAM EPLER. 

Walnut Grove, formerly a beautiful body of timber, located 
on the upper branches of Little Indian Creek, now in Cass Co. 
Ills., approximately three miles long and one wide, and near 
the South boundries of Township 17, N. Ranges 9 and 10 W. 
about equally divided between the two townships. This beau- 
tiful grove contained every variety of timber common to the 
uplands of Central Illinois, and all the wild fruits common 
thereto, both timber and fruits in excellent perfection. 

The first permanent settler at the Grove was Peter Con- 
over, who settled on the South side of the Grove in the S. W. 
1/4 of Sec. 36, T. 17, N. Range 10 W. in 1822, a year before the 
organization of Morgan Co. 

He was connected with the present generation of his de- 
scendants, as follows : He was the youngest brother of Levi 
Conover, who was the grandfather of the late George Con- 
over, of Virginia, Cass County, Illinois, of Charles W. Con- 
over, of Ashland, Illinois, and of Mrs. William Epler of Lake 
Charles, Louisiana. 

Mr. Conover came from Woodford Co. Ky., though born, 
raised and educated in New Jersey, near Monmouth. 

He was the father of a large family, five sons and three 
daughters, all of whom came from Kentucky with him, settling 
along the Southern side of the Grove, on land which he en- 
tered as they arrived at maturity. Thinking timber would 
ultimately become scarce, which opinion was shared by all 
early settlers, he planted six or eight acres in black locust. 
That planting grew and prospered, has yielded fencing posts 
by the thousand and thousands still remain. It was as much 
as 90 years ago when that Locust Grove was planted. 



62 

The old Peter Conover homestead and Locust Grove, are 
still in the possession of a descendant of the family, Charles 
W. Conover. 

Dominions Conover, the father of Feter, emigrated from 
Holland about 1720, settling in New Jersey near Monmouth 
Co. He was the father of five sons, William, John, Garrett, 
Levi and Peter, Peter being the youngest. Four of these 
brothers served as cavalrymen throughout the Revolutionary 
War, generally in Washington's division of the Army, Peter 
being too young to serve. It is related, shortly preceding the 
battle of Monmouth, the father, Dominicus, was killed by a 
flash of lightning. The sons then with Washington were per- 
mitted to go home to attend their father's funeral. It was 
during their absence that the battle occurred. Thus it was 
that a double sorrow came to them, for they ever after re- 
gretted missing the battle. 

Eames in his interesting history of Morgan County, says, 
"Peter Conover was a man of more than ordinary informa- 
tion and intelligence and an active member of the Baptist 
church." Eames in his Historic Morgan ,relates that he was 
a member of the "Morganian Society," a society founded in 
1823, to prevent slavery in Illinois. Eames also states that 
he was a member of the first Board of County Commis- 
sioners, after the organization of the county in 1823, and fur- 
ther states that he was the first President of the Morgan Co. 
Bible Society. It can be said that the first Sunday school in 
the county was organized in Jersey Prairie at or near Old 
Princeton, by Joseph T. Leonard, aided doubtless by the ad- 
vice and help of Peter Conover. The widow of Mr. Leonard 
was still living at the time Mr. Eames compiled his history, 
having married the Rev. John Pucker of Jersey Prairie. 
Grandma Rucker is still lovingly remembered by all the old, 
still surviving settlers in and around Jersey Prairie. It 
would seem from the above historical data that Peter Con- 
over brought with him when he came to Walnut Grove, Chris- 
tian citizenship and its good influence is still felt. 

It should be stated, before passing, that Grandma Conover, 
the wife of Mr. Conover, brought with her the manners and 



63 

Christian culture of the Revolutionary period and maintained 
them, as is still well remembered, until her last days. 

In 1829 there came to Morgan Co. from Clark Co. Indiana, 
Capt. Charles Beggs. Capt. Beggs bought a block of the land 
which Mr. Conover had entered, and became a near neighbor 
of Mr. Conover. 

Capt. Charles Beggs was born in Rockingham Co. Virginia, 
in 1775, emigrating to Kentucky in 1797, and to Indiana in 
1800. Like Mr. Conover, he brought with him a large family 
and good and good christian citizenship, the full counterpart 
of his near neighbor. Capt. Beggs served Indiana in her terri- 
torial and State legislatures and was a member of the conven- 
tion that framed her constitution under which she was ad- 
mitted as a State. He was with Harrison in his campaign 
against the Indians on the Upper Wabash, commanding a com- 
pany of light-horse in the battle of Tippecanoe. 

The old homestead of Capt. Beggs still remains in Morgan 
County, located near the northwest corner of the northwest 
quarter of Section 1, Town 16 north, range 10 west. The three 
mile strip that was taken from Morgan and added to Cass in 
1845 put the old Conover homestead about as far into Cass 
as the Beggs homestead is in Morgan, about 40 rods. 

Jersey Prairie, one of the most beautiful and fertile prai- 
ries in Morgan County lies immediately south of and adjoining 
the Grove, receiving its name from the fact that it was first 
settled by New Jersey people. 

"With these New Jersey people came the brothers, Rev. John 
G. Bergen, afterwards long a resident of Springfield, Sanga- 
mon County, and Jonathan C. Bergen. These brothers, in 
1833, laid out Princeton, east of and adjoining the Conover 
Settlement, giving the name Princeton to their embryo vil- 
lage because it was located in Jersey Prairie and for the addi- 
tional reason they came from New Jersey and were educated 
at Princeton College. 

Princeton soon became an important neighborhood center. 
Churches were built; it contained houses and shops and every 
accessory required by an early pioneer settlement, and they 
were many, as this was before the introduction of factory 



.-J .>.. 



64 

goods and before the era of the mail-order house. Princeton 
had its day of usefulness and prosperity. Railroads in build- 
ing left it to one side; it declined and finally was abandoned 
— once a mart and the seat of culture, it may now be classed 
with ''the lost cities of the plains." 

For the next twelve or fifteen years, following the settle- 
ment of Peter Conover, a most excellent class of people, mostly 
from Kentucky, Virginia, Indiana and New Jersey, settled in 
and around the Grove. 

In 1833, Walnut Grove school house was built. It was located 
in a clearing of two or three acres, in about the center of the 
Grove, on elevated land, near Little Indian Creek, near the 
southeast corner of the southwest quarter of Section 25, Town- 
ship 17, 10 Range 10 west, on land entered by Isaac Mitchell 
October 24, 1832, and loaned by him to the settlers for school 
purposes. It was one of the earliest school houses in the 
northern part of Morgan County. The nearest dwelling 
thereto was that of Abner Tinnen, about one-fourth mile to the 
east. To the north, down the hill under the bank of Little 
Indian Creek, was a fine spring, from which drinking water 
was obtained. The house was constructed of Lynn logs, large 
and straight, hewn on two sides, inside and outside, covered 
with shingles, in dimensions about twenty feet square, was 
heated by a large iron stove, the first stove seen in that part 
of the county; two large windows on each side, north and 
south. These windows were not provided with grease paper 
for lights, as was usual, but were fitted with real window glass. 
The whole constituted a very creditable and comfortable school 
house for that day, in fact, quite equal to many of the present 
day found in the country, except in the matter of furniture, 
which consisted of benches without backs. 

Among those who attended school here were the children of 
James Stevenson, Thomas Gatton, Daniel Short, Jacob Epler, 
Jacob Lorance, Isaac Mitchell, Alexander Beard, William 
Berry, Charles Beggs, Peter Conover, John Epler, Jacob and 
Jonathan C. Bergen, Nathan Compton, John Rosenberger, 
Samuel Montgomery and others. Among the early teachers 
were a Mr. Pence, who died a few years ago in Macon County, 



65 

Illinois ; Joel C. Robinson taught in 1835 and. 1836, afterwards 
going to Kentucky near Louisville, where in an altercation 
with a student was shot and killed : one Leonard taught in 
the early 40 's, was familiarly known as "Boss Leonard," re- 
ceiving this affectionate appellation from his pupils, because 
of the stringency of his discipline. He adhered strictly to the 
old theory that ' ' there couid be no larnin without licking. ' ' In 
spite of this he was a very efficient teacher. 

As far as known, only three persons are now living who 
attended school at the old Walnut Grove School house. They 
are John T. Epler of Pleasant Plains, Sangamon County; Wil- 
liam Elliott, banker and farmer of Virginia, Cass County, Illi- 
nois, and William Epler of Lake Charles, Louisiana. B. F. 
W. Stribling taught this school, as did the late Judge Cyrus 
Epler, when a student in Illinois College. 

Others whose names can not be recalled taught. It can not 
now be recalled that more than two ladies ever taught in the 
old Walnut Grove School house. Miss Sue West, daughter of 
Amos West, second member of the Illinois Legislature from 
Cass County, and Miss Melville Blair, a highly cultured Scotch 
lady, both giving excellent satisfaction. 

Walnut Grove School house was in constant use, often as 
church, as well as school, until a night in May, 1845, when it 
was swept entirely away by a passing tornado, and was never 
rebuilt. It served its day and generation well, for it can be 
said there went from out its walls youths and young people 
who later in life adorned the pulpit, the bench and bar and 
every useful calling. 

It is sad to have to say that with the old pioneer school 
house, the beautiful grove, too, is mostly gone. The axe and 
plow, in quest of dollars, have worked the ruin. What should 
be said of those candid, unpretending early settlers, honorable 
and good, who came to make their homes in and around Walnut 
Grove, from 1822 to 1835 ? Their many virtues are still un- 
numbered, their faults, if they had any, are forgotten. 

Let it at least be said of them that they, as a general thing, 
lived up to that Golden Rule which requires of man to do unto 
his fellowman, as he would be done by. And it can further be 
said of them, they constructed roads, fostered schools, built 
churches and developed great farms. 



EDITORIAL 



69 L 



JOURNAL of 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward 0. Page 

Applications for membership in tbe Society may bo sent to the Secretary of 

the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 
Membership Fee, One Dollar — Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

Vol. VITL January, 1916. No. 4 

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

MAY 11-12, 1916. 



As announced in the last number of the Journal, an ex- 
cellent program has been prepared for the approaching 
annual meeting. The annual address will be presented by 
Hon. Fred J. Kern, of Belleville, President of the State 
Board of Administration. 

The program in full is as follows : 

Order of Exercises — Senate Chamber. 

Thursday Morning, May 11, 10 'Clock. 

Mr. N. H. Debel, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois — 
"The Veto Power of the Governor of Illinois." 

Mr. Ralph Linton, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois — 
"The Indian History of Illinois." 

Mr. Joseph J. Thompson, Chicago, Illinois — "Oddities in 
Early Illinois Laws." 

Thursday Afternoon, 2:30 O'Clock. 
Rev. "W. A. Provine, Nashville, Tenn. — "Jacques Thimete 
DeMombreun." 



70 

Eev. Ira W. Allen, Paris, Illinois — " Early Presbyterian- 
ism in East Central Illinois." 

Thursday Evening, 8:00 'Clock. 

Eeception — Governor and Mrs. Edward F. Dunne will 
receive the Historical Society at the Executive Mansion. 

Mr. W. J. Onahan, Chicago, Illinois — "Random Recollec- 
tions of Sixty Years in Chicago." 

Friday Mornisg. 
Meeting of Directors in Office of Secretary at 9:00 o'clock. 

Senate Chamber. 
Friday Morning, May 12, 10:00 O 'Clock. 
Business Meeting of the Society — Reports of officers, 
reports of committees, miscellaneous business, election of 
officers. 

Prof. J. A. James, Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois — "The Work of the Illinois Park Commission and 
the Preservation of Historical Sites." 

Friday Afternoon, 2:30 O 'Clock. 

Mr. O. W. Aldrich, Columbus, Ohio — "Slavery and Invol- 
untary Servitude in Illinois." 

Miss Mabel E. Fletcher, High School, Decatur, Illinois — 
"Old Settlers' Tales." 

Friday Evening, 8:00 O 'Clock. 
Hon. Fred J. Kern, Belleville, Illinois — Annual Address, 
"The First Two Counties of Illinois and Their People." 



ILLINOIS CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. 



The Forty-eighth General Assembly passed an Act calling 
the attention of the people of Illinois to the fact that in the 
year 1918 Illinois will have completed its first century as a 
state of the Federal Union. 

This Act, which was introduced by the late Senator Camp- 
bell S. Hearn, of Adams County, provided for the creation 
of a Commission to plan and arrange for the Centennial 
celebration. Senator Hearn was, upon the organization of 



71 

the Commission, made its chairman, and Mrs. Jessie Palmer 
Weber was elected Secretary of the Commission. The Com- 
mission made plans for a great celebration. 

The Forty-ninth General Assembly passed a bill for the 
continuance of the Commission and made an appropriation 
for the purpose. This bill was vetoed by the Governor on 
constitutional grounds, as it provided that two-thirds of the 
Commission be appointed from the members of the General 
Assembly, and the Constitution of the State provides that 
members of the General Assembly shall not hold other civil 
offices during their terms as members of the General As- 
sembly. 

A new bill was then drawn, providing that the Governor 
appoint the members of the Commission. This bill passed 
and the members of the Commission have been appointed by 
Governor Dunne. They are: 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago, chairman; Jessie Palmer 
Weber, Springfield, secretary; Dr. Edward Bowe, Jackson- 
ville; M. J. Daugherty, Galesburg; N. W. Duncan, LaSalle; 
Oscar W. Eckland, Chicago; Rev. R. W. Ennis, Hillsboro; 
Evarts B. Greene, Urbana ; Hugh S. Magill, Jr., Springfield ; 
John Schultz, Beardstown; Thomas P. Scully, Chicago; Rev. 
Frederic Siedenburg, Chicago; Charles H. Starkel, Belle- 
ville ; John E. Traeger, Chicago ; Peter A. Waller, Kewanee. 

The Commission has met and organized, and has arranged 
in a general way to carry out the plans as outlined by the 
previous Commission. Plans have been made for presenting 
the subject of the Centennial Celebration to county officials 
throughout the State and to urge them to form county organ- 
izations for the observance in 1918 of the Centennial by each 
county in the State and for a great general celebration at the 
State Capital. 

The Commission seeks to arouse the interest of the citizens 
of the State in the Centennial, and will welcome suggestions 
for its observance. The general plan for the celebration is 
in substance as follows : 



72 

The State Centennial Commission. 

The Act creating the Illinois Centennial Commission 
directs it to arrange for and conduct a celebration in honor 
of the State's Centennial. 

The Commission plans for an impressive Centennial ob- 
servance by the official Government of the State of Illinois 
at the State Capital, and also hopes to arouse the counties, 
cities and towns of the State to celebrate the Centennial year 
in their respective localities, officially, assisted by their local 
bodies of educational, social and commercial organizations. 

It is the earnest desire of the Commission to do everything 
in its power to promote an adequate and dignified observance 
of the Illinois Centennial Celebration and it has arranged a 
general plan as outlined in the following pages. 

Centennial. Memorial, Publications. 

In accordance with the general policy of marking . the 
Centennial year by work of permanent value, the Commis- 
sion has made arrangements for the publication of a Centen- 
nial History of Illinois, which is expected to appear in 1918. 
The plan, as adopted by the first Commission in 1913 and 
recently confirmed by the present Commission, provides for 
a history of the State from the beginning of European col- 
onization to the present time, with some introductory account 
of the Indian aboriginal population. The first volume will 
cover the periods of French and British dominion, the 
Revolution, and the territorial period, closing with the admis- 
sion of Illinois as a State in 1818. The second volume, en- 
titled "The Frontier State," will cover the first thirty years 
of statehood; Volume III, the era of sectional controversy 
and civil war; and the last two volumes will bring the nar- 
rative down to date, with special attention to industrial 
development and governmental problems. The whole series 
is under the editorial supervision of Professor Clarence "W. 
Alvord, of the State University, who is well known to stu- 
dents of Illinois history as the editor of the "Collections of 
the Illinois State Historical Library." In addition to this 
comprehensive history, the Commission expects to publish 



73 

this year a special volume entitled '•' Illinois in 1818." 

In planning this series of publications, emphasis is laid on 
the importance of so telling the story that it shall be not only 
scientific in spirit, and accurate in its presentation of facts, 
but also interesting to the general reader. 

Centennial Memorial Building. 

The General Assembly has already recognized the propri- 
ety and importance of a building to commemorate the one 
hundredth anniversary of Illinois as a State of the Federal 
Union, by appropriating funds for the purchase of land to 
be used as the site for such a building. This building is much 
needed on account of the crowded condition of the Capitol, 
and the proposed Centennial Memorial Building should 
contain all the features that have been planned for it from 
the standpoint of the State's needs as a practical office build- 
ing, and also be a magnificent memorial, providing ade- 
quately for the historical collections of the State, its archives 
and other collateral interests. 

It is now too late for such a building to be completed and 
dedicated as a part of the Centennial Celebration, but it can 
be begun and well on its way toward completion and can show 
at that time that Illinois has not forgotten to provide a 
lasting and beautiful memorial of its first century of progress 
as a Sovereign State of the Union. 

Historical Statues and Markings. 

It is the opinion of the Commission that it is not desirable 
to include in the work of the official celebration by the State 
a large number of statues or monuments. It seems best that 
this matter be largely left to the particular counties or cities 
who may recognize, in the Centennial year, men who have 
been especially associated with such localities. The Com- 
mission desires, however, to give its cordial endorsement and 
support to the plans inaugurated by the Forty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly, and now being carried on by the State Art 
Commission, for the erection of statues in commemoration 
of Lincoln and Douglas on the Capitol grounds. "We would 
further suggest the desirability of making preparations at 



74 

this time for a monument or tablet especially recognizing the 
services of Nathaniel Pope, territorial delegate in Congress 
at the time of the admission of Illinois into the Union, to 
whom the chief credit for the passage of the enabling act in 
its final form is due. 

Publicity. 

Since publicity is the one thing necessary to the unqualified 
success of the Centennial Celebration, a special committee 
on publicity has been appointed. This committee, working 
in conjunction with the other committees, especially the 
State-wide and Publication Committees, hopes to attract the 
attention of the public to the celebration in 1918 so that 
every man, woman and child in the State will not only know 
the general facts of the celebration, but will be familiar with 
its details. 

Much work has already been done to prepare the way for 
this publicity, especially in communications to the news- 
papers of the State. Over 20,000 news items relating to the 
activities of the Commission and the Centennial plans have 
been furnished the newspapers of Illinois and neighboring 
states, and it seems a reasonable assumption that there can 
hardly be any one within the State whose attention has not 
been called to the approaching Centenary. 

Beginning in the fall of 1916 the newspaper propaganda 
will be renewed and publicity will be sought through many 
channels, especially through public and private schools, 
teachers' institutes, and by public addresses given by mem- 
bers or representatives of the Centennial Commission. No 
effort will be spared to bring before the people of this State 
the fact that the Centennial is fast approaching and that it 
must be celebrated in a manner befitting the occasion. 

The press has already taken up the work with great in- 
terest; the schools and other agencies will no doubt gener- 
ously respond and the committee looks forward without 
misgivings that its work will be a big factor in the success 
of the Centennial Celebration. 



75 

The Celebration at the State Capital. 

It is planned to make the celebration at the State Capital 
an event of State-wide significance .and historical importance. 
An important feature will be the Centennial Exposition, 
displaying the agricultural and manufacturing progress of 
the State with its varied resources. There will also be a 
Historical Pageant, setting forth graphically and with ar- 
tistic beauty the wonderful development that has been 
attained in a hundred years of progress. It is the purpose 
of the Commission to make the dedicatory program particu- 
larly impressive and one of the principal features of the 
Centennial observance. An effort will be made to interest 
other states of the Union in this program, and, because of 
the world-famed characters that Illinois has produced, it is 
not unlikely that other nations may send representatives to 
participate in this event. 

It is probable that the celebration at the State Capital will 
be held during the first two weeks of October, 1918. The 
sixth of October, the day upon which the first Governor of 
Illinois was inaugurated, will be observed in a special man- 
ner. It is suggested that county celebrations be not held 
during these two weeks, as it is greatly desired that all the 
people of the State may be free during this period to attend 
the great celebration at Springfield. 

Local Celebrations Throughout the State. 

It is apparent that it would be impossible to hold the at- 
tention of six millions of people for one day or to assemble 
them at one place for the celebration, hence it is suggested 
that the county be made the unit, and organized for local 
celebrations, as outlined in a letter recently sent by the Com- 
mission to certain county officials. 

Time of Celebration. 

It is the plan of the Illinois Centennial Commission to have 
the State ablaze throughout 1918 with the great celebration. 

It is probable that the celebration at the State Capital 
will occur during the first two weeks in October, 1918. 



76 

Weather conditions are likely to be favorable at that season, 
and it will be the duty and privilege of all citizens of the 
State to aid in this great celebration, festival and jubilee. 

The University of Illinois will at this time celebrate the 
fiftieth anniversary of its organization with great and 
impressive ceremony, and it is expected that this will be a 
part of the State's observance of its Centennial. 

If the people of the State appreciate the significance and 
grandeur of the occasion and a united effort is made to 
observe it in a manner appropriate to its importance, the 
Illinois Centennial will present to the world a celebration 
which will be the greatest of its kind ever given in America. 
and it will be a standard for the younger states to attempt 
to equal when their centennial anniversaries occur. 



THE INDIANA CENTENNIAL. 



The year 1916 is the one hundredth anniversary of the 
admission of the State of Indiana into the Federal Union. 

Our sister and neighboring state is celebrating this anni- 
versary under the auspices of the Indiana Historical Com- 
mission. A splendid plan for celebrations in each county has 
been formulated. The Historical Commission sends out 
weekly letters giving information of these local celebrations 
and advice and suggestions in regard to them. 

THhe general or State celebration will be held in Indian- 
apolis October 2-14. Illinois can have the benefit of Indiana's 
experience and should profit by its successes and avoid such 
features as shall have been found to be unsatisfactory. 



THE ST. CLAIE COUNTY HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. 



The Historical Society of St. Clair County met March 25, 
1916,' in the probate court room at Belleville and elected the 
following officers for the ensuing year : 

President — J. Nick Perrin. 



77 

Vice-President — E. A. Woelk. 

Secretary — E. W. Plegge. 

Treasurer — TV. A. Hough. 

The Program Committee, consisting of H. G. Schmidt, A. 
M. TVolleson and C. P. Boyer, made a report and was con- 
tinued in office. Its report related to the celebration of 
the anniversary of the organization of St. Clair County, to 
be held April 27th. 

The program for that occasion is to consist of musical 
numbers and an address by Judge Walter B. Douglas, vice- 
president of the Missouri Historical Society. Dr. E. H. 
Mace, of St. Louis, Judge Augustus Chenot and Judge 
TVinkelman will also address the Society. 

A motion was adopted unanimously that all organizations 
and the general public be invited to assist in the celebration, 
which is to take place in the probate court room. 



GIFTS OF BOOKS, LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS TO THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETT. 

Alaska Bureau — Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, Washington. 
"Alaska, Our Frontier Wonderland." 112 pp. 8 vo., Seattle, Wash. Published 
by the Alaska- Seattle Chamber of Commerce. Gift of the Alaska Bureau 
Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, Wash. 

Douglas, Stephen A. Steel engraving of Stephen A. Douglas. 

Columbus, Christopher. Steel engraving by Gunthcr. Gift of Miss Lydia 
Dexter, of Chicago. 

Griggsville Reflector. Newspaper, July 12, 1879, to July 13, 1882. Published 
at Griggsville, 111. F. K. and B. L. Strother, proprietors. Gift of James A. 
Farrand, Griggsville, 111. 

Hennepin Township, Civil War. Names of Hennepin Township Soldiers in 
Civil War. Gift of J. B. Albert, Hennepin, HI. 

Illinois Constitutional Convention — Debates and Proceedings of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of the State of Illinois Convened at the City of 
Springfield, Tuesday, December 13, li-69. Ely, Burnham and Bartlett, official 
stenographers. 2 vols. Springfield, E. L. Merritt & Co., 1ST0. Gift of Hon. 
Charles P. Kane, Springfield, 111. 

Indiana Volunteer Infantry — Hight's History of the 58th Indiana Volunteer 
Inf. Comp. by Gilbert R. Stormont from mss. prepared by the late Chaplain 
John J. Eight. Princeton, Press of the Clarion, 1S95, 557 pp. Gift of G. R. 
Stormont, comp. Princeton, Ind. 

Iowa — Education — History of Education in Iowa by Clarence R. Aurner, 
pub. Iowa City, Iowa, 464 pp., vol. III. Gift of Historical Society of Iowa, 
Iowa City, la, 

Johns Hopkins University — The Postal Power of Congress, a Study in Con- 
stitutional Expansion by Lindsay Rogers, Ph.D. LL. B. Series XXXIV, No. 
2, 1S9 pp. Svo., Baltimore, 1916. The Johns Hopkins Press. Gift of Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore, Md. 



78 

Kansas Historical Collections— Vol. XIII, 1913-1914. Edited by William E. 
Connelley, Sec'y. Topeka, 1915. 602 pp. Gift of Kansas State Historical 
Society, Topeka, Kan. 

Lake Mohonk Conference — Report of the Thirty-third Annual Lake Mohonk 
Conference on the Indian and other dependent peoples. October 20, 21, 22, 
1915. Albany, N. Y. 200 pp. Gift of H. C. Phillips, Secy., Lake Mohonk, N. Y. 

Loomis Family — Descendants of Joseph Loomis in America, and his ante- 
cedents in the old -world. The original published by Elias Loomis, LL.D., 
1875. Revised by Elisha S. Loomis, Ph.D., 1908. Copy Xo. 416, S59 pp. 4to, 
1S09. Pub. not given. Gift of Mr. Charles Joel Loomis, Joliet, 111. 

Michigan State Library — Supplementary Catalog- of Books for District, 
Township and High School Libraries in the State of Michigan. Lansing, 
Mich., 1916. 106 pp. 8vo. Gift of Michigan State Library, Lansing, Mich. 

Michigan Library Commissioners — Sixteenth annual report of the State 
Board of Library Commissioners of Michigan for the year ending December 
31, 1915. 94 pp., 8vo. Lansing, Mich., 1916. Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford 
Co. (State Printers). Gift of Michigan State Library, Lansing, Mich. 

Monticello Seminary — Framed photograph of Miss Harriet Newell Haskell, 
principal Monticello Seminary, 1864-1907. Framed photograph of Miss 
Martina C. Errickson, principal Monticello Seminary, 1911 — . Presented by 
Mrs. Adelaide Barnes, Wichita, Kan. 

Moore Family — Extracts from reminiscences of the Moore Family, written 
for the centennial reunion and celebration of the settlement of the pioneers 
in the Illinois Country in 17S2. By Captain J. Milton Moore, Jr. Typewritten 
copy. Gift of Mrs. Mary C. Eberman Clark, 221 Stephenson St., Freeport, 111. 

Muhlenberg County, Ky. — A history of Muhlenberg County, Ky. By Otto A. 
Rothert. J. P. Morton & Co., Louisville, Ky., 1913. 496 pp., 8vo. Gift of Otto 
A. Rothert, Louisville, Ky. 

Nelson, (Rev) David. Picture of Rev. David Nelson, Quincy, 111., writer 
of the hymn, "The Shining Shore." Gift of Miss Mary Bull, Quincy, 111. 

Nicolet, John — John Nicolet — Exercises at unveiling of tablet commemo- 
rating the Discovery and Exploration of the Northwest. July 12, 1915, Lan- 
sing, Mich. Michigan Historical Commission, 1915, 25 pp. Gift of Michigan 
Historical Commission, Lansing, Mich. 

Ottawa, Illinois. Authors — Typewritten list of Ottawa, Illinois, authors. 
Gift of Mrs. Clarence Griggs, Ottawa, 111. 

Paine, Lyman May — My ancestors. A Memorial of John Paine and Mary 
Ann May of East Woodstock, Conn. Comp. by their son, Lyman May Paine, 
Chicago, 1914. 240 pp. Gift of Lyman May Paine, 105 W. Monroe St., 
Chicago, 111. 

Reynolds, Charley — Life story of Charley Reynolds, General Custer's chief 
of scouts. Reprinted from the Potter Weekly Kansan. Gift of George J. 
Remsburg. Potter, Kan. 

Stevenson — Letitia Green and Adlai Ewing Stevenson. In Memoriam. 85 
pp. Gift of Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson, Secretary of State, Springfield, 111. 

Washington and Lincoln— Picture of Washington and Lincoln, entitled 
"The Father and Saviour of Our Country." Gift of Thomas Peaker, 1125 
N. 10th St., Springfield, 111. 

Wesleyan University — Wesley Bi-Centennlal, 1703-1903. Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Middletown, Conn., 1904. 239 pp. Svo. Seventy-fifth Anniversary 
1831-1906. Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., 1907. 216 pp. 8vo. Gifts 
of Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. Two pams. 

Williams, Lawrence. Ancestry of Lawrence Williams (in two parts). 
Compiled by Cornelia Bartow Williams, Chicago. Privately printed, 1915. 
291 pp. Gift of Cornelia Bartow Williams, 1362 Astor St., Chicago, 111. 



NECROLOGY 



81 v 



FRANCIS MARION WOOLARD 

Born January 29, 1835. Died February 29, 1916. 

Francis M. Woolard was born Jan. 29, 1835, near the village 
of Mulberry Grove in Bond County, 111. He attended the 
Academy in Greenville ; McKendree College, in Lebanon, and 
later taught school for three years. He was deputy clerk in 
Vandalia; was six years a circuit preacher and four years 
superintendent of schools in Wayne county. 

Mr. "Woolard was married November 9, 1859, to Miss Mar- 
garet Crews, daughter of William J. Crews of Palestine, 111., 
and to them were born three children, Charles W., Sept. 22, 
1863, who was accidently killed in Springfield, 111., Sept. 18, 
1880. William F., born in Lawrence County, March 5, 1865, 
and Mary A., born in Fairfield, March 30, 1871, now the wife of 
Charles E. Wilson, of Wauwatosa, Wis., with whom Mr. 
Woolard had for many years made his home, and where he. 
died February 29, 1916. His only surviving son, W. F. 
Woolard, is chief clerk in the United States patent office at 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Woolard was much interested in State history and in 
the work of the State Historical Society. In 1908 he presented 
an exhaustive address at the annual meeting of the Society 
on the route taken by George Rogers Clark and his little army 
across the State of Illinois from Kaskaskia to Vincennes. 
This much disputed and interesting historical point was stud- 
ied carefully by Mr. Woolard and he acquired much informa- 
tion which, except in his address published in the Transactions 
of the Historical Society, is not available to students. 

Mr. Woolard was a great friend and admirer of the late Gen. 
John M. Palmer, although they did not always agree on ques- 
tions of policies or politics. He wrote many most interesting 
letters to the Secretary of the Historical Society in some of 
which he related anecdotes of his association with General 
Palmer and other prominent men of his day. 

The remains of Mr. Woolard were taken to his old home 
at Fairfield, 111., where he was buried beside his wife. 



82 



DK. WILLIAM JAYNE. 

Dr. William Jayne, one of" ike last of the men of Lincoln's 
day, one time governor of the territory of Dakota and for half 
a century prominent in the life of Springfield and the affairs 
of the State of Illinois, died March 20, 1916, at his home, 507 
Enos Avenue, Springfield, at the advanced age of 89 years. 

Eobust, healthy and active all his life, Dr. Jayne had the 
misfortune to suffer more bodily pain during the last few 
months of his life ih^n he probably did at any time before. 
Last January he slipped on an icy sidewalk and broke a hip. 
A nervous breakdown followed, and injury a?id illness de- 
pressed his last days. 

Dr. Jayne was one of that cycle of men, for the most part 
political leaders, who were brought to the fore of public life 
by the stirring events and issues of Lincoln's day. He was of 
the coterie of which the kite United States Senator Cullom 
was a good representative. 

Many men who had a sidewalk speaking acquaintance with 
Abraham Lincoln, latterly have emphasized their " intimate 
acquaintanceship" with the martyred president, Dr. Jayne 
was not one of these. He was truly an intimate of Lincoln, 
but he never used this fact, which he held an honored privilege, 
to bring him favor at any time or place. He stood on his 
own merits alone. 

Starting life as a professional man, he later served his 
country in those early days when the infant middle west 
needed men of his high ability and impartial judgment. 

He was well known nationally to the last generation. To 
Springfield he has always been an intimate acquaintance. 
Born here and educated in the public schools, he resided here 
all his life, and somehow his life was woven into the very fabric 
of the city. 

For forty years, and up until his death, he was a director 
in the First National Bank and in this business activity he left 
many pleasant impressions and gathered life-long friends. He 
did not retire from active business until recently. 



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V. 
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83 

As an intimate acquaintance expresses it, "Anything you 
can say of Dr. Jayne will be good, and you can't say too much 
for him." The story of his life is a sermon rather than a biog- 
raphy. 

He fulfilled the ideals of service and completeness of life. 
Governor of the Dakota Territory, delegate to Congress from 
that Territory, pension agent for Illinois, State senator,-mayor 
of Springfield four terms, member of the commission to com- 
plete the present State Capitol Building, member of the Board 
of Education, president of the Library Board, acting president 
of the State Board of Charities, he served long and well 
through them all. 

He is survived by one son, "William S. Jayne, and six grand- 
children, Perry Jayne, Mrs. George A. Fish, Louis P. Jayne, 
Margaret Jayne, Elizabeth Kuechler, all of Springfield, and 
William Jayne Kuechler, of Chicago, and two great grandchil- 
dren, W 7 illiam Louis Jayne and Margaret Ellen Jayne. 

Doctor Jayne was on numerous occasions called upon to fill 
positions of high honor and trust. Perhaps no man in Spring- 
field had so extensive a knowledge of past conditions, political 
or financial. His mind was a veritable mine of information. 

William Jayne was born October 8, 1826, in Springfield, a 
son of Dr. Gershom and Sibyl Slater Jayne. This branch of 
the Jayne family may be traced back to William Jayne, who 
was born in Bristol, England, January 25, 1618, served in the 
army of Oliver Cromwell, and after the restoration of Charles 
II to the throne, came to America. He died March 24, 1714, 
and was buried at Setauket, Long Island. His son, William, 
the second in descent, was born March 23, 1684, and was the 
father of Isaac Jayne, born November 22, 1715. Jonathan 
Jayne of the fourth generation was born March 4, 1758, and 
his son, Gershom, born in Orange County, New York, October 
15, 1791, was the father of Dr. William Jayne. 

Dr. Gershom Jayne was educated in New York, where he 
practiced medicine until 1820. In this year he came to Illinois, 
his route being down the Ohio Eiver from Pittsburgh, by flat- 
boat. He spent six months in southern Illinois, before per- 
manently locating in Springfield, then a place of but a few 



84 

cabins, known as Calhoun. He began to practice medicine 
here when there was not a physician north of him in the State. 
Traveling on horseback in the frontier district, he success- 
fully practiced his profession for forty-seven years. He lived 
to the age of seventy-five and one-half years, and his wife to 
the age of seventy years. Her maiden name was Sibly Slater 
and she was the daughter of Elizabeth and Elijah Slater. Her 
grandfather lived to be ninety years of age. Doctor Jayne 's 
sister, Julia Maria, acted as bridesmaid to Mrs. Abraham 
Lincoln, and later became the bride of Lyman Trumbull, Cap- 
tain Henry, a brother, served five years in the Union Army 
during the Civil War. Mary Ellen, a sister, died unmarried. 

In 1860 Doctor Jayne was elected State senator for the dis- 
trict comprising Sangamon and Morgan counties for four 
years, but resigned in 1861 to accept an appointment from 
President Abraham Lincoln, to the position of first territorial 
governor of Dakota. At one time he was a delegate to Con- 
gress from that Territory. He served as governor two years 
but later returned to Springfield. 

In 1869 he was appointed by President Grant to the posi- 
tion of pension agent for Illinois and served four years. Later 
he was appointed by Governor Oglesby as one of the commis- 
sion to complete the new State Capitol and in this was asso- 
ciated with George Kirk and John McCreery, the latter now 
deceased. 

In this work Dr. Jayne was much interested. He had charge 
of the finishing of the beautiful State Library Room, and per- 
sonally selected the names of the American authors whose 
heads are shown in relief on the splendid bronze fronts of the 
book stacks in the Library. 

Beside his duties connected with State and national offices 
Dr. Jayne was active in municipal affairs. He served as 
mayor of Springfield in 1S59 and was again elected in 1876, 
1877 and 1882. He has been a member of the Board of Educa- 
tion, President of the Library Board and President of the 
State Board of Charities. For many years he was vice-presi- 
dent of the First National Bank and was one of its directors 
since 1875. 



85 

Dr. Jayne could always gather a crowd. of the younger gene- 
ration about him when he began telling of the life of Spring- 
field when this city was but a straggling little village. He 
often told of the time when the business of the city was carried 
on in Jefferson street, and there was not a business building 
fronting the square. The old whipping post was used in the 
days when he was young and he often saw a man given lashes 
for misconduct. 

To his many friends Dr. Jayne often told of the inaugura- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln. Together with a party of Spring- 
field men, including the late Judge James H. Matheny, Dr. 
Jayne went to Washington at the time of the inauguration and 
remained there several weeks. He attended the inaugural ball 
of Lincoln on the evening of March 4, 1861. 

Telling of the inauguration in later years, he said : 

"Stephen A. Douglas sat at Lincoln's left and Col. E. D. 
Baker, who was later killed in battle at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, 
at his right. When Lincoln looked around for a place to put. 
his hat, Douglas took it and held it while the President spoke. 
James Buchanan arrived in the carriage with Lincoln. Chief 
Justice Taney introduced Lincoln and administered the oath 
of office. 

Dr. Jayne was united in marriage in October, 1850, at Jack- 
sonville to Julia Wetherbee, who was born in Vermont in 1830 
and died in March, 1877. She was a daughter of Seth and 
Elizabeth Wetherbee, natives of the Green Mountain State, 
who came to Illinois and Morgan County in 1834. Several 
children were born to Dr. and Mrs. Jayne. Only two, however, 
lived to maturity. William S., born in October, 1851, who was 
united in marriage in 1875 to Margaret E. Palmer, daughter of 
Governor John M. Palmer, but who died in May, 1903, leaving 
four children — Perry, Louis, Susan and Margaret. Lizzie S., 
a daughter, was born in July, 1855. She was married in Octo- 
ber, 1878, to C. F. Kuechler and she died in 1902. She left 
two children, Bessie and William Jayne Kuechler. 

Dr. Jayne was a recognized authority on matters of a politi- 
cal nature and many reminiscences of political history can be 



86 

found in several articles that he wrote under the title "Politi- 
cal Representation." 

Dr. Jayne attended such schools as were available in Spring- 
field in his childhood and youth and was prepared for college 
under a private tutor and entered Illinois College at Jackson- 
ville in 1843, and was graduated in 1847 with the degree of B.A. 
and afterwards he received the degree of M.A. He was one 
of the founders of the Phi Alpha Society and its first president. 
The Society was founded September 25, 1845, by seven young 
men of the college. These founders of the society in after 
years delighted to return to the college at reunions, and they 
were most cordially received and highly honored. Dr. Jayne 
was the last of these seven men who founded the society. At 
his funeral representatives of the college and society were 
present and a beautiful wreath which was their gift bore the 
name "Phi Alpha." 

Three of Springfield's oldest and most respected citizens, 
men whose acquaintance with Dr. William Jayne extended 
over periods ranging from more than three score to over 
four score years, paid tributes to his memory. Of the three, 
the one who had known Dr. Jayne longest is Dr. George 
Pasfield. Both Dr. Jayne and Dr. Pasfield were born in 
Springfield, the latter being now in his eighty-fifth year. 

The others are William Ridgely, president of the Ridgely 
National bank, now 76 years of age, and John W. Bunn, pres- 
ident of the Marine bank, whose acquaintance with Dr. Jayne 
began in the early fifties. 

"William Jayne and I went to school together as boys," 
Dr. Pasfield said. "The friendship formed between us in 
those early days has continued unbroken down to his death. I 
regret to see him pass away, as he was one of the few old 
friends in Springfield that are left me. 

"He was a good man and always did his duty, standing by 
his friends at all times. Never in his long life was he addicted 
to a bad habit, and his life story may be told in the statement 
that he was true to his friends and to his word. Once a prom- 
ise was given it was kept. 

"In the business and political life of Springfield he was 



particularly active. A life long Kepublican, he was fond of 
politics and public speaking and always went to assemblages, 
making it a point to hear the great men of the country deliver 
their public opinions. To the extent of his means he always 
contributed to enterprises of advantage to the city. 

"In his activities in politics, through his service to the city 
as mayor, as a state senator, territorial governor of the Dako- 
tas and a territorial delegate in congress for one term, his 
one desire was to have his deserving friends taken care of. 
With many of the leading men of the nation, he was personally 
and intimately acquainted. Largely connected with promi- 
nent families of the east, politically and financially, he never 
took advantage of his kin to gain prestige." 

John W. Bunn said : "His public and private life was clean 
and he was a man who always did his part toward the upbuild- 
ing of the city. My acquaintance with Dr. Jayne began in the 
early fifties, and our relations since that time have been close 
and pleasant. An intimate friend of Lincoln, early in Mr. 
Lincoln's first administration he was honored with appoint- 
ment as territorial governor of the Dakotas. 

"He was a fairly successful business man, but failed to 
grasp many of the opportunities offered him in early life 
through his intimacy with men of affairs in public and private 
life." 

"I have known Dr. Jayne all my life," said Wm. Eidgely. 
"He was a lovable character, and he became more likeable as 
he grew older. While I never knew him intimately, I saw and 
knew much of his home and public life. In all his dealings 
with men he was fair and kept his word whenever it was 
given. ' ' 



Funeral of Dr. William Jayne. 

Men and women notable in the civic and social life of 
Springfield, young people and the intimate friends and neigh- 
bors of the late Doctor Jayne, gathered at the residence, 507 
Enos Avenue, to attend the last rites held for the veteran 
townsman and close friend of Abrah«£i Lincoln. 



88 

The large old residence was crowded to the doors and the 
funeral service was one of unusual solemnity and beauty. 
The casket, a bower of flowers, stood in the east parlor. This 
room was transformed into a veritable garden of blossoms 
by the magnificent floral offerings. Wreaths of roses were 
in abundance. 

Dr. George T. Gunter, pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, conducted the funeral. He opened the services with 
the beautiful words from the tenth verse of the forty-sixth 
psalm: "Be still and know that I am God." Dr. Gunter 
also read a number of verses about the aged. Among 
them was, "Then Abraham gave up the ghost and died in 
good old age, an old man and full of years ; and was gathered 
to his people." He also read excerpts from the ninetieth 
psalm: "Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all gen- 
erations.* * * For a thousand years in thy sight are but as 
yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night. • The 
days of our years are three-score years and ten; and if by 
reason of strength they be four-score years, yet is their 
strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly 
away. * * * So teach us to number our days, that we 
may apply our hearts unto wisdom." 

"Lead Kindly Light" was sung softly by Mrs. Frank V. 
Partridge, without accompaniment. Throughout the reading 
of the scriptures and the singing, the canary birds in Doctor 
Jayne 's house sung joyously. Doctor Gunter in offering the 
prayer, referred to the beautiful message from the birds and 
flowers in the midst of the house of death. 



Judge J. Otis Humphrey's Tribute. 

Following the scripture reading Hon. J. Otis Humphrey, 
for years a personal friend of Doctor Jayne, gave a short ad- 
dress. Judge Humphrey spoke of the strength and beauty of 
the rugged character of Doctor Jayne. 

"There are few in Springfield," he said, "who were born 
as long ago as Doctor Jayne. We come not to mourn for Doc- 



89 

tor Jayne, for his death is as the plucking of the fruit fully 
ripe. 

No one could be as interesting in reminiscences of the early 
days of Springfield as Doctor Jayne. He saw the Sangamon 
county farmer drive his cattle to the New York markets at a 
vast expense and after weeks of time. Doctor Jayne often 
told a story of going to New Salem with his father one day. 
"While they were there they saw a boy rudely dressed sitting 
on top of a barrel reading a book. The elder Doctor Jayne re- 
marked to his son that some day that boy would be governor. 
The boy was Abraham Lincoln, and Doctor Jayne and he were 
friends as long as Lincoln lived. 

The speaker referred to Doctor Jayne 's part in that stirring 
decade of history from 1850 to 1860 and of the appointment 
of Doctor Jayne as governor of the Dakota territory, now 
comprising four states. 

With the exception of Bond and Coles, he said, Doctor Jayne 
was personally acquainted with every governor the State of 
Illinois ever had. No political organization ever tried to do 
anything worth while and left Doctor Jayne out. 

Early in life he followed the policy that the pure idealist 
never gets anywhere. He followed Lincoln's teaching that 
the efficient man is one who has an ideal, but who will com- 
promise for the best interests of his country." 

Judge Humphrey referred to the gentle manner and kind 
heart of Doctor Jayne ; that splendid quality of character that 
made him always visit the sick and cheer them up regardless 
of whether they were his patients or not. 

'He believed in garlanding the brow as well as the tomb," 
said Judge Humphrey. 

The speaker said that Doctor Jayne believed in the old 
doctrines that had stood the test of time. 

"He always staid young" said Judge Humphrey, "by being 
every man's friend." 

"He professed no religious dogma. He lived in the spirit. 
He visited the fatherless and kept himself unspotted from 
the world. ' ' 



90 

The pall bearers at the funeral were: Frank Whipp, 
George Pasfield, jr., George Keys, George Hippard, James A. 
Easley and Allan Enos. 

The remains were interred in beautiful Evergreen Hill in 
Oak Eidge cemetery, which is located almost in the center of 
the stretch of woodland. Doctor Jayne was buried beside 
his wife. 

A number of persons representing the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville were present at the funeral. Doctor Jayne at- 
tended this college. 

Out of respect to Doctor Jayne the flag on the State House 
was at half mast all day. Doctor Jayne was a member of the 
building committee when the Capitol was completed, having 
been appointed to that position by Governor Eichard J. 
Oglesby. 

The Lincoln Library was closed from 12 to 6 o'clock in 
memory of the aged physician, who was president of the board 
of trustees of the library for many years. 

Tribute to the life and memory of Doctor Jayne was paid 
by the city council in resolutions adopted by them. 



THE COUNTEY DOCTOR 

BEAD AT THE FUNERAL OF DR. WILLIAM JAYNE. 



There's a gathering in the village, that has never heen outdone 
Since the soldiers took their muskets to the war of 'sixty-one; 
And a lot of lumber wagons near the church upon the hill, 
And a crowd of country people, Sunday dressed and very still. 

Now each window is pre-empted by a dozen heads or more, 
Now the spacious pews are crowded from the pulpit to the door; 
For with coverlet of blackness on his portly figure spread, 
Lies the grim old country doctor in a massive oaken bed. 

Lies the fierce old country doctor, 

Lies the kind old country doctor, 
Whom the populace considered with a mingled love and dread. 

Maybe half the congregation, now of great or little worth, 

Found this watcher waiting for them, when they came upon the earth, 

This undecorated soldier of a hard, unequal strife, 

Fought in many stubborn battles with the foes that sought their life. 



91 



In the night-time or in the day-time he -would rally brave and well, 
Though the summer lark was fifing, or the frozen lances fell; 
Knowing if he won the battle, they would praise their Maker's name, 
Knowing If he lost the battle, then the doctor was to blame. 

'Twas the brave old virtuous doctor, 

'Twas the good old faulty doctor, 

'Twas the faithful country doctor — 

Fighting stoutly all the same. 

When so many pined in sickness, he had stood so strongly by, 

Half the people felt a notion that the doctor couldn't die; 

They must slowly learn the lesson how to live from day to day, 

And have somewhat lost their bearings — now this landmark is away. 

But perhaps it still is better that his busy life is done; 
He has seen old views and patients disappearing, one by one; 
He has learned that Death is master both of Science and of Art, 
He has done his duty fairly and has acted out his part. 

And the strong old country doctor, 

And the weak old country doctor, 
Is entitled to a furlough for his brain and for his heart. 

—BY WILL CARLTON. 



DR. WILLIAM JAYNE. 
{Editorial in Illinois State Register, by H. W. Clendenin.) 

Springfield will feel keenly and most perceptibly the loss of 
Dr. William Jayne, close friend of Abraham Lincoln, physi- 
cian, educator, politician and pioneer of Sangamon county. 
No man in Springfield enjoyed greater respect and reverence 
than Dr. Jayne. 

Born in this city on October 8, 1826, he spent his entire life, 
with the exception of a few years, 1861-1869, when he served 
as territorial governor of Dakota and member of congress 
from that territory, as a resident of Sangamon county. Dr. 
Jayne lived to an age very few men reach. He was a man of 
great activity, wonderful resourcefulness and positive ideas. 

He watched Springfield grow from a village of the prairies 
to an up-to-date progressive metropolis. During his entire 
life he was always on the firing line in municipal, state and 
national affairs. Few men of today possess a more valuable 
fund of knowledge of the past conditions, political and finan- 
cial, of this country than did Dr. William Jayne. 



92 

Dr. Jayne was a close friend and adviser of Abraham 
Lincoln. Pie loved to talk of the early life of the Great Eman- 
cipator and it was always a great pleasure to listen to his 
wonderful tales of the pre-bellum days; when Lincoln was 
such a familiar figure in the activities of this city and state. 

Dr. Jayne came from a sturdy stock. He lived many years 
past the allotted three score and ten, and up until the last few 
months of his life he actively attended to his daily affairs. At 
the time of his death he was vice president of the First 
National bank and president of the Library board. 

The close friends of Dr. William Jayne loved him dearly. 
His admirable character, his unselfish devotion to ideals, his 
magnetic personality, his understanding of the big and little 
things of life, his marked morality, all combined to make him 
as he lived and died, a true, noble friend. 

Men come and go. Most of the men who experienced the 
early hardships of frontier life in this section of Illinois have 
passed to the great beyond, but few have left a more marked 
impress upon the community in which they lived than has Dr. 
Jayne. In knowing him there has always been an inspiration ; 
his memory will ever be an honored one. 



OLD JACKSONVILLE. 

DE. WILLIAM JAYNE. 

(By Ensley Moore, Member Illinois State Historical Society.) 

It may seem strange to tell of Dr. Jayne under this heading. 

But he had so much to do with Jacksonville, and Jackson- 
ville did so much for him, in giving him his collegiate educa- 
tion and his wife, that Springfield alone cannot claim him. 

The general statements of his history have told of Governor 
Jayne 's birth in Springfield, in 1826; of his being four times 
mayor of his native place ; of his being state senator from the 
district including Morgan as well as Sangamon ; of Grant ap- 
pointing him pension agent ; of Governor Oglesby making him 
a commissioner to complete the state capitol ; of his fellow citi- 



93 

zens making him their representative in local offices; of his 
dying as President of the Public Library, that the younger 
Governor Yates had made him President of the State Board 
of Commissioners of Public Charities, and the great Lincoln 
had made him governor of the Dakotas. 

But this was only a part of the means whereby this "Grand 
Old Man" had honored himself and his family and his day. 

We, here in Jacksonville knew how, after being graduated 
from Illinois College, in the class of 1847, he had married 
Julia Wetherbee of the class of 1847, at Jacksonville Female 
Academy, and they two had dwelt happily together for over 
a quarter of a century. 

Nor can even a "Sig" forget that "William Jayne had been 
a founder and first President of Phi Alpha Society of Illinois 
College. 

It is very doubtful if there was a man in all the United 
States who had known, and been associated with, and been so 
prominent himself, among the greatest men of the land as 
William Jayne. And yet, while proud of his distinction, he 
was as modest in manner as a girl. 

One could not run over the list of his acquaintances with- 
out naming the majority of the greatest Americans in public 
life for the last sixt} r years. 

But a point largely overlooked in the general notices was 
Governor Jayne 's family relationships; distinguished enough 
to make him feel so by association. As has been said, he came 
down from an English family which entered America in the 
seventeenth century, and his father was one of the earliest set- 
tlers in Illinois. But Dr. Jayne was a brother-in-law of Judge 
Lyman Trumbull, twenty-four years United States Senator 
from Illinois — Trumbull having married Jayne 's sister. By 
his own marriage to Miss Wetherbee, Dr. Jayne became an 
uncle to the wife of the present Richard Yates — whose mother 
was a Wetherbee. It was in the old Wetherbee house — since 
owned by the Rev. Dr. Glover, and now owned by Mrs. James 
C. Fairbank — that Jayne was married to Julia Wetherbee, 
in October, 1850. But his relationship to prominent people 
did not end there, for the son of Dr. and Mrs. Jayne married 



94 

the daughter cf General and U. S. Senator John M. Palmer, 
and through that line Jayne 's name cones down. 

Of course Governor Jayne was an intimate acquaintance of 
the great war governor Yates, and of all the Republican chief 
executives down to the benign reign of the present governor, 
Judge Dunne. 

His life in the West was one remarkable among his other 
experiences. He told me that, as Governor of Dakotah, he 
ruled over forty thousand Indians, and three thousand whites. 
His domain included an area of four hundred thousand square 
miles. And then he was a Delegate in Congress from that al- 
most boundless bailivick. 

I first met Governor Jayne many years ago, when he prob- 
ably thought I was too young to notice. In 1901, Governor 
Yates appointed us members of the State Board of Charities, 
and for four years we were intimately thrown together, and 
often travelled together over the prairies of our native state. 

In an article last summer, entitled " A Pioneer Girl," I said: 
"Many, many yeirs after riding up from the region where 
Kaskaskia had looked across the river to the little girl's birth- 
place, the old man whom they called Governor, threw back 
his head in characteristic pose, closed his eyes, and brought 
out to his younger fellow traveller the story of the little girl 
whom the Governor had known as a beautiful young woman. 

It was Jayne whom we c-illed Governor, the beautiful girl 
was Eunice Conn, and the writer was the fellow traveller of 
the great old man. 

Dr. Jayne could tell many a story of the great men or win- 
some women he had known, and no doubt Dr. Glenn of Ash- 
land and Mr. A. S. Wright of Woodstock and the Rev. Edward 
A. Kelly of Chicago, felt as honored as did the Secretary of the 
Board, Col. J. Mack Tanner, and I in our association with 
"the man who had known Lincoln." 

Dr. Jayne was a rarely genial man, and he knew men and 
things as the men "who have been over the road" of life come 
to be wise. 

His mind was clear and his foot quick ; nor was his eye dim, 
for he never had recourse to spectacles. 

As President of the Board of Charities Dr. Jayne was one 
of the able, educated, experienced, qualified men fitted for 
such a place, and Illinois was fortunate j.n having the loyal 
service of her loving son. 



95 



CHARLES E. HAY. 
Born Salem, Indiana, March 23, 1841. Deed St. Louis, Mo., 

January 15, 1916. 



Hon. Charles E. Hay, aged 75 years, a director of the 
Ridgely National Bank of Springfield, Illinois, and four times 
mayor of the city, died in St. Louis, January 15, 1916, from 
the effects of an operation. 

Mr. Hay was a brother of Hon. John Hay, Secretary of 
State of the United States, and a grandson of the late John 
Hay, of Springfield, and was the last surviving member of 
his immediate family. 

Captain Hay was born in Salem, Indiana, March 23, 1841, 
and was a son of Doctor Charles and Helen Hay. While 
still a child he removed with his parents to Warsaw, 111., 
where he spent his boyhood. He was educated in the War- 
saw schools and later attended a university in Kentucky. 
While still a youth he made frequent trips to Springfield to 
visit his grandfather, John Hay. 

When the Civil War broke out, he enlisted in the Third 
Illinois Cavalry and distinguished himself so that he was 
soon promoted to lieutenant and 'then to captain. 

His marriage to Miss Mary Ridgely in Springfield, May 
10, 1865, is still remembered by the older residents of that 
zity as one of the war time romances. The news of Lincoln 's 
assassination was flashed to this city near the date of their 
wedding and they gladly gave up all festivities to join in the 
Nation's mourning. Captain Hay acted as aide at the Lin- 
coln funeral. He was then in the recruiting service under 
General Oakes, but resigned near the close of the war. 

After the war Captain Hay engaged in the wholesale 
grocery business under the firm name of Smith & Hay. He 
was four times mayor of Springfield in the years 1873, 1875, 
1887 and 1889, and was President of the School Board for a 



96 

number of years. At the time of his death he was a director 
of the Ridgely National Bank. 

Captain Hay was always active in the civic and religious 
life of Springfield, as well as in its business progress, and 
distinguished himself in every activity he undertook. He 
was a Knight Templar, a member of the military order of 
the Loyal Legion of the United States, and a member of the 
Illinois State Historical Society. He was senior warden of 
St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

In May, 1915, Captain and Mrs. Hay celebrated their 
golden wedding. To their union were born five children, 
three of whom are dead. John, the oldest son, died in 
infancy; Mrs. Anna Hay Lloyd, a daughter, died some years 
ago, and a son, Captain Charles E. Hay, died a short time 
ago. 

Captain Hay is survived by his wife, Mary Ridgely Hay, 
of Springfield ; two sons, Arthur, of Lemon Grove, CaL, and 
William Hay, of New Orleans ; and six grandchildren, Arthur, 
Polly, Helen and Ann Lloyd, of Springfield, John Hay, of 
Decatur, and Jean Hay, of Lemon Grove, Cal. 

The funeral services were held January 21, 1916, at 10:30 
o'clock at St. Paul's Pro Cathedral, the Rev.. Edward 
Haughton, officiating. 

The active pall bearers were Thomas Page, W. S. Troxell, 
Edward Cahill, John Cantrall, Dr. George F. Stericker and 
Dr. E. E. Hagler. 

The honorary pall bearers were Clinton L. Conkling, 
Judge J. A. Creighton, Charles Richardson, Harry Ide, J. H. 
Holbrook, D. W: Smith, R, N. Dodds, Adolph Deicken, C. C. 
Carroll, George Helmle, Sr., and J. H. Collins. 



97 



ALBA HONEYWELL. 



Born Cayuga County, N. Y., December 15, 1821; Died 
Hoopeston, III., February 4, 1916. 



Alba Honeywell, pioneer resident of Hoopeston, and one 
of the oldest men in Vermilion County, died at 5 o'clock 
Friday evening, February 4, 1916, at bis residence on Honey- 
well Avenue, death being due to a stroke of apoplexy which 
he sustained Wednesday morning. 

Funeral services were held at his late home at 2:30 o'clock 
Monday afternoon, February 7. Eev. 0. E. Crooker, pastor 
of the Universalist Church, conducted the services, and 
interment was made in the family lot by the side of his wife 
in Floral Hill Cemetery. 

The pallbearers, all old and intimate friends of the family, 
were J. S. McFerren, Dale Wallace, Charles E. Kussell, Alba 
M. Jones, of Milford, John Petry, John C. Mclntyre, John B. 
Wallbridge and Charles W. Warner. 

Among the relatives present from out of town were Rev. 
and Mrs. T. Allen Beall, of Lake Bluff, Mrs. Frank Fenno, 
of Chicago, and Gilbert Honeywell and family, of Stockland. 
Homer Beall, a grandson, started from Arkansas, but was 
delayed by washouts and did not arrive until after the 
interment. 

Others present from out of town were Mr. and Mrs. 0. P. 
Harmon, Mr. and Mrs. L. E. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman 
Johnson, Hon. A. M. Jones and Miss Pearl Jones, of Milford, 
Mrs. B. F. Shankland and Mrs. R. M. Hilscher, of Watseka, 
and Dr. Fred Earel, of Chicago. 

Alba Honeywell was a native of the Empire State, New 
York, being born on December 15, 1821, in Cayuga County, 
and was therefore 94 years, 1 month and 15 days old at the 
time of his death. His father was Enoch Honeywell, who in 
his day was a man of literary attainments and who was 
also a strong opponent to slavery. When the subject 



98 

of this sketch was 12 years old his parents moved to Steuben 
County, New York, a section which is now incorporated in 
the boundaries of Schuyler County, that state., Mr. Honey- 
well's preliminary education, acquired in the common schools, 
was supplemented by academic study, and he completed his 
education in the Oneida Institute near Utica, where he had 
the benefit of instruction from the noted reformer and 
theologian, Rev. Beriah Green, who was then president of the 
school, and later he spent several years in lecturing on tem- 
perance and anti-slavery, while his periodicals concerning 
religion were widely read at that time. Mr. Honeywell began 
teaching, being employed in the common schools and 
academies. He had become imbued with the hatred of 
slavery because of the belief and teachings of his father, and 
also of his honored instructor, and he was among the first 
to actively engage in the abolition movement. He served 
as a delegate to the Buffalo convention which nominated 
James G. Birney as presidential candidate of the Liberal 
or Abolition party. He subsequently read law in the office 
of Gilbert & Osborne, prominent attorneys of Rochester, N. 
Y. During those years he made the acquaintance of many 
eminent men, including Gerritt Smith, William Goodell, 
Alvan Stewart and others interested in the anti-slavery 
movement. 

Upon leaving Rochester Mr. Honeywell removed to New 
York City and became editor of the New York Eagle. Subse- 
quently he was an active factor in the American Anti-Slavery 
Society, of New York City, and was for four years the sub- 
editor of the Anti-Slavery Standard, but ill health at length 
compelled him to put aside his work in this connection. He 
had during this time become acquainted with Wendell 
Phillips, Fred Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, James 
Russell Lowell, Sidney Howard Gray and many other men of 
that time who for the sake of their principles suffered to a 
large extent ostracism from society. 

The spring of 1853 witnessed the arrival of Mr. Honeywell 
in Iroquois County, Illinois. The broad West, with its 
opportunities, had attracted him, and on the 14th of xVpril 






99 

he stepped from the packet boat at Lafayette. Mr. Honey- 
well located in Iroquois County, purchasing 1,000 acres of 
land in what is now Stockland Township. There he resided 
for three years, during which time he made improvements 
upon his farm and purchased also an additional tract of 400 
acres. While extending his agricultural interests he also 
engaged in teaching and he utilized every available oppor- 
tunity during this period to promulgate the anti-slavery 
sentiments which were already gaining many adherents in 
Illinois — the state which was to give to the Nation the great 
emancipator. In the spring of 1856, accompanied by his 
family, Mr. Honeywell started for the Territory of Minne- 
sota. He arrived in Chicago during Tremont's campaign 
and became associated with the Chicago News, which was 
edited and controlled by the Republican element. The party 
was that year organized and named, and it was one of the 
journals which brought it into prominence before the country. 
Mr. Honeywell spent that winter in Chicago, and in the 
spring of 1857 he moved to Logansport, Ind., where he turned 
his attention to other business affairs, becoming a manufac- 
turer and dealer in lumber. He also taught school for several 
years in that place and in Lafayette. In the meantime he 
watched with interest the growth of the abolition sentiment 
and rejoiced in the victories which came to the Union arms 
after the Civil War was inaugurated. During the progress 
of the war he was offered the appointment of adjutant in the 
army, but circumstances prevented him from accepting it, 
and in 1863 he returned to his farm in Iroquois County. 
While proceeding with the improvement of his land he also 
became prominent in public affairs. He served as township 
supervisor continuously until 1869, when he was elected 
county clerk for four years, acting in that capacity until 1S73. 
In 1871 he purchased land on the present site of Hoopeston 
and at the close of his term of office he removed with his 
'family to this city, having assisted in laying out the town. 
He was also instrumental in securing the extension of the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad into this city, and it was 
through his aid that the town grew and became prosperous. 



100 

During his official service as mayor of Hoopeston in 1879 and 
1880, he labored untiringly for the city's substantial upbuild- 
ing and improvement along lines that would contribute not 
only to the present good but to its future development. He 
had been deeply interested in every movement or measure for 
the general welfare and in the introduction of all business 
interests which have contributed to the substantial upbuilding 
of Hoopeston. He assisted in the organization of the sugar 
corn and canning factories located here, and was connected 
with them until they became self-supporting business insti- 
tutions. 

For many years Mr. Honeywell continued his agricultural 
efforts, owning nearly one thousand acres of land adjoining 
the city of Hoopeston. He reclaimed this for purposes of 
cultivation, his labors proving of direct benefit to the com- 
munity, because his efforts caused a material rise in land 
values. He was one of the founders of the First National 
Bank of TVatseka, and was connected with that institution 
as a stockholder and director for more than thirty years. He 
also invested extensively in land in other states, having 
several hundred acres, together with a fine, big orange grove, 
in Florida. He was owner of 3,000 acres of land, much of it 
rich and valuable, in Iroquois, Vermilion, Cook, Lake and 
Scott Counties, Illinois, and in Lake and Marion Counties, 
Florida. He had an interest in a canning factory at 
Ludington, Mich., and a fruit farm there, representing an in- 
vestment of many thousands of dollars. He owned the hotel 
at Higiana Springs, Indiana, and a summer home at Lake 
Bluff, north of Chicago, in addition to his attractive residence 
in Hoopeston and much other city property. He also had in- 
vestments in Cuba. 

On the 3d of April, 1851, in Schuyler County, New York, 
Mr. Honeywell was united in marriage to Miss Cornelia 
Andrews, daughter of Dr. Andon Andrews. She was born 
at Sodus Bay, on Lake Ontario, in 1829, and lived there and 
in Yates County, New York, until her marriage. She died 
in Hoopeston April 10, 1904. Four children blessed this 
union — Estella, widow of John C. Cromer, by whom she 



101 

has one son, Alba, named in honor of his grandfather, 
with whom Mrs. Cromer resides ; Florence Andrews Trego ; 
Lillie Amelia, who is the wife of Dr, Thomas Allen Beall, of 
Lake Bluff, 111., and Sarah Eliza, wife of Dr. A. M. Earel, of 
Hoopeston. 

From the organization of the Republican party until 1884, 
Mr. Honeywell continued one of its staunch advocates. He 
later became identified with the Prohibition party, having 
always been a warm friend of the cause of temperance. He 
was a man of decided views and influence, fearless in 
expression, yet not bitterly aggressive, and he commanded 
uniform respect and confidence wherever he was known. 
Courteous, kindly and affable, those who knew him personally 
had for him a warm regard, and what he has done for the 
development of this part cf the state cannot be over-esti- 
mated. "While he had controlled extensive and important 
private business interests which continually enhanced his 
individual prosperity, yet at the same he promoted the gen- 
eral welfare and contributed to public success. He was 
at one time greatly interested in the Pitman system of 
phonetic printing and shorthand. He was editorially 
associated with Andrew and Boyle in 1848 in the 
Anglo-Saxon, a newspaper in New York city, advocating 
the phonetic reform, and printed wholly in the new 
type advocated. He was the author of several w T orks, 
the largest of which is an exhaustive treatise on lan- 
guage, embracing all its departments from elementary 
phonetics to rhetoric and logic — in all, seven books. Mr. 
Honeywell also w r rote and staged several plays in his earlier 
years, in wdiich plays he had appeared in character. There 
were few men who occupied as exalted a position in the re- 
gard of their fellow townsmen and citizens as did Alba 
Honeywell, not because of his splendid success, though that 
would entitle him to consideration, for it has been achieved 
honorably, and it has also been of financial benefit to the com- 
munity, but because of his sterling qualities of manhood. 



102 

Alba Honeywell — His Creed. 
"We come to this world naked and bare; 
Our journey through life is trouble and care; 
Our egress from life we know not where, 
But, doing well here, we will do Avell there." 

The above quatrain, formulated and frequently quoted by 
Alba Honeywell, succinctly represents his idea of life and the 
future. He lived up to it consistently. He tried at all times 
to "do well here" in the confident belief that he would "do 
well there." 

He was a poet and a philosopher. Often, especially in his 
younger days, he expressed his sentiments in rhyme, and 
some of his productions rank well with more noted writers. 
He was a man of high ideals, a deep thinker, and gave the 
deeper side of life much thought. His discussions and argu- 
ments as to "What is Eight" were decidedly interesting to 
those who were favored with his confidence, and no one could 
hear him talk without being benefited. He delved deeply 
into the unknowable. His conclusions were indisputable, and 
all were summed up in the quatrain quoted above. 

Another expression, frequently made use of by him, was 
"As a man thinketh, so is he." He cited instances of men 
whose minds run in any particular direction invariably 
carrying the individual in the direction indicated by his habit 
of thought. The man whose mind runs on science, as that of 
Thomas A. Edison, cannot avoid becoming a scientist; the 
man whose mind runs on criminal things cannot avoid becom- 
ing a criminal; the man whose mind runs upon the higher, 
nobler things of life cannot avoid becoming one of nature's 
noblemen. 

Applied to himself, we know that his thoughts ran in the 
right direction, toward the uplift of humanity and for the 
betterment of the community, and we are confident that, hav- 
ing "done well here, he will do well there." 



103 



HENRY TALBOTT. 

Henry Talbott, formerly of "Waterloo, Illinois, died in 
Washington, D. C, February 28, 1916. The deceased was 
well known to the people of Waterloo, Illinois, and vicinity, 
having been born and reared there. 

He was the son of Judge Talbott. While studying law in 
his father's office, he taught the Portland School two terras. 

He was also superintendent of the Waterloo Public School 
for two terms. 

The summer vacations were spent in travel. He had trav- 
eled extensively in the United States and in Europe. About 
1876 he entered Harvard University, but shortly afterward 
was appointed chief clerk of the Ways and Means Committee 
by Congressman Wm. R. Morrison. He remained in Wash- 
ington after that time, with his mother as constant com- 
panion and assistant. 

The following sketch is taken from the Traffic World, 
published recently: 

"Order is heaven's first law, and Henry Talbott is on a 
celestial mission in the domain of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. They call him chief of the Division of Indices. 
Unless one knows where a particular thing is to be found, 
there is no order. Talbott thinks he is an humble follower 
of that commissary-general of Cheops, who kept his card in- 
dexed so carefully that he was enabled to carve on a lintel 
of a pyramid the daily consumption of garlic and onions by 
the horde of slaves working on the structure that makes 
Cheops a word of continuing reproach to modern engineers; 
and he is a disciple of the late Adjutant General Ainsworth, 
who made up a record of every soldier in the Civil War and 
followed it with one pertaining to every man in the army. 

Henry Talbott was born at Waterloo, Illinois, in 1852, 
giving up four years at Harvard to become helper to Mor- 
rison, of Illinois, with his attempts to revise the tariff down- 
ward, and remaining in Washington ever since 1876. He 
indexed the opinions of all the Interstate Commerce Com- 



104 

missioners since there was one, on all phases of the somewhat 
complicated subject of railroad regulation, which has become 
common carrier regulation. When you have thought on that 
phase, think further on a carding of all the views that have 
been expressed by judges of state and federal courts. And 
then think of taking transparent Japanese water colors and 
smearing them over hundreds of printed pages so as to show, 
by means of different hues, when the different parts of the 
Act to regulate commerce were pieced together. A cursory 
glance at that book will show what a patch quilt that piece 
of legislation is. 

All these things has Henry Talbott done, with the help of 
a staff of eight capable young men, lawyers and students, 
who take such a pride in their work they think themselves 
disgraced if they cannot locate, in twenty seconds, any point 
about Which inquiry may be made, no matter by whom. 
Their tools are nearly 500,000 index cards. 

Every paragraph ever uttered by the Commission in an 
opinion is carried, with a subject title, the card at the same 
time showing the opinion number, the docket number, the 
Commissioner, the date, the title of the case, the volume and 
page where the decision is to be found and the page on which 
the paragraph occurs — the latter to facilitate verification. 
Other cabinets contain citations from all cases in the courts 
relating to commerce, by subjects, covering not only federal, 
but also state courts ; lists of all the commodities involved in 
the opinions of the Commission, with the localities ; a list of 
. all the complaints filed with the Commission consecutively by 
docket number, and crossed alphabetically, with disposition 
and citations noted. 

It might be inferred that card indexing is Henry Talbott 's 
hobby. Wrong. The big-mouthed bass has that honor. Of 
course he is a fisherman whose interest is confined to one 
kind of fish — the big-mouth. That means he has gone so far 
as to know that sac an lait of Louisiana, the crappie of the 
Potomac, and the calico bass, are all the same under different 
names; that the forked-tail or channel cat in the Potomac is 
not indigenous ; and has come to the conclusion that the big- 



105 



~ /06 



mouthed bass is the only fish that is worthy of the serious 
study of man. 

Such a man is this kindly, brown-eyed geologist (yes, he's 
that, too, to such an extent that there is a fossil lily named 
in his honor) unknown to the casual visitor to Washington 
but highly esteemed by students, who have been aided by his 
painstaking labors." 



107 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL LIBRAEY AND SOCIETY. 



No. 1. "A Bibliography of Newspapers published In Illinois prior to I860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. "Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 15pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph.D. 170 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph.D. 55 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. "Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Com- 
piled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 20. "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901 to 1914. (Nos. 6 to 12 and No. 18 out of print.) 

"Illinois Historical Collections, "Vol. 1, Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II, Virginia Series "Vol. 1. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord, CLVI and 663 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1907. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. Ill, Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series. Vol. 1. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. 627 pp. Svo. 
Springfield, 1908. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governor's Letter-Books 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord, XXXII and 317 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II. Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. Svo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CP7 and 610 pp. Svo. Springfield, 
1910. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Gov- 
ernors' Letter-Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 4 69 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1911. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1912. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck, 514 pp. Svo. 
Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter, LVII and 597 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1915. 

/ 



103 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XL British Series, Vol. II. The New 
Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with Introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII ana 700 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 
1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, VoL XXi. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1S15. 

•Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I No, 1, September, 

1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence "Walworth Alvord, 38 
pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, , 

1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. 34 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1906. 

•Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I., No. 1, November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer 
Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

•Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Georgia L. Osborne, Compiler. Svo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1, April, 1908, 
to Vol. 9, No. 1, April, 1916. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, n, HI. TV, 



•Out of Print. 



VOL. 9 JULY, 1916 NO. 2 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 






Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington. D. C, as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16. 1894. 



Edward F. Hartmann Company — Printers and Binders 
srRinoriELD, ill. 



JOUENAL 

OP THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. 



Jessie Palmer "Webeb, Editor. 

Associate Editors: 
J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Bussel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



Honorary President 

Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt _.... Chicago 

First Vice-President 

Hon. W. T. Norton „ _ _ Alton 

Second Vice-President 

Hon. L. Y. Sherman.„ Springfield 

Third Vice-President 

Hon. Richard Yates _ _ _ _ Springfield 

Fourth Vice-President 

Hon. George A. Lawrence..- _ __ Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James_ _ .Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham JBloomington 

E. B. Greene _ _ Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber _ _ _ _ Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp - _ Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 

J. 0. Cunningham _ _ Urbana 

George W. Smith _ Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. Meese _ _ Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page _ „ - _ DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton _ __ _._ _ Polo 

Andrew Russel _ _ _ _. Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer _ Albion 

James A. James _ Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin _ Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber... _ _„ Springfield 

Honorary Vice-Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies throughout the 

State of Illinois. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I. Orlando "W. Aldrich. Slavery or Involuntary 
Servitude in Illinois Prior to and After Its 
Admission as a State „ _ 117 

II. Rev. Ira W. Allen, AM., D.D. Early Presby- 

terianism in East Central Illinois 133 

III. Frances H. Keif, Ph.D. The Two Michael 

Joneses — __ 146 

IV. James B. Beeknian. Mary Spears. Reprinted 

from Putnam's Magazine. March, 1853 152 

V. Mrs. Harriet J. Walker. Revolutionary Sol- 
diers Buried in Illinois _ „ „ 172 

VI. Herbert Spencer Salisbury. Old Trails of 

Hancock County _ — 177 

VII. Ethan A. Snively. James M. Davidson, 1828- 

1894 _ _ _ 184 

Vlll. Original Letters. Parthenia Lockwood to her 
Brother and Sister, Dated Illinois Eapids, 
Jan. 15, 1825 _...". — 195 

John M. Peck to Pascal Enos, Rock Springs, 
HI., March 20, 1832 _ _ 198 

IX. Mrs. George A. Lawrence. Illinois State Flag 

or Banner .„ _ _ 200 

X. Judd Stewart. Law Partnerships of Abraham 

Lincoln _ _ _ — 209 

XI. Miner S. Gowin. Letter from a Venerable 
Member of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety „..- _ _ __ 211 

XII. Editorial. 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Illinois 

State Historical Society — ..._ 217 

Bronze Tablet Marks Founding Rock River 

Conference _ - _ _ _... 218 

A Correction — Battle of Saratoga..... 219 



Gen. John I. Rinaker: His Election to Con- 
gress. A Correction 219 

Army Chest of Joseph D. Webster 219 

Sketch of Gen. Joseph D. Webster. _ 221 

Gifts of Books, Letters and Manuscripts to the 
Illinois State Historical Library and Society 223 

XIII. Necrology. 

Leo Wampold — 231 

J. McCan Davis .._ _ 232 

Dr. William A. Haskell _ _ 235 

XIV. Publications of the Illinois State Historical 

Library and Society — _ 243 



Slavery or Involuntary Servitude in Illinois Prior 
To and After Its Admission as a State 



By O. W. Aldrich. 

As slavery, in the territory now embraced in the State of 
Illinois, depended upon conditions prior in time to its separate 
existence as a political division, it will be necessary to con- 
sider these conditions, the documentary provisions upon which 
its existence in the state was based, and as a preliminary to 
this examination, it will be proper to consider the origin of 
the institution in the territory from which the state was 
formed. 

Slaves were imported into that part of the country, which 
afterward became the North West Territory, from two sources, 
both from French provinces. 

The first introduction of Africans into the Illinois territory 
was in 1720, by Renault, agent and manager of The Com- 
pany of St. Phillips, who brought a colony from France and 
purchased five hundred slaves at St. Domingo, which he sold 
to the colonists before his return to France in 1744. 

In 1615 an edict of Louis XIII of France first recognized 
slavery in the French provinces in America ,and settlers from 
Canada in these regions, brought with them the French laws 
and customs, and among them were those which recognized 
slaver} 7 , and in 1724 Louis XV published an ordinance which 
re-enacted the edict of Louis XIII, for the regulation of the 
government and administration of justice, policies, discipline 
and traffic in Negro slaves in the province of Louisiana, of 
which Illinois was then a part. This included the provision of 
the Civil Law that if one of the parents were free, the offspring 
should follow the condition of the mother, and prohibited the 






118 



j> 



sale separately of husband, wife, or minor children either by 
contract or execution. 

By the treaty of peace between England and France in 1763 
this territory, as a dependency of Canada, was ceded to Great 
Britain, and when General Gage took possession he issued a 
proclamation in 1764, to the late subjects of France, that those 
who chose to retain their lands and become British subjects, 
should enjoy the same rights and privileges, the same security 
for their persons and effects, and liberty of trade, as the old 
subjects of the King. 

At this time slavery was recognized in all the American colo- 
nies, and this proclamation extended the colonial laws and cus- 
toms to the inhabitants of Canada and her dependencies, and 
of course recognized slavery as legal. 

When George Rogers Clark, by his expedition made the con- 
quest of the territory, as soon as the news was received, the 
Virginia House of Burgesses declared the whole of the "North 
West territory a part of her chartered territory, provided by 
an Act to erect it into a county, and extend her laws and juris- 
diction to it. The preamble of the Act recited that, "The in- 
habitants had acknowledged themselves citizens of the com- 
monwealth of Virginia, and taken an oath of fidelity to the 
State", and it was declared that they should enjoy their own 
religion, with all their civil rights and property. 

The treaty of Peace with England in 1783 ceded the whole of 
this country to the United States and in 1784, Virginia ceded 
the territory to the United States. 

This deed of cession from Virginia contained a stipulation, 
"That the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other set- 
tlers of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincents and the neighboring vil- 
lages, who have professed themselves citizens of the State of 
Virginia, shall have their possessions and titles confirmed to 
them, and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights and lib- 
erties." 

These provisions cover substantially all classes of persons 
but one, which was that of the older inhabitants, who had not 
claimed citizenship of Virginia, who were not protected. 



119 i 

But by treaty made between Great Britain in 1794 com- 
monly called the "Jay Treaty" under which the British finally 
evacuated the west, the rights of the ancient inhabitants who 
had not claimed citizenship of Virginia, were protected, and 
one year was given them to accept American citizenship. This 
also embraced the inhabitants of the north part of the North 
"West Territory which was not conquered by Clark. 

In 1784 the first ordinance for the government of the Terri- 
tory was passed. As originally drawn there was an article of 
compact providing, "That after the year 1800, there shall be 
neither slavery or involuntary servitude in any of the said 
states, (those provided for in the ordinance) otherwise than 
in punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been con- 
victed to have been personally guilty." Under the rules of 
Congress the affirmative vote of seven states was required to 
carry any measure. A motion having been made by a delegate 
from a southern state, to strike out the provision, the votes of 
six northern states were opposed to the motion. As each state 
had but one vote, and two delegates, one of the delegates from 
New Jersey being absent, that state had no vote, and the mo- 
tion prevailed and the provision was stricken out. 

The measure was drafted by Mr. Jefferson, and he was 
greatly chagrined at the striking out of the slavery clause. 
Two years later, he wrote, "The voice of a single individual 
would have prevented this abominable crime from spreading 
itself over the new country. Thus we see the fate of millions 
unborn hanging on the tongue of one man, and Heaven was 
silent in that awful moment, but it is to be hoped that it will 
not always be silent; and that the friends to the rights of 
human nature will in the end prevail." 

From this language it will be seen that Mr. Jefferson did not 
consider the language of the Declaration of Independence, a 
string of glittering generalities, but that he intended to ex- 
press a self evident truth, when he said that all men were en- 
dowed w T ith certain inalienable rights of life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness, and that he did not exclude the slaves 
then in servitude. 



120 

On the 27th day of October, the Ordinance of 1787 was 
passed without one dissenting vote. At first blush it would 
seem that the terms of this ordinance were prohibitory and 
prevented slavery in this territory. 

The sixth article provides plainly that, "There shall be 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in such territory, 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted", with a provision for the 
reclamation of persons, from whom labor or service was law- 
fully claimed in any of the original states, who had escaped 
from their masters. 

Standing alone this was sufficient to prohibit slavery in the 
territory, if Congress had the authority to enact it under the 
circumstances, and these circumstances were recognized in 
other portions of the instrument. 

This is seen in the suffrage clause which restricts suffrage 
to free male inhabitants, and in estimating the population it 
was restricted to free inhabitants, and in the provisions for the 
conveyance of property, the act of Virginia, preserving the 
civil rights of the inhabitants who recognized the authority of 
the state to their rights and property was substantially copied, 
thus recognizing the rights of that class of inhabitants to hold 
their slaves. 

Taking these matters into consideration, there seems to be 
no doubt that the rights of the masters to their slaves was 
recognized by all classes, so long as the territory remained un- 
divided, and in the different divisions until they become states. 

There seems to be no decision upon this matter so long as 
the territory remained together, but there was one case at Vin- 
cennes in the summer of 1794, where a Negro and his wife ap- 
plied for a writ of habeas corpus to test their right to free- 
dom, but before it was reached for trial, the colored people 
were kidnapped and carried away. 

The first cases in any of the territories after their separa- 
tion, were some habeas corpus cases in the territory of Michi- 
gan, after its separation from Indiana. 

As this territory had remained in the possession of the 



121 

British forces until 1796, the Court held that slavery existed as 
preserved by Jay's Treaty, in favor of British masters who 
held their slaves in the territory in- the actual occupancy 
of the British troops on June 16, 1796, but that every other man 
coming into the territory, was a freeman, unless he was a 
fugitive escaping from service from a master in some Ameri- 
can state, or territory, in which case he must be restored. 

This same view was taken in 1845 by the Supreme Court of 
Missouri, when a Negro claimed that his mother had been 
freed, by a residence of four years in Macinac and Prairie du 
Chien, from 1791 to 1795, when she was taken to Missouri and 
sold. Plaintiff was born after his mother had been taken to 
Missouri. The Court held that residence in that part of the 
North West Territory not embraced in the Virginia conquest, 
before the British evacuation, did not free a slave. 
Chouteau vs. Peirre, 9 Mo. p. 3. 

I have found no cases holding the contrary doctrine. 

The sixth article of the ordinance, which prohibited slavery, 
aside from the excepted cases, did not give unqualified satisfac- 
tion to the inhabitants of the territory. 

In 1796, four residents of Kaskaskia filed a petition asking 
Congress to suspend the operation of this restriction in the or- 
dinance. 

In 1802, a convention was called by General Harrison, the 
Governor, and a memorial was sent to Congress asking for a 
suspension of the sixth section of the ordinance. In 1803, Mr. 
Randolph, chairman of the special committee, reported against 
the adoption of the prayer of the memorial, but the matter 
came up at each of the next three sessions, and was favorably 
reported but not acted upon, and in 1807, a remonstrance was 
filed. The matter was referred to a committee which re- 
ported unfavorably, which ended the matter. 

Indentured and Registered Servants. 

The friends of slavery, however, were not satisfied, and 
after the admission of Ohio as a state in 1807, an Act of the 
territorial legislature of Indiana, including Illinois, which 



Slg. 2 



122 

had probably been adopted a year or two before, was re- 
adopted, and reported as bearing date of September, which 
was intended to materially avoid the prohibition of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787. 

The first section of the Act provided that, "It shall be law- 
ful for any person, being the owner of any negroes or mulat- 
toes of and above the age of fifteen years, and owing service 
and labor as slaves in any of the States or territories of the 
United States, or for any citizen of the United States pur- 
chasing the same, to bring the said negroes or mulattoes into 
this territory." 

The second section provides "That within thirty days after 
bringing the slaves into the territory, the owner or master 
should take them before the Clerk of the Court, and have an 
indenture between the slave and his owner entered upon 
record, specifying the time which the slave was compelled to 
serve the master." (The term was usually fixed at ninety- 
nine years). 

Section three provided that if the slave refused to consent 
to the indenture, the master should have the right within 
sixty days, to remove the slave to any state or territory where 
such property could be legally held. 

Section four, gave the right to punish the slave with stripes 
for laziness, misbehavior, or disorderly conduct. 

Section five' provided that any person removing into this 
territory, and being the owner of any negro or mulatto under 
the age of fifteen years, it should be lawful for such person, 
owner or possessor to register the same and to hold the said 
negro or mulatto to service or labor, the males until they ar- 
rive at the age of thirty-five and the females until the age of 
thirty-two years. 

Section thirteen, provided that children born in the terri- 
tory, of a person of color, owing service of labor by indenture, 
according to law, shall serve the master or mistress, the males 
until the age of thirty, and females until the age of twenty- 
eight years. 

There were provisions in the act for the sale of servants by 



123 

the assignment of the indenture, thus making them virtually 
slaves, under the name of "indentured servants." 

In 1812, at the first session of the legislature of Illinois, the 
Act which had been adopted by the Governor and Judges of 
the whole territory, was re-enacted as the law of Illinois, 
though repealed in Indiana in 1810. There seems to be no 
question that this act was void, as repugnant to the sixth sec- 
tion of the Ordinance of 1787, which was the fundamental con- 
stitution of this territory. 

I find no reference to any decisions as to the validity of the 
Ordinance in the territorial courts, but some time after the 
admission of the State, it was decided that the act was void, 
and that the validity of such contracts was based upon the 
Constitution of 1818. 

At the session of the legislature of Illinois in 1817, a bill 
was passed by both houses to repeal so much of the act as 
authorized the bringing of negroes and mulattoes into the 
state, and indenturing them as slaves. The Governor vetoed 
the bill, giving as his reason, that there was no such law in 
Illinois as the act of 1807, as it was a law of Indiana, which 
was technically true, although re-enacted in Illinois. The 
Governor was himself the owner of a number of indentured 
servants. 

Slavery Under the Constitution. 

The State of Ohio was the first state admitted into the 
Union from the Northwest Territory. As this was in 1802, the 
Act of 1807 of the territory of Indiana, was never in force in 
that state. 

As the settlement of the state was not made until about the 
time of the passage of the Ordinance of 1787, there was noth- 
ing in the terms of the Ordinance, which would affect that 
part of the North West Territory, in contravention to the 
terms of the prohibitory sixth section of the Ordinance, so 
that the Constitution of 1802, which absolutely prohibited 
slavery and involuntary servitude, except for crime, and 
made void indentures of persons unless made in a state of 



124 

freedom, and also provided that indentures thereafter made, 
either outside the state or in the state for more than one year, 
should be of no validity except in cases of apprenticeships, 
is the only document governing that state. 

I have never seen any statement in any historical work 
that slavery ever existed in the territory or state of Ohio, but 
in the life of John Brown by Elbert Hubbard, it is stated that 
slavery existed in the state in 1811, but this work can hardly 
be recognized as historical. 

The constitution of Indiana adopted in 1816, is the next in 
order, and provided that "There shall be neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude in this state, otherwise than for the 
punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been 
duly convicted, nor shall any indenture of any negro or mulat- 
to hereafter made and executed out of the bounds of the state, 
be of any validity within the State. ' ' 

The Committee had adopted additional matters against in- 
dentures similar to those in the Ohio Constitution, but the 
anti-slavery delegates who had always contended that the Act 
of 1807 was unconstitutional, objected to anything which 
might concede its validity and those provisions were stricken 
out. 

The adoption of the constitution did not result in the imme- 
diate abolition of slavery and involuntary servitude, as in 
1840 the census credits Indiana with three female slaves. 

That this condition prevailed, on account of the ignorance 
of many of the slaves, may be seen from the case of State vs. 
Lasselle, 1 Blackford, 60, which was a habeas corpus case de- 
cided by the Supreme Court in 1820. The defendant an- 
swered that Polly, the name of the woman on whose behalf 
the case was brought, was his slave by purchase, the issue of a 
woman bought of the Indians prior to the Treaty of Green- 
ville. The lower court decided in favor of the defendant. In 
the Supreme Court, it was argued for the defendant, that the 
Ordinance of 1787 did not prohibit the slavery which existed 
at its adoption, but that it expressly preserved it, and that the 



125 

property granted by it, could not be divested by the Constitu- 
tion. 

The Court held, that the Virginia deed of session and the 
ordinance were immaterial, that the question must be de- 
cided by the provisions of the Constitution. 

They held that it was within the legitimate powers of the 
convention in framing the constitution, to prohibit the exis- 
tence of slavery in that state, and that they could conceive of 
no form of words in which the intention to do so could have 
been more clearly expressed, and it was accordingly held that 
Polly was free. 

The framers of the first Constitution of Illinois, certainly 
did not use language to express a present intent to abolish 
slavery, and it is the opinion of some writers that it was only 
because of the requirement of the Enabling Act of Congress, 
that the convention enacted Section I of Article VI: "Neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be intro- 
duced into this state. ' ' 

It not only failed to prohibit slavery as it then existed, but 
made legal the indentures which had been illegal before that 
date, because of the void act of 1807 re-enacted in Illinois in 
1812, by the Third Section of the same Article, of the Consti- 
tution which provides that : 

"Each and every person who has been bound to service by 
contract or indenture, in virtue of the laws of Illinois Terri- 
tory, heretofore existing, and in conformity to the provisions 
of the same, without fraud or collusion, shall be held to a 
specific performance of their contract or indentures, and such 
negroes and mulattoes as have been registered in conformity 
with the aforesaid laws, shall serve out the time appointed by 
said laws; provided, however, that the children hereafter 
born of such persons, negroes or mulattoes, shall become 
free, the males at the age of twenty-one years, the females at 
the age of eighteen years. 

In the case of Phoebe vs. Jarrot. Breese, 268, the Court 
held that the Act of September 17th, 1807, was void, as being 
repugnant to the Sixth Article of the Ordinance of 1787, but 



126 

that the contracts of indenture were rendered valid by the 
Third Section of Article Sixth of the Constitution, and that 
the adoption of the Constitution and the admission of the 
State into the Union under it, abrogated so much of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787 as was in conflict with it." 

As this provision of the Constitution was the only ground 
for keeping persons legally free, in bondage, it could not have 
been .enforced under that portion of Section 1 of the 14th 
Amendment to the Constitution of the Federal Constitution; 
that no state should deprive any person of life, liberty, or 
property without due process of law, but as there was in 1818 
no such provision, it had the effect of keeping slavery in the 
State until the adoption of the Constitution of 1810. 

A number of questions as to the rights of persons from, and 
in the state, have been presented to the Courts of the state, 
and some decisions have been made by the Courts of other 
states. Among those questions decided at rather an early 
date, was that in Illinois the presumption of law is in favor of 
the freedom of any person. 

Bailey vs. Cromwell 3 Scam. 71. 
and that the onus probandi is on the one who claims that any 
person is a slave or a registered servant. 
Kinney vs. Cook, 3 Scam, 232. 

This holding was different from that of the Courts of Mis- 
souri, and other slave states in cases of colored persons. 

A construction of the 3rd Section of Article VI of the Con- 
stitution was given in Choisser vs. Hargrave, 1st Scam, Page 
17, which held that this Act of 1807 only applied to persons 
registered, in conformity to the provisions of the laws gov- 
erning the registration, which required that it be done within 
thirty clays from the entrance into the state, and it being 
shown that the registration was not made until eighteen 
months after the party was brought into the state, it was held 
he was entitled to his freedom. 

Attempt to Amend the Constitution to Allow Slavery. 

At the time of the admission of the state it is probable that 



127 

the proportion of voters in favor of unlimited slavery was 
greater than those of the opponents, and that the convention 
only adopted the Sixth Article, because of the opinion, that 
an attempt to make a slave state, was likely to defeat the ad- 
mission into the Union on account of the Sixth Article of the 
Ordinance of 1787. The animus of the majority is shown by 
the enactment of what are known as the Black Laws, and the 
laws against kidnapping free negroes and mulattoes in which 
the only penalty provided was a civil action on behalf cf the 
kidnapped person, who would have been carried out of the 
state and could not enforce it. 

In the election of 1822, which largely depended upon this 
question, the aggregate vote of the two candidates of anti- 
slavery principles, was but 3330, while that of those in favor 
of slavery were 5303, nearly 2000 greater, but the election be- 
ing by a plurality vote, the leading anti-slavery candidate for 
Governor received the greater number of votes, while the 
Legislature had nearly two-thirds in each house, of the pro- 
slavery party, which also elected the Lieutenant Governor. 
During the first half of his term, the Governor and Legisla- 
ture clashed over these matters. The Governor recommend- 
ed a revision of the Black Laws, and the enactment of ade- 
quate penalties for repression of the crime of kidnapping 
which had become frequent. 

This immediately precipitated a struggle to amend the con- 
stitution, and a committee to whom the matter was referred 
reported and recommended the adoption of a resolution to 
submit the question of the call of a convention to amend the 
constitution, at the next election for the election of members 
of the General Assembly. 

As this required the affirmation vote of two thirds of each 
body, there was a lack of one vote in the house. In a con- 
tested election case, the sitting member had been held to be 
entitled to his seat, but when he refused to vote for the reso- 
lution, a motion to reconsider the vote was carried, and the 
contestant was seated, which gave the required two-thirds 
vote in that body, and the vote of the Senate was sufficient, so 



128 

the resolution was adopted. For eighteen months the contest 
was carried on with great violence in the state, but at the 
election in 1824, the resolution was defeated by a majority of 
nearly 1800. 

In the Constitution of 1818, slavery and involuntary servi- 
tude, except as a punishment for crime, was prohibited, but 
the Black Laws prohibiting the immigration of persons of 
color into the state was carried by nearly a two-thirds vote, and 
another Section was adopted requiring the Legislature at the 
next session to pass laws which should prevent free persons 
of color from coming into the state for residence, and prevent 
parties from bringing them into the state for the purpose of 
freeing them. Pursuant to this provision, the Legislature in 
1855 passed an Act making it a high misdemeanor for a col- 
ored person to come into the state for the purpose of resi- 
dence, and remain for ten days, with a penalty of a fine of 
$50.00 and if the fine was unpaid, the party might be sold to 
the person who would agree to take him for the shortest per- 
iod for that sum, and costs. In a case decided in 1864, the 
Supreme Court held the law to be valid, because as the sale 
was but for a limited period, it was only in the nature of an 
apprenticeship, and that the state had the power to define of- 
fenses, and the exercise of such power could not be inquired 
into by the Court. 

Nelson vs. People, 33 111. 390. 

These Black Laws were continued with slight modifications 
until 1865 when they were repealed by the Act of February 
7th. 

A number of decisions concerning the rights of persons 
claimed to be slaves, have been decided by the Courts of this 
state, and the Courts of other states, growing out of the laws 
of this state and of the other states in the territory. 

No case has been found in the Supreme Court of this state 
as to the status of children of slaves of the old French set- 
tlers until that of Jarrot vs. Jarrot, 2 Gilman, 1, decided by 
the Supreme Court at December Term, 1845. 

Plaintiff was the grandson of a woman who was proven to 



129 

have been a slave at Cahokia in 1733, and son of her daughter 
born in 1794, who was kept in slavery by the father of de- 
fendant, who bequeathed her to defendant in February 1818, 
and plaintiff who was then about twenty-five or twenty-six 
years old, was born after his mother was bequeathed to de- 
fendant. The lower Court found for the defendant, but the 
Supreme Court reversed the judgment, and as the exact date 
of the birth of the plaintiff did not appear, but as it was so 
near the adoption of the Constitution, that it might have been 
before that date, the Court decided that the children of a slave 
of a French master born after adoption of the Ordinance of 
1787, whether before or after the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion, were free. The Court cited a number of cases from 
other states, but the only one exactly in point was Merry vs. 
Tiffin, I Mo. 725, where the mother of plaintiff who had been 
held as a slave in Virginia, had been taken into Illinois be- 
fore the Ordinance of 1787. The plaintiff was born after the 
Ordinance was passed, and it was held that he was free. 

The Court held that the provisions of the deed of session of 
Virginia were satisfied by securing to the masters the rights 
they then had, without including things not in existence, and 
there was nothing in that cession which forbade Congress to 
fix a limit to things which might afterward be the subject of 
property. 

The same question came up later in the same state in a case 
by Aspasia, a colored woman born in Illinois after the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, and the Court upheld the former doctrine. The 
case was taken to the Supreme Court of the United States, 
which held that the right to hold a child born after the Ordi- 
nance, as a slave was not given by the Ordinance, and that the 
Court had no jurisdiction in the matter. 
Menard vs. Aspasia, 5 Peters, 504. 

In 1830 the same question was decided in the same way by 
the Supreme Court of Louisiana. 

Merry vs. Chlxnaider, 26 Martin, 699. 

That the constitution of a state may prohibit slavery, not- 
withstanding the provisions of the exceptions to Art. 6 in the 



130 

Ordinance of 1787, was held by the Supreme Court of Indiana 
in State vs. LaSalle 1, Blackford* GO. 

This view is also announced by the Supreme Court of Mis- 
sissippi, in the case of Harvey vs. Decker, et. aL, Walker 36. 

The effect of bringing slaves into this state for the purpose 
of residence and of hiring them out, has been decided by the 
Courts of several states, as well as of this state. In the case 
of Willard vs. People, 4 Scam. 461, it was held that passing 
through the state with his master did not free a slave. The 
first outside case I have found is Winning vs. Whitesides, 1 
Mo. 472, where the plaintiff had. been taken into Illinois from 
North Carolina about 1797, where she had been kept in 
slavery for three or four years and then taken into Missouri, 
where she had remained in slavery for nearly twenty years. 
The Court held that her residence in Illinois gave her free- 
dom and that the masters right did not revive when taken to 
a state where slavery was permitted, if she failed to claim her 
right in the free state. This doctrine was upheld by the 
Supreme Court of Virginia, when a slave girl was sold to an 
Ohio resident, and delivered to the agent in Ohio, but the bill 
of sale was made to defendant who knew of the transac- 
tion. The girl remained in Ohio for two years when she re- 
turned to Virginia and was taken possession of by defendant. 
It was held that she became free. 

Fanny vs. Griffith, Gilmer 143. 

The Supreme Court of Missouri recognized the same doc- 
trine in seven other cases, but later, in 1853, when there was a 
hostile feeling in the slave states by reason of the greater ac- 
tivities of the abolitionists in the free states, it overruled all 
the foregoing cases arrogating to itself the powers of a legis- 
lature, in Scott vs. Emerson, 15 Mo. 576, and Sylvia vs. 
Kirby, 17 Mo. 439. For the same reason, the legislature of 
Louisiana in 1848, changed the law in that state, by the pas- 
sage of an Act providing that residence in a free state should 
not free a slave who returns to that state. 

In Kentucky it was held that an infant domiciled in Ohio 
for six months became free, and that a return to Kentucky 



131 

while still a minor, did not prejudice his claim. 

Henry vs. Evans, 2 Duvol, 259, 
but it was held that sending a slave girl twice with his daugh- 
ter to Ohio, while on visits, remaining less than a month each 
time, did not give her her freedom when she returned to the 
State. 

Collins vs. America, 9 B. Monroe, 565. 

A number of questions have arisen as to the character of 
registered and indentured servants. 

In the case of Nance vs. Howard, Breese 183, it was held 
that registered servants were property, and could be sold 
under execution. 

In Phoebe vs. Jay, Breese, 207, it was held that indentured 
servants under the Constitution of 1817, do not become free 
by the death of the Master, but pass to the legatees, execu- 
tors or administrators, but not to the heirs-at-law, but that an 
administrator can only sell the servant, and cannot require 
the performance of service. The doctrine as to the validity of 
indentures was re-affirmed. 

Sarah vs. Borders, 4 Scam, 545. 

In the case of Boon vs. Juliet, I Scam, 258, it was held that 
the children of registered servants under the Fifth Section of 
the Act of September 17, 1807, were not within the provisions 
of the 3rd Section of Article VI of the first Constitution, but 
were free and could not be held to service. As the constitu- 
tion only provided that persons who had been bound by con- 
tract or indenture, should serve out their time, and did not 
mention the provision of the act of 1807 as to their children, 
the children became free. 

In Kentucky a case arose as to the effect of the Eegistra- 
tion Act of 1807 of Indiana, on the status of slaves owned be- 
fore the removal into that territory. 

Rankin vs. Lydia, 2 A. K. Marshall, 471. 

The Court says that as the article of the Ordinance of 1787, 
provides that slavery or involuntary servitude is prohibited, 
that when a person was brought into the territory and inden- 
tured or registered, that they were no longer slaves, and that 



132 

■when taken back to Kentucky, they brought an action for 
their freedom, the former master was estopped from claim- 
ing them as slaves. In this case while in Indiana, the reg- 
istered servant had been sold several times and the last time 
to a resident of Kentucky, who took her back to that state, 
where she brought an action of assault and battery to test her 
right to freedom. It was held that the act of registration was 
equivalent to emancipation and she became free. The ques- 
tion of the right to her as a servant was not made. This is 
more consistent than the decision of the Illinois Courts, hold- 
ing the servants to be property. 

The Effect of the Admission of a State Upon the 
Provisions of the Ordinance of 1787. 

The authorities to the effect that the adoption of a state 
constitution and admission by Congress, abrogates by com- 
mon consent, all the provisions of the Ordinance which were 
contrary to the provisions of the constitution are too numer- 
ous to require citation, but the statement by Chief Justice 
Taney in the opinion in Strader vs. Graham, 10 Howard, that 
the adoption of the federal constitution superceded the pro- 
visions of that ordinance, are not so generally known, and I 
have found no other case which decides this question. It 
seems to be unnecessary to the determination of the case, and 
may well be doubted. 

The number of negroes in Illinois at the close of the British 
occupation, has been estimated at about 650, but whether this 
number included negroes and mulattoes brought in and in- 
dentured or registered under the Act of 1807, 1 have not been 
able to learn. 

Of course the effect of the adoption of the Constitution of 
1848, made slavery and involuntary servitude illegal in Illi- 
nois. Whether there were any of the original slaves living 
at that time, I have not been able to learn, but they must have 
been few, if any; but these may have been indentured ser- 
vants, as they might have been brought in up to 1818. 



133 



Early Presbyterianism In East Central Illinois 

Eev. Ira W. Allek, A. M.., D. D., Paris, Ilu-nois. 

Let me ask you to call ujjon your historical imagination and 
paint in the inner chambers of the mind a picture, indeed, a 
pictorial series. 

A farm in Kentucky is the background of the first scene. 
A missionary has just started for the New Purchase in In- 
diana. It is September of the year 1822. The day is one of 
golden sunshine and almost summer warmth. The pioneer 
sits upon the driver's seat of a covered wagon, holding the 
reins that guide four horses, and beside him sits his wife hold- 
ing a two-year-old girl in her lap. From the rear an older 
girl looks out. 

Within are the supplies usual for a migration to a home in 
the wilderness, but in addition to these are a few books and 
some missionary reports as well as the minister's Bible. 

Scene second: A lovely autumn day is coming to a close. 
Not by the roadside, for their is no road, but in a glen stands 
a covered wagon. Not far away four hobbled horses are 
eagerly biting the half dried grass. A camp fire is burning 
beneath a giant hickory, and near it sits the missionary's wife. 
A large iron kettle is suspended by a long pole sloping high 
enough above the fire not to burn. The pole's lower end is 
under a log. It runs upward supported by a forked branch 
driven in the ground. The older child is feeding the fire. The 
father is picking the feathers from a wild turkey . A rifle lies 
on the ground beside him. The youngest child is asleep in 
her mother's arms. 

Scene third: It is raining steadily. The horses are sink- 
ing every step into a miry road. Their sweaty coats steam 
in the rain as they struggle slowly onward. In great coat 
and coonskin cap tli2 missionary sits on the driver's seat. The 



134 

back flaps of the wagon are drawn down tight. He is the only 
human being visible. The wagon wheels sink, sometimes 
sharply and deeply. Then the smoking horses strain against 
their collars and the wheels give curious sucking sounds in 
the water and mud. Around a curve the wagon disappears. 

Scene fourth: A log cabin stands where great trees have 
been cleared away. Near it are some stumps, testifying by 
their size to the forest giants that fell before the missionary's 
axe. Between the logs of the cabin walls appear the chips 
that await the plaster to make them firm and keep the wind 
away. The rough stone chimney is unfinished, but smoke is 
coming from it. Little patches of snow are on the ground. 
The clearing is shut in on every side by mighty trees. 

Scene fifth: The cabin is finished. White plaster, flush 
with the outside of the squared logs, shows in all the cracks 
and crevices. The chimney is up to its full height. A door 
squarely fills in the doorway, with a leather thong hanging 
out through a small hole where the knob of a modern door 
would be. The clearing is much larger and in one place young 
corn is growing and bean vines are showing themselves. On 
one log of the cabin is roughly carved: "Cottage of Peace." 

Scene sixth : Under the trees of a grove near a small set- 
tlement are gathered some scores of people. Of homespun 
goods are their clothing, rough and clumsy their shoes. They 
are all brown from the sun and wind. They all face one way 
and their heads are bowed, for with uplifted face the mis- 
sionary is praying. On many cheeks are tears, but it is very 
still in the grove. The only sounds are the missionary's voice 
and the stirring of the leaves. 

Scene seventh: In the corner of a room so small as to 
seem a toy room, a chamber of a child's playhouse, is a bed 
of poles and skins. On it lies an emaciated, white haired 
woman. Beside it sits the missionary. A Bible is open in 
his hands. To the dying woman he reads the words of Jesus : 

"My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow 
me: 



135 

And I give unto them eternal life: and they shall never per- 
ish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand." 

Mr. President, unless some such pictures illustrate the text 
which is to follow, it will seem dry and juiceiess, as lifeless as 
a surveyor's description. To understand at all what a farm 
is, after we have read a legal designation of its metes and 
hounds, we must picture its fields and meadows, its spring and 
its woodlot, its fertility and lush life. These last indeed give 
the farm its value and make its legal description worth the 
writing. 

So is it in this paper. The real religion, the desire for God, 
the longing for eternal life, the aspiration for noble living, 
the craving for some assurance of acceptance with God, the 
hunger of the heart for the divine sympathy and compassion, 
and the complete satisfaction of all these desires in the simple 
gospel preached by the missionary, — these give the real mean- 
ing to the accounts which follow. 

Further, the hardships and struggles of pioneer life did not 
smother these desires, nor the dangers of river and wilder- 
ness deter the missionary. Sacrifice and courage on his part 
and on theirs, faith, prayer, trust and persistence in relig- 
ious duties on his part and on theirs, must be understood to 
get the real significance of the organization of Illinois' early 
churches. 

The Presbyterian history of eastern Illinois really begins 
with the coming of isolated members of that church from 
eastern states, principally Ohio, Virginia, and east Ten- 
nessee. Here and there a communicant could be found in one 
of the log cabins, in the forests or on the edge of the prairie, 
who longed for the coming of a missionary, desiring to hear 
the gospel preached and to partake of the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper. 

How real that longing was in many breasts may be judged 
from the fact that often a man or a woman would walk eight 
or ten miles to attend a meeting, would ride or drive twenty 
or thirty. But the formation of churches began when the 



136 

Rev. Isaac Reed, a minister of a little pioneer church in Owen 
County, Indiana ,and a missionary of the Connecticut Mission- 
ary Society crossed the Wabash river on a journey to Paris, 
111. There he organized the first church in this section of our 
state. I quote from a report he made and from his diary. 
"The Cottage of Peace, Ind., Nov. 24, 1824. 

Good News from the Frontier. 

"I have just returned from a short missionary tour across 
the Wabash. I was as far out as Paris, Edgar county, Illi- 
nois. Indeed this was the point of my principal aim. I went 
by the particular and earnest solicitation of some people, in 
that vicinity, (who had removed there from Ohio and from 
East Tennessee, but whom I had never seen) that I would 
come and bring them into church order. They had been 
about two years there with their families, and no minister had 
yet found his way to their settlement. The appointment had 
been a good while made, and I was therefore expected. 
Brother D. Whitney also went with me. We crossed the Wa- 
bash three miles above Fort Harrison the fourth inst. That 
night we had a meeting two and a half miles from the river. 
There were present three female members of our church, all 
of them from the state of New York. One had been seven 
years there, and the others four years; neither had been at 
communion since they came into the country, nor had they 
heard a sermon for almost two years — and this purely be- 
cause they had no opportunity. The next day at evening we 
began our meeting in the neighborhood of Paris. Nothing 
unusual appeared. The people seemed pleased to receive us, 
and in the prospect of a church and the sacrament." 

"On the sixth we preached in town. It was a new and 
small place, though the seat of justice of Edgar county. The 
services were performed in a school house. Whilst preach- 
ing, a very uncommon solemnity and deep attention seemed 
to prevail. Numbers were affected to tears. After sermon 
the church was constituted out of the members present. They 
were twelve ; three elders were chosen. An examination then 



137 

commenced of persons who desired to become members ; and 
on the following day, thirteen were admitted on examination, 
and another by letter, making twenty-six. Four adults were 
baptized. And a very deep and tender impression seemed to 
exist in the minds of many of the hearers — many shed tears, 
and confessed, when enquired of, that their minds were 
awakened into concern for their souls. It seemed that a re- 
vival of the Lord's work was begun. They had for nearly 
two years kept up society meetings on the Sabbath, and 
seemed to have desired and hoped and prayed for a preacher 
to come and see them, until they were prepared, when he 
came, to receive him as sent them of the Lord; and they 
seemed to wish to attend to his message and to follow the 
Lord's will. The eighth we constituted a Bible Society auxil- 
iary to the American, and left them. But we did not so soon 
leave the traces of the Lord's work. Where we held a meet- 
ing that night, a woman convinced of sin, when repentance 
was the subject of discourse, wept aloud. 

The next day we had preaching seven miles further toward 
the Wabash; here also members seemed concerned, and at 
night, in another part of the settlement, five miles distant, it 
was yet more manifest. There were several children baptised ; 
one household of eight ; and two days after, six persons were 
admitted on examination to the communion of the church. 

"In short in five days we examined and admitted nineteen 
persons to communion, constituted a church in a settlement 
beyond the point to which any of our ministers before had 
travelled — administered the sacrament twice, baptized four 
adults and nineteen children" 

Now I read an extract from the Rev. Isaac Reed's diary : 

"A Macedonian call had been sent me at Vincennes, the 
first week of August, from Paris, Illinois ; I had returned 
word I would come." 

"Sept. 14th, 1825. — I left the Cottage of Peace on my way 
to preach the gospel to them. Rode 25 miles and preached 
at 5 o'clock P. M. Baptised 5 children. This was the house- 



138 

hold of one of the members of the new formed congregation 
of Greencastle. " 

"15th. — Started at sunrise, and went on to Greencastle, 5 
miles to breakfast ; found my friend Mrs. — , very sick of a 
fever. Prayed with her. Hope she may recover. Stopped 
only for breakfast and went on. Passed through 17 miles 
woods with only a single cabin. Met and passed numbers on 
the road. Though very new, it is the leading way from Ohio 
to the upper parts of Illinois, and near where the national 
road is expected to pass. Rode this day 31 miles, and stopped 
with Mr. Samuel Adams ; found the woman ill. Spent the 
evening in reading loud to the family a printed missionary 
report, and part of two sermons." 

''16th.- — Started at sunrise, and rode to Mr. T's, 4 miles. 
He is an elder of our little church, on Big Kaccoon creek. It 
was formed near three years ago, by a missionary .of the 
General Assembly, but has no minister nor meeting house, 
nor meeting, except when a missionary comes along. Went 
on through a very lonely and wet tract, 10 miles to the "Wa- 
bash river. Crossed it 12 miles above Fort Harrison, a place 
famous in the late war. Rode 1-1 miles further to Mr. 
M'C — 's- where I had appointed to preach. This is on an arm 
of the Grand Prairie in Illinois." 

"On my way I met a man whom I had known 6 years ago 
at New Albany. He had been used to attend my ministry, but 
I had not known anything of him since. Enquired of him re- 
specting his mind— found it troubled and dark, without a 
Christian hope ; but uneasy. Exhorted him, and requested 
him to come to the meeting at Paris. This prairie has a grand 
and beautiful appearance. It is dry, grassy, and flowered. 
Preached — the attention was good. Had an interesting con- 
ference with the man of the house, his wife and another wo- 
man. They are zealous Christians in their first love; each has 
united with the church in less than a year. ' ' 

"17th. — Rode into Paris 8 miles. Met the congregation 
at the court house. . Preached immediately. Text, Act 16 :10. 
A large number of hearers and very good attention. Or- 



139 

dained a ruling elder and gave a charge to Mm, and another 
to the congregation. Held a meeting with the session; ex- 
amined and received 2 persons, both young converts. 
Preached again at night to a numerous and solemn assembly." 

"Paris is the county seat of Edgar county, but is a very 
small place of about 8 cabins. It lies on the prairie. The 
church here was formed by my ministry, last November, with 
twelve members. It seemed in a state of revival, and I left 
it with 26. Sixteen had been added — now 42." 

"18th. — Sabbath. Held prayer meeting at the court house 
half after nine A. M. Baptised one adult. Preached and ad- 
ministered the Lord's Supper. There were three tables. A 
large number of hearers, very well behaved. Bode 4i/o miles 
to lodge. Eead aloud to the family a missionary report. 

"19th. — Rode to Paris and preached at 11 A. M. The ser- 
mon was a funeral one for Mr. John Young, missionary, who 
died at Vincennes, Aug. 15th, aged 28 years. He had spent 
some months with these people, where his labors appear to 
have been greatly blessed. Dined and took leave of these in- 
teresting people. They are anxious to obtain a minister, and 
I hope they can soon support one. Rode 10 miles and 
preached at night." 

"20th. — Rode 9 miles to New Hope meeting house. Met the 
congregation and preached the same funeral sermon as yes- 
terday. Here, too, Mr. Y. had labored — been successful, and 
was much beloved. It was a feeling time. Baptised 1 adult 
and 1 infant. This is a wonderful society. It has grown up 
from 9 to 70 members in 10 months, and there seems still a 
reviving influence. They subscribed $10 toward printing the 
funeral sermon. They have built a new meeting house. 
Preached again at night, and baptised four children." 

"21st. — Found where there is a pious lad, now a scholar of 
the Sabbath school; anxious to learn and makes great pro- 
ficiency. I expect he is to be called to the ministry. Rode 11 
miles to the village Terre Haute. This is a singular place — 
has about 200 population and much mercantile business. It 
has no religious society of any order. But at present a great 



140 

disposition to hear preaching. And its gentlemen have 
formed a Sabbath reading meeting at the court house. They 
read printed sermons. There is also a new-formed Bible so- 
ciety and there is a small Sabbath school. I am told, $300 
salary might be raised here for a preacher. Preached to a 
large congregation at night. In the afternoon, visited and 
prayed with the school. ' ' 

"22d. — This day was rainy. Kode 21 miles — rested for the 
night; but not without being solicited to preach." 

"23d. — Preached a funeral sermon for the death of a mar- 
ried woman — she has left children. Rode 13 miles and lodged 

at D 's on Raccoon creek — this is a Presbyterian family 

from Ireland." 

"24th. — Repassed the long woods to Greencastle, 18 miles 
— preached at night. My friend appears recovering from her 
fever, but is very weak." 

"25th. — Rose early and retired to the woods. Visited and 
prayed with a sick woman. Met the congregation — prayed — ■ 
ordained a ruling elder, and gave him and the congregation 
a charge. Preached and administered the Lord's Supper, in 
the new church at Greencastle. There were few to commune, 
but many to hear — went home with the elder. When we en- 
tered his house, his son was weeping aloud. The Bible lay 
open on the table — and the first words he spoke were, "The 
Lord has found me." He seemed greatly agitated and dis- 
tressed. I endeavored to direct him to the Savior and read 
and explained to him and the family the parable of the Prodi- 
gal son." 

"26th. — The young man was still serious but more calm. 
Left him a reference to some chapters. Rode home about 24 
miles and found my family in peace. I had been absent 13 
days — rode 222 miles — preached 13 sermons — administered 
the Lord's Supper in 2 churches — ordained a ruling elder in 
each church — baptized 2 adults and 6 children." 

And now the account of the organization of the Paris 
church from the minutes of the meeting: 



141 

"At a meeting held in the school house at Paris, Illinois, 
November 6th, 1824, after public worship, the following per- 
sons, members of the Presbyterian church were by prayer 
solemnly constituted into a church, by the name of the Pres- 
byterian church of Paris : 

John Bo veil 
William Means 
Jame3 Eggleton 
Adriel Stout 
Amzi Thompson 
Samuel Vance 
Christian Bovell 
Nancy Thompson 
Barbara Alexander 
Elizabeth Blackburn 
Hannah Baird 
Mary Vance." 
Samuel Vance, John Bovell, and William Means were then 
unanimously elected Killing Elders,— they each having held 
that office in other congregations." 

"The Session then held a meeting to examine persons for 
membership, when, at a meeting on Sabbath morning, Nov. 
7th, the following were examined and admitted to communion : 

James Ashmore 
Cassandra Ashmore 
Rebecca Ives 
Susanna Means 
Elizabeth Jones 
Polly Wayne 
Eliza Stout 
Jane Ewing 
Margeret Crozier 
Betsy Burr 
Miron Ives 
Sarah Ives 
Asenath McKown 
Rachel Ashmore. 



142 

Four of these, viz: Mrs. Means, Miss Aahmore, Mr. Ives 
and Mrs. Ives, his wife, were baptized ; and the communion was 
administered. 

Isaac Reed, Moderator. 

(Copy from the Original, abridged May 22, '27, Sam'l 
Vance, Clerk)." 

Here are further records of early Presbyterian activity in 
church organization: 

"The Records of New Providence Church, Edgar Co., 111." 

"According to previous notice a number of people of the 
settlement of Sugar Creek met at the house of Mr. Martin 
Ray on the 15th of May, 1829 for the express purpose of or- 
ganizing a Presbyterian Church. " 

"The Revd. Clayborne Young being present opened the 
meeting with prayer, presided and by appointment acted as 
temporary clerk. Motion being made, an election was held, 
for two persons to serve as Ruling Elders and the votes be- 
ing counted it appeared that Messrs. Alexander Ewing, 2nd. 
and John TV. McNutt were duly elected and this election was 
publicly announced and the meeting then adjourned until 
Saturday the 16th. Concluded with prayer." 

"Saturday, May 16th, 1829 Messrs. A. Ewing and J. W. 
McNutt having signafyed their willingness to serve and pre- 
sented certificates from New Providence church (E. Term.) 
were sollemnly ordained of this church according to the Pres- 
byterian form of government. A door was then opened for 
the admission of members — the following persons were then 
received as members of this church." 

"See Tabular form No. 1, Page 112. 

Alexander Ewing, Cl'k. 

Sabbath, May 17th. They sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
was administered." 

"Monday, 18th. Session convened, Revd. C. Young, Mod- 
erator and reed, on Profession &c." 

"See Form No. 1, Page 112." 

Turning to page 112 of the same book we find ruled columns 
extending across the two leaves of the opened book. It is the 



143 

"Form No. 1," referred to in the minutes. Across the tops 
of the extended pages is written : 

"Form No. 1. Acts of the Session." 

The columns from left to right have the following head- 
ings: 

"Names, When Eecd., How Reed., Baptised, Dismissed, 
Suspended, Excommunicated, Restored, Died." 

Here we find the names of the charter members : 

Thomas Art, Mary Art, Elven Tucker, Elisabeth Tucker, 
Margaret L. Ewing, Elisabeth McNutt, George Ewing, Elen 
Ewing, Martin Kay, Jane Ewing, Rachel Ewing, Eliza I. 
Tucker, Nathaniel Ewing, Elisabeth Ewing, Margaret Ray. 

To these names must, of course, be added those of Alexan- 
der Ewing and John W. McNutt, the elders elected. Thus the 
church was organized with seventeen members. 

The following records of historic value explain themselves : 

"At a meeting held in Palestine, Crawford County, Illi- 
nois, on the 14th, 15th and 16th of May, Anno Domini 1S31, 
attended by the Revd. Isaac Reed and the Revd. John Mont- 
gomery, the following persons, members of the Presbyterian 
church from different parts, gave in their names and re- 
quested to be set apart and constituted into a Presbyterian 
church, to be called the Palestine church. And after due en- 
quiry and examination they were set apart by prayer and con- 
stituted into a church, (viz:) John Houston, (sen.) and Nancy 
Houston, Nancy Ann Logan, Jane Houston, Eliza Houston, 
Wilson Lagow and Nancy Lagow, Alfred G. Lagow, James 
Eagleton, James Caldwell, Phebe Morris and Anna Piper. 
These were constituted into a church on the 14th and on the 
next day there were added Margaret Eagleton, John Malcom 
and Ann Malcom and Hannah Wilson (Sen.) " 

"The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered 
and an election held for two ruling elders when John Houston 
and Wilson Lagow were duly elected. John Houston being 
already an ordained elder, Wilson Lagow was ordained on the 



144 

16th and a charge was given to both the elders and to the 
congregation. 

Signed, 
Isaac Eeed, Missionary of B. M. G. A." 

The little village of Grandview, ten miles southeast of 
Paris, has a history of idyllic flavor. A foresighted pioneer 
named John Tate gathered a party in Augusta County, Va., 
and led them to Illinois, where they arrived in September, 
1837. 

They came in wagons and by families. In this spot on the 
Grand Prairie they settled, giving it a name it well deserved. 
West and north they had as boundary to their view only the 
horizon. East and south they looked to great woods. Fer- 
tility and beauty combined said to them: "Here shall ye 
stay!" 

The thoughtfulness of these emigrants and their high valu- 
ation of religion and education appear when it is known that 
they brought with them their minister and school teacher, the 
Rev. John A. Steele, and their doctor, a brother of the clergy- 
man. 

Immediately divine service was held after the simple Pres- 
byterian fashion in their houses, but the following year a 
church building was erected. The congregation was consti- 
tuted a church in proper ecclesiastical form on the twenty- 
seventh day of July, 1838. 

The record follows : 

"Grandview, July 27, 1838. 

Notice having been previously given that a Presbyterian 
church would be organized at this place on this day, immedi- 
ately after sermon, the Rev. John A. Steele, a missionary of 
the Board of Missions of the General Assembly, having re- 
ceived certificates or other satisfactory evidence of church 
membership from the following persons, viz : James Hite, Ann 
W. Hite, John Tate, Nancy Tate, Robert M. Tate, Susan 
Tate, Margaret I. Tate, Jacob S. Brown, Ellen B. Brown, Wm. 
A. Cale, Sarah Cale, John Shultz, Susan Shultz, Catherine 
Steele, Rachel France, Matthias Snapp, proceeded to orga- 






145 

nize them into a church. On motion Joseph Brown was chosen 
secretary of the meeting. On motion it was resolved that 
four persons be elected ruling elders in this church and the 
following persons being nominated to that effect, to-wit: 
James Hite, Wm. A. Ca]e, John Tate and Joseph Brown were 
elected. On motion it was resolved that this church be known 
as the Presbyterian church of Grandview. 

On motion Robert M. Tate was elected treasurer. 

Adjourned with prayer. 

Joseph M. Brow> t , Secretary of the meeting." 

These, Mr. President, are the names of the early Presbyter- 
ians of East Central Illinois and these are the records of meet- 
ings that meant much to the organizers of the churches and 
were influential for good then and to the present day. 






146 



The Two Michael Joneses 

By Fkances H. Eelf, Ph. D. 

One of the familiar names in the early history of Illinois is 
Michael Jones. A man by that name was register of the land 
office at Kaskaskia from 1804 to 1822 ; a man by that name was 
candidate for United States senate in 1818 and again in 
1819; a man by that name represented Gallatin County in 
the constitutional convention of 181S and in the state senate 
from 1818 to 1826. Do all these activities belong to the same 
man? This question has never before been raised, for all sec- 
ondary writers have taken it for granted that they did. Moses 
states in positive terms that the register of the Kaskaskia 
land office lived in Shawneetown " after 1814"; and that he, 
while State Senator, was a candidate for the United States 
Senate. 1 Going back a step farther to the contemporary 
writers, such as Reynolds, one finds nothing which shows that 
they were or were not the same man. But when one gets back 
to the contemporary records it becomes evident that the secon- 
dary writers are mistaken, and that there were two Michael 
Joneses, one living at Shawneetown, the other at Kaskaskia. 

Considering the little information the writers had on this 
subject, it is not at all surprising that the mistake has been 
made. The lives of the two men dovetail most curiously; the 
political career of one was beginning at the same time as that 
of the other was ending, only during the winter of 1818-19 
were they both in the lime-light ? Their lives are two threads 
which the secondary writers have tangled together. By going 
back to the records it is possible to separate these threads and 
give to each man his due. 

Up to the year that Illinois became a state the activities of 
each man were confined to his own side of the territory. The 



147 

Kaskaskia Michael Jones was born in Pennsylvania. 2 He was 
appointed register by the act of Congress of 1804 which es- 
tablished the land office at Kaskaskia. In 1810 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the militia of Randolph County. 3 Though 
he held this office for less than a year, he was called by the 
title for the rest of his life. Any reference in the letters of 
the time to "Col. Jones," one may be sure, is to the register 
at Kaskaskia. He was removed from his office in the militia 
by Governor Edwards. 4 From an early period of their ac- 
quaintance, there seems to have been ill feeling between these 
two men. They disagreed most decidedly over the settlement 
of the land claims. 5 Many and involved had been the claims of 
the old French and early American settlers which had to be 
settled before any land could be sold. It was not, indeed, un- 
til 1814, ten. years after the office was established, that sales 
began. Settlers who came in during that period were forced 
to be squatters on their land until they had the opportunity 
to buy. This raised a new complication, for these men claimed 
a prior right to the land they had improved. In recognition 
of this right Congress passed pre-emption laws applying es- 
pecially to Illinois. The memorials sent by the Illinois terri- 
torial legislature to Congress would imply serious dissatis- 
faction with the way these laws were being carried out. But 
according to Jones this was not the motive ; Edwards was 
using the legislature as his tool for getting the register out of 
office. On December 28th, 1814, Jones wrote to Meigs, the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office: "You will no 
doubt be presented with a memorial pass'd thro' the inadver- 
tency of some members of the Legislature as penned by Ninian 
Edwards in which he inculpates me. This may have been done 
with a view of throwing between him and the Register the Leg- 
islature in order to give to his opinion long since express 'd ad- 
ditional weight. From motives suited to his views he declared 
that my construction of the law was erroneous and oppres- 
sive I cannot refrain from expressing my belief of his 

design to raise the indignation of the People against an officer 
for thus correctly and conscientiously discharging his duty. 



148 

_ The Memorial seems to be calculated to impress the Gov- 
ernment with a state of Public feeling which does not in fact 
exist — and I trust my Government will not place too much 
confidence on information received thro' the medium of Gov. 
Edwards relating to myself." 6 

A year later the friction between the two men seems to have 
subsided for the register wrote then: "On Friday last the 
Legislature adjourned. They have forwarded six or seven 
memorials but none I believe that either effects me or my de- 
partment nor can I learn that the Governor manifested any 
hostility towards me and the members were extremely 
friendly. ' ' 7 

This brings the career of the Kaskaskia register down to 
1818 where one encounters the problem whether he or the 
Shawneetown lawyer was the candidate for United States 
senator. 

The Shawneetown Michael Jones was a half-brother of 
Jesse B. Thomas, United States judge in Illinois during the 
whole of the territorial period. 8 His relationship to Thomas 
makes it probable that he came to Lawrenceburg, Indiana at 
the same time — 1803, and from the same state — Maryland. 9 
Shortly before leaving Lawrenceburg for Shawneetown in 
1808 this Michael Jones was married to Mary C. James. Her 
father, John James, had brought his family from Frederick 
County, Maryland in 1807. 10 From the names, Thomas, 
Jones, James, it is evident that they were all of "Welsh de- 
scent. A few years later another daughter of John James 
married Jeptha Hardin, also a Shawneetown lawyer. 11 Eich- 
ard T. Jones of Shawneetown, was a nephew of this Michael 
Jones. 12 Altogether there must have been a large family con- 
nection in the place. During the decade from 1808 to 1818, 
this young lawyer became one of the prominent men in Galla- 
tin County. Judged by his land holdings, he was a man of 
means. 13 As early as 1812 be was appointed a justice of the 
peace. 14 Few petitions from Gallatin County citizens during 
that period, whether addressed to the territorial legislature 15 
or to Congress, 16 are without his signature. In 1818, the 



149 

county showed its appreciation of his public spirit by electing 
him as their delegate to the constitutional convention, and 
later in the year as their senator to the state legislature. 

There is little in these two accounts which is absolutely con- 
tradictory. It is possible to attribute most of the facts to the 
same man. Yet it is hardly reasonable that the register of the 
Kaskaskia land office should have moved over to Shawneetown 
in 1814. After that time all his official correspondence was 
still addressed to Kaskaskia, 17 and he still continued to put 
"Kaskaskia" at the head of his own letters. Nor is it likely 
that the man who was so active in the local interests of Galla- 
tin county was the man whose business interest was on the 
other side of the territory. In those days of slow travel, the 
two towns were much farther apart than they are now. More 
than that the signature of the signature of the Kaskaskia 
register and the signature of the signer of the petitions are 
quite different. The former cannot be mistaken wherever 
found. It varies hardly at all. It was always written 
"Miclil. Jones" with unusually long strokes of the pen for 
the "M," "h" and "J." The ">' extended as far below the 
line as above. 18 It is the signature of a man who was accus- 
tomed to signing his name frequently. The other signature 
is always found with the "Michael" written out in full and 
with the "J" written entirely above the line like a modern 
"I." 19 There is more variety in the formation of the letters 
as is frequently the case with men who do not sign their 
names often. 

When the first General Assembly of the State of Illinois 
met in October 1818, one of its first duties was the election of 
two United States senators. Michael Jones was one of the 
six candidates. 20 According to the Illinois Emigrant 21 the 
newspaper printed in Shawneetown, the candidate was the 
Michael Jones "of Kaskaskia." This paper, by the way it 
reported the results of the election, gives positive evidence 
that there was more than one man by that name, who might 
be supposed to be the candidate. "Michael Jones" is the 
only name in the list after whose name was put in parenthe- 



150 

sis his place of residence. The editor of the paper no doubt 
wished his readers to understand that the candidate was not 
their own familiarly known state senator, but a man by the 
same name from the other side of the state. The Kaskaskia 
paper contains no such explanatory phrase. There was no 
need for it there for the Shawneetown lawyer was a very 
new man in state-wide politics; no one in Kaskaskia would 
associate with the name "Michael Jones" any but their own 
well-known register. 

The candidates elected were Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. 
Thomas. Edwards drew the short term and was up again for 
election the following February. This time Michael Jones 
was his only opponent. That it was again the Kaskaskia man 
there can be no doubt for the land claims were made an issue 
in the campaign. 22 Jones received nineteen votes to Edwards 
twenty-three. 23 But this cannot be taken as an indication of 
Jones's strength with the legislators. The effort was to de- 
feat Edwards rather than to elect Jones. This is evident 
from the attempt that was made just previous to the election 
to divide the state into two electorial districts, an east and a 
west. 24 Thomas lived in the western port so if the measure 
had gone through the new senator would have to have been 
a man from the eastern side of the state. This would have 
eliminated Edwards who was living in Edwardsville, Madi- 
son County, 25 but it would have eliminated also the register 
of the Kaskaskia land office. 

These two efforts to become United States senator seem 
to have been the register's only attempt to obtain office from 
the people of Illinois. He probably was not popular. Though 
Reynolds describes him as having been "a sprightly man of 
plausable and pleasing address," yet he adds: "His tem- 
perament was very excitable and rather irritable. His mind 
was above the ordinary range ; but his passion at times swept 
over it like a tornado." According to Reynolds these failings 
increased as he grew older. 26 In 1822 he died. The account 
of his death is given in a letter from the receiver of the Kas- 
kaskia office to the commissioner of the general land office 



151 

written from Kaskaskia, November ,30th, 1822. "It is with 
sensations of the most poignant regret and sorrow," wrote 
the receiver, "that I discharge the painful duty of announc- 
ing the death of my inestimable friend and worthy colleague 
Col. Mich. Jones, Eegr. of the Land office at this place. He 
departed this life on Tuesday, the 26th instant after a pain- 
ful and lingering illness of some months."- 7 

This indisputable evidence of the death of the register of 
the Kaskaskia land office, as early as 1822 removes any doubt 
that might remain as to whether there was a second man by 
the same name living in the state. It was after that year that 
the Shawneetown lawyer became such a power in Illinois pol- 
itics. But it is not needful to fellow his career. After the 
death of the Kaskaskia man, be had the stage to himself. 
There are no more threads to untangle. 



NOTES. 

Frances n. Keif, Ph. D. 

1 Moses, Illinois Historical and Statistical, 1 : 272, 298. See also The Bench 
and Bar of Illi7iois (Chicago, 1899), 2: 852; aud Bateinan and Selby, Historical En- 
cyclopedia of Illinois (1015 I. 

2 Reynolds, Pioneer History of Illinois (2nd ed.), 352. 

3 Territorial Records (Pub. I. S. H. L. 1901), 14. 

4 lb., 18. 

5 Reynolds, Pioneer History of Illinois, 352. 

6 Kaskaskia Land Office. Copies of Letters transmitted by the Register, 1814- 
1830 (Auditor's Office, Springfield). 

7 lb. Jones to Kufus Easton, Jan. 15, 1S16. 

8 Illinois Gazette ; Aug. 5, 1826. p. 3. 

9 Bateman and Selby, Biographical Encyclopedia of Illinois (1915). 

10 Bench and Bar, 2 : 852. 

11 lb. 

12 Illinois Oazette, Ang. 5, 1826, p. 3. 

13 Shawneetown Land Office, Applications and Withdrawals, 1S24-28, (Auditors 
Office, Springfield). 

14 Territorial Records, 28. 

15 Edwards Papers, 71-7S ; Assembly Misc. Papers, 1813-1832 (Secretary of State's 
Office, Springfield). 

16 nouse Files, Feb. 22, 1810, Mch. 11, 1816, Pec. 24, 1816. 

17 Kaskaskia Land Office. Letters received 1814-16. 

18 lb. Cahokia cases, certificates ; House Flies, Mch. 14, 1818. 

19 Besides the House Files see Shawneetown Land Office, Applications and \cith~ 
drawals, 1814-18. 

20 Journal of the Senate of the first session of the First General Assembly, 17, 
Kaskaskia, 1818. 

21 Oct. 17, IRIS, p. 2. 

22 Edwards Papers, 153-55. Thomas Cos to Edwards, Feb. 8, 1S19. 

23 Journal of the Senate of the second session of the Uencral Assembly of the 
State of Illinois (Kaskaskia 1819), 49. 

24 Edwards Papers, 149. Daniel P. Cook to Edwards. Feb. 2, 1819. 

25 Census of 1818 (office of the Secretary of State, Springfield). 

26 Pioneer History, 352. 

27 Kaskaskia Land Office, Receiver's letter book, 1820-29. 



152 



Mary Spears 

(Beprinted from Putman's Magazine, March, 1853). 

CONTRIBUTED BY JAMES B. BEEKMAN. 

The following incidents of border experience, are written 
out from materials furnished by an accomplished lady resid- 
ing at Paddock's Grove, in Illinois. They were communicated 
to her by the heroine herself, and by her children and friends ; 
and are related as they were first told, without the least at- 
tempt at embellishment. 

Mary Nealy was born on the 20th August, 1761, not far from 
Charleston, South Carolina, but when she was very young, 
■her father removed his family to Tennessee; the emigrants 
passing through Georgia to the place where now stands 
Chattanooga. The family were sent down the Tennessee 
river in canoes, taking with them their household stuff, 
clothes and provisions, while the father drove his horses and 
cattle along the banks; the two parties joining each other at 
the Muscle Shoals, where they proceeded by land to the lo- 
cality afterwards called Nealy 's Bend, on the Cumberland 
river, near the site of Nashville. This must have been about 
the time of the first discovery of that spot— named ''the 
French Lick" — which was made, according to Haywood, by 
a party of adventurers descending the Cumberland on their 
way to Natchez. 1 Our adventurous pioneer lived here several 
years, among the buffaloes, elks, wolves, etc., which crowded 
the adjoining hills and forests, probably familiar with the 
sight of few human faces, and seeing but at intervals the 
French hunters and trappers from the north, who ventured 
so far into the wilderness. Mrs. Nealy took upon herself the 
task of teaching her daughters, hearing their spelling and 
reading lessons, while she was busily spinning on her little 

1 See "Pioneer Women of the West" — Memoir of Mary Bledsoe. 



153 

wheel, material for their garments. This simple instruction 
was all the girls received; when other settlers came, and a 
primitive school was established, the sons were sent three 
miles to attend it every day, the path through the woods be- 
ing so infested with wolves that they were usually obliged to 
go on horseback. 

After the commencement of the Revolutionary struggle, 
when hostilities threatened the inhabitants of that remote 
frontier, the family, with others in the neighborhood, sought 
refuge in a fort; the men venturing out as opportunity per- 
mitted, to attend to the cattle and cultivate their fields. Nealy 
was engaged in making salt, and was sometimes assisted by 
his daughter Mary, or Polly, as she was called. On a Sab- 
bath morning in the fall of 1770 2 , (1780) the young girl, wear- 
ing her Sunday dress, left the station in company with her 
father, and walked with him to the bank of the river, where 
for the week past his manufacture of salt had been going on.. 
Mary happened to be standing at some little distance from 
her father, when suddenly she heard the report of a gun and 
saw him fall to the ground. She had only time to see an In- 
dian leap from his covert, when she lost her consciousness 
in a swoon. On her recovery, she found herself in the grasp 
of two of the savages, who were dragging her off with all 
possible haste, evidently apprehensive of pursuit from the 
station, which was at no great distance. No aid came, how- 
ever, and the helpless girl was compelled to go on with her 
captors. They were three days without food; at length a bear 
was killed, and a piece of flesh given to the starving captive, 
which she ate raw. This imprudence produced severe illness, 
which was relieved by drinking a quantity of the bear's oil, ac- 
cording to Indian prescription. 

The prisoner was offered her choice between becoming the 
wife of the chief's son, or the slave of his oldest wife; she 
chose the latter, and soon made herself so useful that the 
savages determined to spare her life. The party continued 



2 Misprint. Should be 1780. 



154 

some time in Tennessee and Kentucky, and often encamped 
in cancbrakes. One night in attempting to escape — for the 
hope of finding her way hack to home and friends was still 
cherished by the unfortunate girl — after leaving the encamp- 
ment, she chanced to step on a sharp fragment of cane, which 
ran entirely through her foot. She was of course recaptured, 
and suffered the extremest agony from the wound, which 
was not entirely healed for months afterward. During this 
time, having learned something of the Indian language, she 
frequently heard the advice given to kill and scalp her, rather 
than be troubled with carrying about such a poor cripple ; and 
it is probable that nothing saved her but her knowledge of 
sewing and other kinds of work, which made her a valuable 
servant to her mistress. 

Notwithstanding the failure of this attempt, the hope of 
being able to avail herself of an opportunity to escape still 
had possession of her mind. One night when the Indians had 
encamped on the bank of a small stream, a heavy storm came 
on. To obtain shelter, Mary climbed into a tree completely 
canopied by a luxuriant grape-vine. In a short time after she 
had thus secured herself, a fierce gust of wind uprooted a 
large tree near by, and it fell with a tremendous crash, im- 
mediately over the place she had quitted. She heard the sav- 
ages calling to her admidst the darkness and the driving 
storm, and when they received no answer, ascertained by 
their exclamations that they supposed she had been killed. 
A flash of joy penetrated her heart ; here was an opportunity 
of escape! She remained still, while the Indians called and 
shouted repeatedly ; but when they were silent, fear began to 
shake her new-born hopes. She had been severely punished 
for the previous attempt, and threatened with the tomahawk 
if it were ever repeated. Should she leave the tree, the dogs 
would in all probability discover her, and give the alarm. On 
the other hand, might she not regard her having been im- 
pelled to seek this shelter, and the fall of the tree, as a special 
interposition of Providence in her favor, and could she not 
throw herself upon this manifest protection? Uncertain what 



155 

to do, she remained in the tree all night, not answering the 
calls which were repeated at intervals, in hope the Indians 
would break up camp and depart before day, as they always 
did when apprehensive of pursuit. She was found, however, 
and compelled to accompany them in their northward course, 
and having crossed the Ohio, gave up in despair the faint hope 
that had remained in her breast, of being restored to her kin- 
dred. With the loss of this hope her trust even in the merci- 
ful Father who had preserved her through so many dangers, 
seemed also to fail. But her extreme sufferings from hunger, 
cold, and fatigue, were sufficient to overcome greater strength 
than she possessed. 

Fortune seemed to delight in mocking her with opportuni- 
ties of escape, by which she could not profit. One night when 
they had encamped, a snow-storm came on, and she was com- 
pletely covered by a snowdrift. In the morning, as the In- 
dians were preparing to continue their journey, she could be 
found nowhere, and they concluded she had gone off during 
the night. Their anger was loudly expressed, and the most 
terrible tortures threatened, if she should again fall into 
their power. Hearing all this imperfectly, and only under- 
standing that she was wanted, Mary rose from under her 
white coverlet in the very midst of the infuriated savages, 
whose shouts of astonishment and merriment, when they dis- 
covered the truth, were absolutely deafening. It was a bitter 
thought to her, that had she known how securely she was con- 
cealed, she might have remained in safety. The morning meal 
of the Indians was a large black snake, which was roasted and 
divided. A few inches only fell to the poor girl's share, but 
the piquant sauce of hunger made it seem delicious food. She 
was always permitted to share in everything with her captors. 

At one time, when the men were all absent from the camp, 
a large deer was seen making directly toward it. The old 
chief's wife ordered Mary to take a gun and shoot the animal, 
as she was known to be the best shot among all the women. 
The chief had expressly forbidden firing, on pain of death, in 
the absence of his men, the discharge of a gun being the ap- 



156 

pointed signal of the near approach of an enemy, and Mary 
hesitated to obey; but being urged, she fired and shot the 
deer. In a few moments the Indians came rushing in, ex- 
pecting to encounter the foe ; and, when informed that it was 
a false alarm, the chief raised his tomahawk to kill the white 
girl who had dared to disobey his commands. His wife threw 
herself between him and the intended victim, exclaiming that 
she herself was the offender; but for a moment, as the uplifted 
weapon was whirled several times round the Indian's head, 
Mary expected he would bury it in her own. Perhaps the 
prospect of plenty of savory venison for supper did something 
to pacify the angry warrior. 

At another time, when, by some means or other, the small- 
pox was introduced among the party, the captive became des- 
perately ill with that terrible disease. For ten days she was 
entirely blind, being left alone in a lodge built for her at some 
distance from the camp, near a spring. Her food was brought 
and left at the spring, to which she would grope her way once 
in the twenty-four hours. Her sufferings were somewhat 
alleviated by an ointment made by simmering prickly pear in 
bear's grease, which a compassionate squaw prepared for her. 
During this season of distress, she often wished for death, and 
sometimes the temptation was strong to rend the ulcers that 
covered her face; but the thought of home, and the hope of 
being at some future day delivered from her cruel bondage, 
would support her to a patient endurance of her protracted 
trials. 

Some of the articles in our heroine's possession, had been 
taken from her. A knife was left her, which she preserved 
with the greatest care, and took every opportunity, when she 
could be unobserved, of cutting her name on the bark of trees, 
in the hope that the marks might lead to her rescue. She also 
retained a pair of silver shoe-buckles, of which no one offered 
to deprive her. 

It is supposed that this party of Indians remained about a 
year in the northwestern part of Tennessee, at the forks of 
Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, and near the junction of 






157 

the Ohio, with the Mississippi. Passing into what is now In- 
diana, they spent some time at a place called "French Lick." 
Several white prisoners were brought in, meanwhile, from 
Tennessee and Kentucky; amongst them, a man named Riddle 
and his two daughters ,who were occasionally in Miss Nealy's 
company. At all times, when her health permitted, Mary was 
engaged in some useful occupation, never caring how labori- 
ous it might be, as her mental disquietude was thus relieved. 
The only employment she objected to, was the moulding of 
bullets, to which she was often compelled. 

As the journey was continued, she became acquainted with 
a French fur trader, whom she besought to aid her in effecting 
her escape. He would not listen to her entreaties, and she 
left him indignant at his want of humane feeling. A little 
conscience-stricken, perhaps, for his refusal, he brought a 
blanket the next day and offered it to her: but she rejected 
the gift, saying that she scorned to receive anything from a 
heartless wretch, who was too cowardly to give her the aid 
she required. 

After they had passed into Michigan, where their numbers 
were increased by other captives, one of the females, weak 
from exhaustion and carrying an infant a few months old, 
failed to keep up with the rest, though assisted occasionally by 
the kind-hearted squaws. When they recamped at night, a 
consultation was held among the men, and it was resolved to 
kill the child. They had built a large fire, and when the wood 
had been consumed to a bed of glowing coals, one of the war- 
riors snatched the babe from its mother's breast and threw it 
into the midst. It was instantly drawn out and thrown back 
into the arms of its distracted mother; again snatched from 
her and thrown into the fire to be again drawn out ; and this 
fiendish pastime was repeated amidst the screams of the 
agonized parent, and hideous yells from the savages, leap- 
ing and dancing the while with frantic gestures, till life was 
extinct in the little victim; when it was torn to pieces by the 
murderers. Scenes like this which were not of uncommon oc- 
currence, inspired Miss Nealy with a feeling of detestation to- 



158 

wards the perpetrators of such outrages, which became habit- 
ual, and amounted to a vindictive hate, of which she could 
never wholly divest herself. She would never speak their lan- 
guage unless compelled by circumstances to use it, and used to 
say, that the only favor she ever asked of them was, that she 
might be put to death. When, in after life, a favorite grand- 
daughter, who had been born and reared in her house ex- 
pressed a desire to wear ear-rings, and was about to purchase 
a pair, she persuaded her not to do so, speaking with melan- 
choly earnestness on the subject, saying she should never be 
able to look at her beloved child without pain, if decorated 
with ornaments which would so strongly remind her of her 
savage enemies. 

It was Miss Nealy's lot to witness, at one time, the punish- 
ment of a young Indian and his paramour, for a crime rarely 
committed among the savage tribes. The criminals were 
bound to separate trees and stoned to death, the white prison- 
ers being compelled to see the execution. 

Many more incidents of adventure, perils and sufferings, 
are remembered by the family and descendants of our heroine, 
of her forest travel and sojourn with her wild companions. 
But the limits of a brief sketch permit only the record of those 
necessary to illustrate the experience common to too many 
in those fearful days of our republic. After a captivity of 
two years, the prisoners were taken to Detroit, where the In- 
dians expected to receive from the British Government, pay- 
ment for the scalps they had brought. The savages received 
much attention from the English, as important allies, while 
encamped in the neighborhood of the city. Mary was sent every 
day to the house of a French resident, to procure milk for a 
sick child of the chief. She saw the mistress of the house 
frequently, who became interested in her when she learned 
her history. One morning, she told her to come on the following 
day; to drop her milk can outside the gate, enter the house 
without rapping, and proceed directly to a certain room. The 
poor girl had been suffering from chills and fever for several 
weeks. The next morning, when she was ordered to go for 



159 

milk, it happened that her paroxysm of fever "was upon 
her. In the half delirious state of her brain, she had been 
forming a plan of escape, and resolving that she would take 
with her the shoe-buckles which constituted all her wealth ; and 
she was looking for them in a box when the order was repeated. 
She persisted in her search, being able to find but one, when her 
angry master struck her, and threatened to kill her at once, if 
she hesitated to obey. Turning suddenly round, she begged 
him to do so, and put an end to her sufferings, for the pain 
and bewilderment of fever had caused her to forget that she 
might soon be free. However, she set out, but soon re- 
turned and dropped the odd buckle into the box, to be again 
beaten and sent on her errand. By the time she had reached 
the Frenchman's gate, her senses were sufficiently restored 
to remember the directions of the day previous. When the 
Indians came in search of her, the woman of the house in- 
formed them that the girl had come to the gate, apparently in 
anger, had thrown down the vessels and departed, she did not. 
know whither — up the street. On the following day, men were 
sent by the city authorities to whom complaint had been made 
by the Indians, to search the house; but no trace of the fugi- 
tive could be found. All this time, Mary lay quietly concealed 
in a small dark closet, the door of which, opening into a larger 
one, could not be easily discovered. It was a place constructed 
expressly for stowing away plate, money, or other valuables, 
when a ransacking was threatened. 

Miss Nealy occupied that room for a month, hidden from all 
eyes, and sustained by the kind care of her benefactress. An 
accident had nearly betrayed and remanded her to captivity. 
One day when looking carelessly from the window, she was 
startled by seeing the face of an Indian, whom she knew too 
well, and by the gleam of his eye, she saw that he had also 
recognized her. She hastened to inform her protectress, and 
implore her aid. There was no time to be lost, for the savages 
would not be slow in reclaiming their prisoner. She was sup- 
plied immediately with boy's apparel, which she put on; her 
hair was cut off, and she was sent, accompanied by the son of 



160 

her hostess, half a mile into the city to the house of another 
kind-hearted Frenchwoman, wbo gave her shelter, and kept 
her concealed through several Weeks. Work was also procured 
for her from a tailor^ and she was enabled to earn sufficient 
to clothe herself comfortably. When the fear of pursuit was 
over, she was removed by night to an island in the river, 
where she found seventeen other captives whom she had met 
before, in her travels through Indiana, Ohio, or Michigan; 
some of them having been purchased by the British authori- 
ties, some having escaped through the assistance of the French 
inhabitants of the city. 

Our heroine remained but three weeks in this new asylum. 
Upon leaving the island, the captives were conveyed down the 
lakes, stopping some time at Niagara, and down the St. Law- 
rence river, and were landed upon the shore of Lake Cham- 
plain, where they were exchanged as prisoners of war. Be- 
fore they quitted the vessel, one of the British officers en- 
deavored to exact a promise from the company, which con- 
sisted of women, old men, and boys, that they would not aid 
or abet the continentals against the royal government during 
the continuance of the war. This heroic woman was accus- 
tomed to relate, with much dignity and spirit, bow she refused 
to give the pledge, and challenged the officer to go on shore 
with her into the thicket of bushes, where she "would cut out 
a switch and brush him till he would be glad to promise, on 
his own part, that he would never again be caught upon pro- 
vincial ground." She would describe the scene with as much 
pride at ninety, as she could have acted in it three-score and 
ten years before. The others caught a portion of her spirit, 
and in very truth cut them switches as soon as they were on 
shore, daring the officer to come on, and giving three cheers 
for the brave young woman. 

Her companions told her also that they were in expectation 
of seeing oue of the American generals in a few days, and 
that when he came he would provide her with a horse and sad- 



3 This tailor gave her a box, carried to represent a Bible and this box Is now in 
possession of Chas. G. Spears of Tallula. 



161 

die. She continued her journey with this company for several 
days, and when the others faltered from fatigue, and were un- 
able to proceed, she went on in the hope of finding employ- 
ment among- the Dutch settlers, her only companions being an 
old man and two boys. After a day or two of weary travel in 
the snow, these also gave up, and one morning left her to pro- 
ceed alone. It was a sad day for her — tramping on through 
the snow and water in which her feet plunged at every step, 
and toward evening a heavy rain drenched her garments. Yet 
her courage did not fail, for she had now before her the hope 
of eventually reaching her beloved home, and felt that her suc- 
cess depended on herself alone. She could not persuade her- 
self to stop for rest till after dark, when she came up to the 
door of a small cabin where a cheerful light was glimmering. 
Very cheering was the aspect of the huge blazing logs in the 
ample chimney, but other comforts there were none; scarce 
even a morsel of bread, and not a bed could be furnished on 
which to lay her wearied limbs. She was, however, accustomed 
to hardships, and lying down on the floor with her feet to the 
fire, without stopping to dry her clothes, soon fell into a pro- 
found slumber. In the morning she awoke in great distress 
from oppression at the lungs, and unable to speak except in 
a whisper. The woman in the cabin, though wretchedly poor, 
had a kind heart, and made the suffering stranger as comfor- 
table as she could. Miss Xealy, from her acquaintance with 
Indian life, had acquired a knowledge of disease and of medi- 
cine, which now proved useful in her own case. She happened 
to have some medicines about her, which she directed the good 
woman how to prepare and administer. A severe attack of 
illness finally yielded to the youthful vigor of her constitu- 
tion, strengthened by endurance of all kinds of hardships, but 
it was some weeks before she was able to travel. 

In the fear of a recurrence of scurvy, from which she had 
previously suffered, she procured at a little settlement a few 
days' journey from this cabin, a small quantity of snuff and 
other simple remedies prescribed by a traveller, spending al- 
most the last penny she possessed for these and a little ja- 



162 

panned snuff-box, which she presented a few days ago to the 
narrator of these incidents of her history. In this settlement 
she also learned that a farmer who lived in the vicinity in- 
tended to remove with his family in the spring to the south- 
western part of Virginia ; and that his wife was in want of a 
"help" to spin, weave, and make up men's and boys' clothing. 
This was good news indeed, and she lost no time in making 
application to be received in that capacity. 

During the winter our heroine labored very assiduously, 
doing the washing of the family and milking the cows, in ad- 
dition to the other employments for which her services had 
been engaged; thus leaving herself not a moment of relief 
from toil till late bedtime, and receiving in return only fifty 
cents a week, and but a small part of her wages in money. 

When the family set out in the spring on their southward 
journey, she assisted in driving the stock, as well as in cook- 
ing and doing all kinds of work necessary in "camping out;" 
making almost the entire journey on foot, and being compen- 
sated for her laborious services with only food and lodging, 
and such protection as the company of those she attended, af- 
forded her. Yet, throughout her life, she seemed to remember 
that family with warm affection, and spoke of them with 
gratitude ; it was her first experience, since her doleful captiv- 
ity, of human sympathy and home-feeling; and her generous 
heart overflowed towards those who gave it : her labors to 
serve them being esteemed as nothing in the balance. 

When they reached the Susquehanna river — where she was 
to pay her own ferriage — such having been the agreement — 
she asked permission of the ferryman to paddle herself across 
in a small and leaky canoe lying on the shore near by. He 
consented, warning her, however, that it was unsafe; but she 
was an excellent swimmer and intent on saving her money, 
which she did, and crossed in safety. The people in the ferry- 
boat were less fortunate; when half way across, one of the 
cows, affrighted, jumped overboard and swam back to shore. 
The Dutch farmer requested Mary to return with him and 
bring the animal over; and she did so, getting her on board, 



163 

holding her by the horn with the left hand, and having the 
thumb and finger of her right thrust into her nostrils; 
thus keeping the cow quiet for a distance of nearly a mile. A 
modern belle would laugh at such an instance of usefulness; 
but our grandmothers were more practical and would not 
have felt ashamed of it. It's happy consequences will soon be 
seen. 

When the travellers arrived at their place of destination, 
Mary obtained employment for a few days in a family. It 
happened that a farmer by the name of Spears, who iived in 
the neighborhood, called in, and heard the girl's romantic 
history. His wife wanted some one to assist her in household 
duties, and Miss Nealy was recommended to the place; she 
accepted the proposal to go at once, and mounted behind her 
future father-in-law, rode to his house, where she remained 
some time waiting to find some party that might be going to 
Tennessee, for her fears of being recaptured by the Indians 
had grown stronger the farther she travelled westward. 

We will now turn to another scene in this "over true tale." 
When her family had ascertained beyond doubt that she had 
been captured by the Indians, they gave up all hope of ever 
seeing her again. They grieved as for one dead; but there 
was one whose sorrow was all too quickly banished; the be- 
trothed lover of Mary, who, judging that the smiles of a new 
love was the best consolation for his loss, speedily transferred 
his vows to another comely maiden, and was by this time on 
the eve of marriage. It happened about this period that 
Mary's brother went on business into the interior of Ken- 
tucky. On the very night of his arrival, at a rustic tavern, he 
fell in with several travellers, who were relating their differ- 
ent adventures after an excellent supper. One of them had 
come all the way from Pennsylvania, and described with 
graphic glee, the scene of the crossing of the Susquehanna by 
the Dutch emigrant family, the escape of the cow, and her 
recapture and bringing over by the heroic young woman. That 
girl, he added, had been a captive among the Indians, and had 
escaped from them. To this account young Nealy listened 



164 

with aroused attention. "Did you hear the young -woman's 
name?" he eagerly asked. "They did call her Polly" — an- 
swered the stranger, "but I heard no other." "Did you ob- 
serve that she was left-handed?" again the brother asked. 
"She certainly was," was the reply; "I noticed it both in 
pulling her canoe and in holding the cow." No farther infor- 
mation could be given; but this was enough. The brother 
had no doubt that this was indeed his long-lost sister, and 
that her course had been directed homeward. And now, 
what was to be done? He was convinced that no family would 
be likely to emigrate in a southwest direction in that time of 
peril; she had no chance of an escort to return home; and 
through the vast wilderness that intervened, how could an un- 
protected girl travel alone? He determined, therefore, him- 
self to set out; go to the ferry on the Susquehanna, where the 
scene described was said to have taken place, and to trace his 
sister thence, if possible. 

He set off accordingly, taking the precaution to make in- 
quiry at every cabin, and of every person whom he met, lest 
he should pass her on the way. When in Virginia, he stop- 
ped one day to feed his horse, and make the usual inquiries 
at a farm house, and was told that a young woman who had 
been in captivity among the Indians, and had recently come 
to the country, was living in a family some six miles distant. 
Nealy lost not a moment; but flinging the saddle on his horse 
before he had tasted his corn, rode off in the direction pointed 
out. Before he had reached the house, he met his sister. 
What pen can describe that meeting? 4 We shall not attempt 
it. 

Mary made immediate preparations to return home, but 
suffered many hardships, and was exposed to many dangers 
on their way through the almost trackless wild. The howling 
of wolves, the screams of panthers, and the low growl of bears 
were familiar sounds in her ears; but nothing daunted her 
save the fearful thought of again falling into the hands of 



4 This noble brother died about Ave years ago, at his residence near Nashville, 
Tennessee. 



165 

merciless savages. Even after her reunion Avith her family, 
this terror so preyed on her mind that she had no peace, and 
her widowed mother yielded to her entreaties, and removed to 
a more secure home in Kentucky. 

The story of Miss Nealy's return to Tennessee, and her 
strange adventures was soon noised abroad, and her former 
lover, repenting his infidelity, came once more to prefer his 
claim to her favor. It may he conceived with what scorn she 
spurned the addresses of a man who had not only lacked the 
energy to attempt her rescue from the Indians, and had 
soon forgotten her, but who was now crowning his perfidy 
by the basest falsehood towards the other fair one to whom 
his faith was pledged. 

Mary Nealy was united in marriage to George Spears, on 
the 24th of February, 1785, at her new home in Lincoln 
County, Kentucky. 5 After her marriage, her mother re- 
turned with the rest of her family to Tennessee. Mrs. 
Spears and her husband continued to reside for two years 
near Carpenter's Station, in Lincoln County; and during the 
three succeeding years at or near Grey's Station, in Greene 
County, Kentucky. While living here it was her custom to 
accompany her husand to the field, sometimes in the capacity 
of guard, sometimes to help him hoe the corn; and always 
carrying her children with her. On one occasion, while thus 
occupied, they heard a whistle like the note of a wild turkey. 
One of their neighbors, an old hunter, cautioned them against 
following the sound, which he knew to be made by an Indian, 
whom he resolved to ferret out. He accordingly crept noise- 
lessly along the ground, like one hunting the bird, till close to 
the spot whence the whistle came, when he fired, and an In- 
dian fell. 

On one occasion strange sounds were heard close to the 
dwelling at night, and Mrs. Spears looking through a "chink" 
in the cabin, saw the shadow of a man stealthily moving 
around the house. She awoke her husband; he climbed the 



5 Date copied from Mrs. Spears' family Bible. 



166 

ladder to the loft, and putting his gun through an aperture in 
the roof, fired upon the savage. Five Indians started up and 
ran off; but he continued firing till the alarm was given at 
the fort, and aid was sent. A company of soldiers followed 
the trail for several miles, and judged the number of the sav- 
ages to have been about fifty. While residing here, Mrs. 
Spears received intelligence of the murder of one of her 
brothers by the Indians. 

Mr. Spears, who had no fear of them, was in the habit of 
going to the fort to try bis skill in shooting at a target; and 
when he did not return by dusk, his wife would leave the cabin 
and betake herself with the child to the woods for safety, for 
her terror of the lurking enemies, whose cruelty she had so 
bitterly experienced, was very great. One night, having thus 
left her home, she was standing with her infant in her arms, 
under a wide spreading tree, awaiting the return of her hus- 
band, when she heard the shrill note of a screech-owl, directly 
over her head, and fell to the ground as if shot. She often 
described, in after life, the mortification she felt, on recover- 
ing from her fright ; but excused herself by pleading that the 
fears which so overcame her were for the little helpless child. 
In times of peculiar danger, she was accustomed to do sew- 
ing and washing for two young men at the fort, in return for 
coming home every night with her husband, and lodging in the 
cabin. 

On another occasion, when they had reason to believe a 
large body of Indians were in the neighborhood, and were 
warned to leave the cabin without loss of time, Mrs. Spears 
hastily buried her dishes, and emptying out part of the feath- 
ers from her bed, put it on her horse, with such other articles 
of household service as she could carry, mounted, taking her 
child in her lap though within two weeks of her second con- 
finement — and assisted in driving away the stock. The alarm 
was given that the Indians were near and they must ride for 
their lives, and she urged her horse at full speed a mile and 
a half, with all her incumbrances. A party of soldiers was 
sent out from the fort to reconnoitre the enemy, and struck 



167 

the trail of some forty savages, but did not venture to follow 
them more than a few miles. 

One day, a man named Fisher came from the fort to Mr. 
Spear's field, to bring a message to him. On his return he 
was pursued by Indians, and shot down and scalped in the 
sight of Mrs. Spears, before a gun could be brought to bear on 
the fierce assailants. Such incidents kept our pioneers in a 
continual state of suspense and dread, and during the time 
they were living in the fort for greater safety, their condition 
was but little more comfortable. Their cattle were continu- 
ally driven off, and their hunters, as well as those who ven- 
tured out to till the ground, murdered by stealthy foes; so 
that they suffered terribly for want of provisions. While in 
the fort, Mrs. Spears heard of two more of her relations being 
killed by the Indians ; five of her family in all, fell victims to 
savage fury. 

The three oldest children of Mrs. Spears were born during 
those years of terror, when the border settlers suffered so 
severely. Mr. Spears was a man of intelligence and sincere 
piety; he was a kind husband, and as they were blest with 
health and competence, their home was a happy one. Mrs. 
Spears was gentle and amiable in her manners, and affec- 
tionate in her nature, with a warm and generous heart; al- 
ways modest and yielding, except when sterner qualities 
were in requisition, when the strength and firmness of her 
nature were apparent. She made no attempt at any time to 
divest herself of early habits, in comformity to the improve- 
ments of the time, or changing fashions. A carriage was al- 
ways at her disposal, yet she preferred riding on horseback 
when the journey was not too long; and in such cases she 
used a large covered farm wagon. Always charitable to the 
poor, and liberal to all with whom she had dealings, her in- 
dustry and systematic housewifery were admirable, and not 
a moment of her time was ever wasted. Besides being en- 
gaged in weaving, sewing, and other domestic employments, 
she made salves, ointments, and decoctions continually for all 
the afflicted of her acquaintance. Her knowledge of medicine 



168 

was made available to her friends and neighbors and to the 
poor generally, gratuitously ;while she accepted compensation 
from such as came from a distance and were able to offer it. It 
was a desire to do goodwhich first induced her to undertake the 
most laborious duties of a physician among her own sex, medi- 
cal practitioners being very scarce in that region ; and her suc- 
cess soon made her so celebrated, that her aid was sought from 
every direction. She became fond of the practice, and con- 
tinued to ride her circuit until a few months before her death. 

There were some incidents in her experience, even after 
the cessation of Indian hostilities, which are highly illustra- 
tive. One morning, her husband went out a short distance, 
taking his gun, and bidding her to follow him with his knife, if 
she heard firing. Hearing a report soon after, she ran with 
the knife in the direction of the sound, and heard soon after 
a second shot. Mr. Spears snatched the knife from her 
hands and plunged it to the handle into — a monstrous bear, 
"which" Mrs. Spears used to say, "had in its embrace our 
biggest and best sow. It was some time before the sow re- 
covered her breath, as each shot caused the bear to hug the 
tighter, though not a bone was broken." 

Mrs. Spears was fond of high-mettled horses, and was ac- 
customed to ride a very spirited one. Her husband warned 
her that the animal was apt to run away ; but our heroine de- 
clared she would cure the propensity, which she did one day, 
when the mare had run about a mile with her, by suddenly 
checking, so as to cause the animal to dash its head against 
the trunk of a beech-tree by the roadside, while the fearless 
rider sprang off in time to save herself. 

At one time Mrs. Spears was sent for in great haste to at- 
tend a woman living on the opposite side of Green river, sev- 
eral miles distant, Her own babe was too young to leave, and 
she set off on horseback carrying it in her arms. Arriving at 
the river, she found that the ferry boat had just pushed from 
shore. She called to the man to. return, urging the necessity 
of the case, but the man replied that his load was too heavy. 
On this the spirited matron urged her mare into the river, 



169 

swam her past the ferry boat, reached the opposite bank first, 
and was in time to thank the ferryman for his humanity be- 
fore his boat touched the landing. The child she carried on 
this occasion was accustomed to relate this anecdote, and its 
truth was confirmed by the old neighbors in Kentucky, among 
whom the lady to whom we are indebted for this memoir, 
travelled a little more than a year ago. 

Mr. and Mrs. Spears removed with their servants — a negro 
boy and girl — to Illinois in 1824. Their three surviving chil- 
dren, all of whom had families, accompanied them. All had 
prospered and were comfortable in their worldly circum- 
stances. They settled at Clary's Grove, in Menard County. 
The parents were blessed in their children, and had " godli- 
ness with contentment." Mrs. Spears' solicitous care for 
her servants, in regard not only to bodily comfort, but moral 
and religious culture, equalled that she had bestowed on her 
own children, and it was returned by the most devoted affec- 
tion and willing obedience. "When the boy — Jim — became of 
age, his mistress gave him a liberal outfit Avith liberty to de- 
part if he chose to do so ; but he preferred remaining with her. 
By thrifty increase of his store, Jim was enabled afterwards 
to purchase both his parents, who belonged to a relative of 
Mrs. Spears, then residing in Missouri. They were re- 
deemed by the dutiful son, and brought to Clary's Grove but 
a very short time since. The sympathy and aid given by Jim's 
mistress to this cherished project, may throw additional light 
on her most lovely and christian character. 

At a very advanced age — between eighty and ninety — Mrs. 
Spears visited her brother in Tennessee. This brother in the 
time of the Indian war was riding in company with her mother 
when she was wounded by a shot from an Indian. He killed 
the assailant, but while attempting to place his mother again 
in the saddle received a shot from another lurking savage. 
"A man who accompanied them helped him to mount his horse, 
and the party made good their escape. On her way to visit 
this brother, Mrs. Spears travelled in a large covered wagon, 
and was accompanied by her grandson, a boy about fourteen 



170 

years of age. They camped out every night. During one day 
Mrs. Spears had noticed a horseman pass them several times, 
and attentively mark, as she thought, one of her best horses. 
Apprehensive of thievish intent, she had her bed laid that 
night upon the ground that her quick ear might catch the 
sound of approaching footsteps. In the dead silence of the 
night she heard the sound, and raising herself with a loud 
voice, demanded who was there? The intruder retired with- 
out making any answer, but in the space of an hour or two re- 
turned, with the same stealthy step, which was again detected 
by the watchful matron. Starting up, she repeated her ques- 
tion, and when no reply came, charged the man with his ne- 
farious design, and threatened punishment if he dared to 
come again. The thief did not seem inclined to give up his 
prey, but came the third time on horseback. The matron 
aware of his approach, prepared herself for him, and as he 
came near, suddenly sprang towards him, holding a large ar- 
ticle of dress, which she flapped in his horse's face with such 
a report that the animal wheeled round in affright, and 
bounded swiftly out of her sight. Then the thought struck her, 
perhaps the rider had been thrown and killed ; and she was un- 
easy, till by laying her ear to the ground she could hear the 
regular receding tramp of the horse, showing that the man 
had escaped without injury. 

Mrs. Spears died at her residence at Clary's Grove, on the 
26th January, 1852, surrounded by affectionate children and 
grandchildren, who still reverently cherish the memory of 
her virtues, and look to the example of her well-spent and 
useful life. The times of trial which nurtured such noble na- 
tures, by developing their strength and power of endurance, 
may never return in our powerful and prosperous country; 
yet have we all work to do in the great battle of life, and not 
without lasting benefit may we contemplate the character of 
those heroic matrons who bore so much of the burden in our 
struggle for independence, and whose influence was so con- 
trolling and extensive, though unacknowledged in the history 
which deals only with the actions of men. 



171 

A page of records copied from Mary Neely Spears' Bible, 
which is now owned by James B. Beekman, of Jacksonville. 

George Spears 6 married to Mary Neely, February 21, 1785. 
George Spears, son of George Spears and Christiana, his wife, 
was born August 11, 1761, died April 16, 1838. 

Mary Neely, now Mary Spears, daughter of William and 
Margaret (Pattison) Neely, was born August 20, 1761. (Ad- 
ded by son), Died January 26, 1852. 

Sons and daughters of George and Mary Spears : 

Hanna Spears, born Dec. 27, 1785. 

William Spears, born Oct. 17, 1787. 

Mary Spears, born Aug. 2, 1789 

John Spears, born August 1, 1792. 

Solomon Spears, born May 17, 1795. 

David Spears, born Oct. 2, 1797. 

Elizabeth Spears, born Aug. 4, 1799. 

George Spears, born March 9, 1805. 



6 George Spears, husband of Mary Neely, enlisted among the patriots of the 
Revolution, and served as lieutenant in the war of 1812. 



172 



Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in Illinois 

BY MRS. HARRIET J. WALKER. 

Illinois has the honor of being the only state that has en- 
deavored to ascertain the number of Revolutionary soldiers 
buried in the state, giving their records of service and so far 
as possible, locating their places of burial. This research was 
started in 1911, while serving as State Historian in the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. At the present time 
over 600 soldiers are known to have been buried in the state, 
and 81 counties are honored as being the burial place of these 
men who belonged to the Nation's "Roll of Honor." 

Every effort has been made to verify records, and to locate 
the burial places, but owing to the division of county boun- 
daries, and the removal of soldiers to other counties, this is 
almost impossible. All the county histories have been studied 
and with success in many instances. 

It is my desire to complete this research into the unwritten 
history of Illinois before the coming Centennial of the state, 
and have published in book form the results of nearly six 
years of work. In addition to the 600 and over, many widows 
applied for pensions, some of these soldiers are no doubt 
buried in the state. If any reader of the Journal knows of 
any facts regarding the burial place of any of these men, will 
you not send information to me in care of the Journal? 

The following widows applied for pensions after 1836 : 
Adams County — Margaret Mooney, soldier, Bryan Mooney. 
Cass County — Philadelphia McCuraber, soldier, John Mc- 

Cumber. 
Cook County — Salome Skinner, soldier, Amos Skinner. 
Clinton County — Catherine Ammons, soldier, Thomas Amnions. 
Edgar County — Sarah Ann Combs, soldier, William Combs. 
Edgar County — Mary Mullins, soldier, James Mullins. 



173 

Effingham County — Mary Whitford, soldier, William Whit- 
ford . 

Fulton County — Hannah Bivens, soldier, John Bivens. 

Greene County — Mary Reiker, soldier, Leonard Reiker. 

Jefferson County — Mary Hassell, soldier, Benjamin Hassell. 

Knox County — Jane Benson, soldier, Levin Benson. 

Lawrence County — Keziah Hughes, soldier, Henry Hughes. 

Menard County — Nancy Armstrong, soldier, Robert Armstrong. 

Monroe County — Martha Givens, soldier, Robert Givens. 

Monroe County — Susan Barker, soldier, Zedekiah Barker. 

Montgomery County — Mary Canady, soldier, John Canady. 

Ogle County — Mittee Hatch, soldier, Moses Hatch . 

Randolph County — Jane Wodside, soldier, Samuel Wodside. 

Randolph County — Elsie Stufflebien, soldier, John Stuffle- 
bien. 

Tazewell County — Elizabeth Powell, soldier, Levin H. Powell. 

Starke County — Rhoda Frisbee, soldier, Philamon Frisbee. . 

Washington County — Elizabeth Watts, soldier, Benjamin 
Watts. 

Wayne County — Ruth Kerr, soldier, James Kerr. 

White County — Esther Cross, soldier, Zachariah Cross. 

Woodford County — Catherine O'Neil, soldier, Constantine 
O'Neil. 

EDGAJ.i COUNTY. 

Elijah Austin was from Massachusetts, where he enlisted 
in Capt. John King's company, Col. Mark Hopkins' regi- 
ment; he enlisted July 15, 1776, serving 16 days in Berk- 
shire county. He came to Edgar county, Illinois and died 
there; is buried near North Arm church. — "Mass. Soldiers in 
the Revolution." 

Hugh Barr was from Massachusetts, where he served three 
days in Col. James Converse's regiment; again for three days 
in Capt. Francis Starr's company. He again enlisted in Sept. 
same year (1777) serving 16 days in Capt. Benjamin Nye's 
company, Col. Nathan Sparhawk's regiment, serving three 
months. He came to Edgar county and died there ; is buried 
near Flemington. — "Mass. Soldiers in the Revolution." 



174 

James Benson was from Talbot county, Maryland. He 
served as a sailor and after the war settled in Virginia. In 
1824 he came with his son to Edgar county, Illinois. He is 
probably buried in the county, as his son removed to Jasper 
county in 1851. — *' County History.'' 

Gurdin Burnham enlisted in Connecticut in 1775 ; he was on 
board the ship Alfred as a drummer, was captured in an en- 
gagement off Barbadoes and was exchanged in 1778. He 
came to Edgar county, but the place of burial is not known. 
He was pensioned. 

Elijah Clay enlisted from Virginia in 1780; he was in the 
battle of Guilford Court House. He removed to Edgar coun- 
ty, Illinois, but his place of burial is not known. He was 
pensioned. 

John Conrey enlisted from New York where he served in 
the war; was in the battle of White Plains. Coming to Illi- 
nois he settled in Edgar county at a place called Bloomfield 
Ledge. He died July 1834, aged 84 years and is buried in 
the Wynn Grave Yard. He was pensioned. 

William Gannon, Sr., enlisted from North Carolina in 1780 ; 
he was in the battles of Camden, Guilford Court House, Eutaw 
Springs, and Hughanne, where he was wounded. He died in 
Edgar county, Illinois a very aged man. He was pensioned. 

Ferrel Hester was from Maryland where he eulisted in 
1776; he again enlisted in the North Carolina troops in 1780, 
and was in the battles of Camden and Owans Ford. He came 
to Edgar county to reside and died there an aged man. He 
was pensioned. 

William Hurst was born in Berkeley county, Virginia, in 
1755. He enlisted in Westmoreland county Pennsylvania in 
July 1780, in Capt. William Campbell's company, Col. Archi- 
bald Loughrey's regiment. They were to have joined George 
Eoger Clark's expedition, but at Loughrey's Creek, they were 
attacked by the Indians, when both captain and colonel were 
killed. William Hurst was condemned to be burned, but was 
ransomed by McKee, a white chief, and was taken to Detroit 
where he was a prisoner until May, 1781, when he was taken 



175 

to a place near Montreal and was exchanged, arriving in New 
York about Christmas, 1781. After the war he removed to 
Kentucky, and from there to Indiana and in 1836 he came to 
Edgar county, Illinois, where he died Dec. 7, 1836. A monu- 
ment was erected to his memory at Mount Carmel cemetery 
and inspiring dedicatory services were held. Among others 
who gave addresses was Prof. G. W. Brown, Superintendent 
of Schools, who has been most interested in gaining informa- 
tion regarding the soldiers buried in Edgar county. William 
Hurst was pensioned. 

William James was from Maryland where he enlisted July 
20, 1776 by Michael Burgess. He enlisted again as Corporal 
in the Fourth regiment, 11th company, serving from April 
1777 to Nov. 1780. He removed to Edgar county, Illinois, 
where he died and is buried near Asher church. "Maryland 
Records." 

James Knight, Sr., enlisted from Pennsylvania in 1775, and 
again a second time, serving on the Frigate Randolph in 
1776. His ship was in several engagements and captured 
three British ships. Coming to Illinois, he located in Edgar 
county and died on the farm where he located in Elbridge 
township. He was pensioned. 

William Meadows was from Maryland where he served in 
the war, enlisting in 1776. He came to Edgar county, Illi- 
nois to live and died there ; he is buried in the Prior cemetery. 
— "Maryland Records." 

William Means enlisted in South Carolina, in 1780; he was 
engaged in Gen. John Green's campaign of the South. He 
removed to Ohio, and from there to Edgar county, Illinois, 
locating in Paris township, in 1822, where he is probably 
buried. He was pensioned. 

Asa Moore was from Maryland where he enlisted in 1778; 
he was in the battle of Stony Point. After the war he re- 
moved to Pennsylvania and from there to Edgar county, Illi- 
nois. He was pensioned. 

Stephen Ogden was a soldier probably from Pennsylvania, 
though no record of service has been obtained. He was bur- 



176 

ied on Tompkins farm in Edgar county. — "Family Records." 

George Eedmon was from Rowan county, North Carolina, 
where he enlisted, serving as a wagoner ; he was in Gen. John 
Greene's campaign. Coming to Edgar county, Illinois, he 
settled in Paris township and is buried in a private graveyard 
about two miles south of Paris, in the Shelly Green farm. He 
was pensioned. 

Daniel Rhodes was from Massachusetts, where he served in 
Capt. Samuel Payson's company, Col. John Graton's regi- 
ment, as a "Minute Man," enlisting April 19, 1775 for 8 days; 
he again served for three months in Col. Joseph Read's regi- 
ment and again in Sept. 1776 in a battalion stationed at Hull. 
He came to Edgar county, Illinois and died there; is buried 
in the Ogden cemetery. — "Mass. in the Revolution." 

Daniel Rowell was from Connecticut, where he served in a 
regiment commanded by Capt. Jonathan Humphrey, Col. Sam- 
uel McClelland, in 1777. Coming to Illinois he lived in Edgar 
county, in Elbridge township. He was pensioned. 

Wilson Tharp was from Virginia where he served in the 
war. He came to Edgar county, Illinois, and there applied 
for a pension. — "Virginia Records." 

John Tutwiler was from Virginia, where he served in the 
war. He came to Illinois and for a time resided in Coles 
county, but removed to Edgar county, where he died and is 
buried in the Kansas cemetery. He was pensioned. 

Abraham "Wood was born Feb. 7, 1753 in Frederick county, 
Maryland. He removed to North Carolina, where he enlisted, 
serving for six months from July, 1777, with Capts. John 
Johnson, James Chapman, and Col. Matthew Lock. He came 
to Edgar county to reside where he applied for a pension. He 
died Oct. 14, 1833, aged 80 years. He was pensioned. 



177 



Old Trails ol Hancock County 
By HERBERT SPENCER SALISBURY, 

MEMBER OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

(Prepared for the Illinois State Historical Society at the 

request of some of the Hancock County Members 

of the Society). 

The land surveyor often notices on plain or hillside old grass 
grown furrows or gullies. Many of these are all that remain 
of former Indian trails or pioneer roads and some of them 
can be traced from river to river and even across States. 

The tracing of these old trails would be an excellent exer- 
cise for boy scouts. 

One of the principal trails of Hancock County was the 
Commerce and Rushville State Road. It extends from old 
Commerce, now a part of Nauvoo on the Mississippi River, at 
the head of the rapids, diagonally across Hancock County 
through Carthage to Plymouth and thence across Schuyler 
County through Rushville to Beardstown on the Illinois River, 
being almost on a line from Nauvoo to Beardstown. On the 
removal of the State Capital to Springfield, the stage road 
took this trail from Springfield to the Mississippi River and 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad follows near this old trail 
from Springfield to Beardstown, its present western ter- 
minus. 

Isham Gillam Davidson, grandfather of I. C. Davidson, 
present postmaster of Carthage, Illinois, drove the stage from 
Springfield to Beardstown on this trail. 

The stage coach made regular trips over this trail from 
Springfield to Nauvoo, and I have heard old settlers tell of 
seeing the coach appear at the edge of the clearing at Ply- 
mouth, the driver whipping up his four-horse team for the 
grand entry while the man beside him winded a horn and the 



178 

inhabitants of the little group of log cabins gathered in front 
of the tavern to hear the latest news from Springfield. I get 
this by direct tradition, as my grandfather, W. Jenkins Salis- 
bury, was a pioneer blacksmith of Plymouth, and my father, 
D. C. Salisbury, was born there in 1841. 

If you will examine a road map of Hancock and Schuyler 
Counties, you can see many places where the old trail is still 
in use, as for instance, the road northwest of Plymouth from 
corner to corner of Section 25, the road crossing Brunce's 
Creek in that section; in the northwest corner of St. Mary's 
Township and the southeast corner of Carthage Township 
and the crossing of Prairie Creek southeast of Carthage. 

From Carthage to Long Creek the trail is easily traced 
across the land of W. 0. Kunkel, and George Aleshire. The 
present road following the old trail down the hill to the creek 
and for some distance along it. The road also follows the 
old trail at the little creek near Nauvoo. On the northwest 
quarter of Section 30 in Rock Creek Township, a house re- 
cently owned by Emile Coeur stands parallel with the old 
trail and while surveying land I have noted many of the over- 
grown trenches and gullies that mark the old trail from Nau- 
voo to Beardstown and to the ancient town of Frederick on 
the Illinois River, this side of Beardstown. This trail may 
have been used by some of the Indians on their journeys to 
the "dark and bloody" ground of Kentucky. 

Almost the only good records of the pioneer trails are the 
physical traces. Very few documentary records were made 
until the land owners began to ask to have the roads run at 
right angles around their farms. In June, 1856, "Warren Mil- 
ler was ordered to survey a new route for that part of the 
Commerce and Rushville State Road extending from Rock 
Creek Township to Nauvoo, and the road was changed to 
run west directly from Section 30, in Rock Creek Township, to 
Sonora Landing on the Mississippi, and thence up the shore 
to Nauvoo. Another well known marked trail is the old route 
from Fountain Green, through Carthage to Warsaw. A 
branch of this trail leads southerly along the bluffs to Lima 



179 

Lake, — the hunters' Paradise of aboriginal and pioneer times. 

From Warsaw to Lime Lake the bluffs were dotted with 
prehistoric mounds and strewn with arrow heads and stone 
axes, while the shores of Lima Lake until recent years, 
abounded in broken flints froin arrows and fish spears. Up to 
1870 many people of Fountain Green vicinity traveled this 
trail to Lima Lake to fish, hunt ducks and gather pecans and 
persimmons. 

John Brewer, whose son, Thomas Brewer, is said to have 
been the first white child born in Hancock County, and the 
Lincolns, were the first settlers of Fountain Green Township. 
They found the Black Hawk Indians inhabiting the Crooked 
Creek woods and were on friendly terms with them. These 
Lincolns were relatives of President Lincoln. 

The Black Hawk Indians used the Fountain Green to War- 
saw trail. From Fountain Green to Carthage the trail is the 
ideal Indian trail, as it follows along the top or comb of the 
old glacier moraine and while passing across a region of 
many steep hills and creeks, avoids all but Crooked Creek, 
which it approaches at an easy incline and crosses at a ford, 
maintaining nearly a straight line the entire distance. 

From Fountain Green the trail ran northeast, probably to 
Peoria and the Great Lakes. I was born in Fountain Green 
Township in 1870, and when a boy have seen the old trail east 
of Fountain Green in use as a road, as well as many other 
trails that ran across the woodlands of the county before the 
woodlands were fenced. 

My mother, Sibian Weinman Salisbury, born in Fountain 
Green Township in 1842, and brought up a strict Presbyter- 
ian by Robert and Joanna (Brewer) McConnell, preserved 
many traditions of pioneer times told to her by the first set- 
tlers of Fountain Green Township and passed them on to 
me. 

Robert McConnell was an uncle of Senator 0. F. Berry and 
M. P. Berry, of Carthage. The McConnells were of good old 
Pennsylvania Scotch Presbyterian stock and M. P. Berry pre- 
serves with great care, the flint lock pistols carried by his 



180 

grandfather, Francis McConnell, in the war of 1812, while 
Frank Walker, of Fountain Green, has his sword. 

Mrs. Robert McConnell, sister of Thomas Brewer, men- 
tioned above, told my mother of her father entertaining a 
group of the Black Hawk Indians, at his cabin west of Foun- 
tain Green, at supper. After supper they gathered around 
the large fireplace to smoke the pipe of peace. One of the 
braves was seated on a heavy three-legged stool of rude con- 
struction, and when he leaned forward to light his pipe at 
the fire, the rear leg of the stool dropped out and upon re- 
suming an upright position he fell over backwards, whereup- 
on his comrades laughed uproariously. 

But the worst was yet to come, for the Black Hawk Indians 
felt bound to observe the usages of aboriginal hospitality 
which dictated an Indian feast given in return. 

The Lincolns and Brewers felt equally bound to attend the 
feast which abounded with venison, wild turkey, etc., and a 
large kettle of squirrels and prairie chickens boiled together, 
and alas, each bird and animal containing the viscera. Tra- 
dition does not say that the white visitors ate heartily of this 
horrid mess. My father says that the western Indians whom 
he visited in Nevada in 1865, were clean about their cooking. 

The mounds on which this group of Indians built their te- 
pees are still to be seen on the south side of the road across 
Section 30, near the center of the section on the high ridge 
along the old trail from Fountain Green to Nauvoo. 

In an early day "Warsaw was the chief market of the coun- 
ty, as there was no railroad, and steamboat traffic headed 
there. 

Pioneers of Fountain Green prepared pork for this market 
and were obliged to throw away the excess of spare ribs, pork 
chops, etc., as the hams, bacon and shoulders only, were 
marketable; the hams bringing at one time two and one half 
cents per pound, payable partly in money and partly in cali- 
co, hardware, whiskey, etc., many of our early pioneers being 
great believers in the efficacy of alcohol. 

Nauvoo was the only prohibition city in the State and in 



181 

1844 was the largest city in Illinois, and a University town, 
being twice as large as Chicago at that time. Carthage was 
then a little town, smaller than "Webster. Now Carthage is a 
church and college town, larger than Nativoo or Warsaw, and 
Nauvoo has the grog shops, which have been banished from 
Carthage for several decades. 

According to the available records the "squaring" of the 
road from Carthage to Fountain Green began February 14, 
1855, when, according to an Act of the Legislature, David 
Mack, M. Couchman and James A. Winston, being duly sworn 
by John M. Ferris, J. P. of Carthage, proceeded to re-locate 
such part of the State Eoad as lay between Carthage and 
Crooked Creek, to near its present location from Walnut 
Street to the southeast corner of Section 8, one-half mile 
north of the Fairview School house. The survey was made by 
Warren Miller, County Surveyor. The report of the viewers 
was filed May 2, 1855," C. Winston, Clerk, by E. Cherill, Dep- 
uty. Eecorded May 20, 1863. F. M. Corby, Clerk, A. Cherrill, 
Deputy. 

Another part was re-located in 1857 by E. M. Wieder, Eeu- 
ben Jacoby and A. J. Griffith. On August 31, 1839, William 
Smith, James Head and Nathan Ward reported to the Honor- 
able County Commissioners Court of Hancock County, that 
according to an order of the above named court, they viewed 
and located a road from Carthage to Warsaw, fifty feet wide 
and sixteen miles long, beginning at the west end of Main 
street in Carthage and ending at the east end of Clark Street 
in Warsaw. 

Then follows the field notes of J. W. Williams, but as they 
are strictly technical and of interest to surveyors only, I will 
spare the reader any reference to them, except to say that 
the road ran in the present road to Elvaston until the first 
turn where it went right on to Warsaw, as directly as prac- 
ticable, passing about one half mile south of Elvaston. 

There was an old trail to Hamilton and a State road direct- 
ly south from Hamilton to Marcelline in Adams County. 

A branch of the Commerce and Eushville road ran to Venus 



182 

at the head of the rapids somewhere near the site of Sonora 
Landing. It is said that Venus was once the seat of govern- 
ment of Hancock County. 

Another State road followed an old trail directly eastward 
from Carthage across Crooked Creek, (it is a little changed 
now), and Cedar Creek to Joetta and the county line and 
thence to Macomb, or Colchester. Joetta was called Union- 
town in 1873, and was changed to Joettabo in honor of Joel 
and Etta Booz, and afterwards to Joetta. 

The present Burnside road was called the Burlington Eoad. 

The Carthage and LaHarpe trail ran from the Burlington 
Road along the east side of Robert Baird's residence on Sec- 
tion 5, directly across the southern part of Pilot Grove Town- 
ship in a northeasterly direction past the south side of the 
McKay cemetery across Bock Creek and past the Cottage 
School house, and crossed the north branch of Crooked Creek 
nearly one-half mile further north than now, running thence 
in nearly the same direction to LaCrosse and on to LaHarpe. 
Since the country has been fenced, the road has been changed 
everywhere, except on the east side of Crooked creek, where 
it follows alongside the old route up the bluff. 

A county road was established from St. Mary's in 1839 
north past Bartlett's Mills on Crooked Creek to LaHarpe, — 
W. W. Graves, Joseph Botts and Franklin Bartlett, viewers. 

In 1843 a road was laid out from the St. Mary's and LaHarpe 
road to the stage road near George Boston's house, probably 
to the Commerce and Rushville Road. 

In 1843 Abraham Lincoln of Fountain Green and William 
Smith of Nauvoo, were authorized to view a road from Ramus 
to Nauvoo. This Abraham Lincoln was a cousin of President 
Lincoln and William Smith was a brother of Joseph Smith, 
and was a member of the State Legislature. 

In 1844 Jabez A. Beebe and Charles Chrisman viewed a road 
from Fountain Green to Macedonia, John M. Ferris, sur- 
veyor. 

Thus we see that between 1843 and 1844 Ramus changed its 
name to Macedonia and is now called Webster. 



183 

An old trail is plainly discernible from LaHarpe to Dallas 
and in 1850 John M. Ferris surveyed a road from Fountain 
Green to Pontoosuc. 

In 1850 Hancock County discharged her Court of Honorable 
County Commissioners and substituted Township organiza- 
tion. 

There are many other old trails distinguishable across 
Hancock County, but it appears that the two most important 
were the Commerce and Rushville trail and the Fountain 
Green and Warsaw trail, which apparently crossed each other 
near the north side of the courtyard in Carthage and could 
be conveniently commemorated by a monument at that cross- 
ing. 

The Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution of 
Carthage might very appropriately join in erecting such a 
marker. 



184 



James M. Davidson 

Born May 22, 1828 ; Died September 29, 1894. 
By E. A. Snively. 



FOREWORD. 

The Hon. Ethan Allen Snively, who has prer>ared this 
memoir of my father, the late James Monroe Davidson, came 
into business relations with Mr. Davidson as an employe in his 
office in Havana in 1860, and there and later in Carthage, was 
like a son and big brother in our home. His chivalry and 
cheery companionship, his loyal and efficient assistance to my 
father, through those trying years, has given him a place in 
the affections of Dr. Davidson's family that time cannot dim. 

Mr. Snively is perhaps the only man now living who knew 
the newspaper men and methods of this part of the middle 
west fifty years ago; he is certainly the one man living who 
knew my father intimately through the earlier struggles of 
his journalistic career, and who kept sufficiently in touch with 
him through his later years, to speak knowingly of his life as 
a rounded whole. 

J. M. Dempster Davidson, 
Macomb, 111., June 25, 1916. 



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E. A. SNIVELY. 



185 



James M. Davidson 

The time intervening between 1850 and 1870 was the most 
important period in newspaper history in the State of Illi- 
nois. It was also the most progressive, and made its influence 
felt throughout the nation in a manner that has not waned in 
the last four decades. Between these two dates the whig 
party, as a political organization, went out of existence and, 
under the controlling influence of Illinois newspapers, the Re- 
publican party was born and nourished' in this State and they 
gave to America a president who vies with Washington in the 
love and veneration of the people. 

The Northern portion of the State was largely settled by 
men from New England; the Southern portion by men from 
the South, while the Central portion was the abode of a cosmo- 
politan population made up principally from both sections. 
Early in the history of the State the newspaper had taken a 
leading part in the realm of politics and the editorial columns 
were the reflex of the best thought, and were taken as a guide 
by the people. In fact, especially in the Southern portion of 
the State, the editorial columns of the papers were controlled, 
and the editorials often written, by senators, congressmen 
and judges. It was to the editorial department the reader 
turned, and as he perused the columns he knew the words were 
from a great leader. It is conceded by all historians that the 
press, though small in numbers, was the controlling influence 
that made Illinois a free State in the great contest of 1823. 

It was not until the early fifties the country editor began 
developing more independence and political self-will than had 
characterized his earlier predecessors ; true he did not forget 
that when the tea cup struck the bottom of the empty flour 
barrel, he might be compelled to call on the local politician for 



Sig. 6. 



186 

financial aid, and thus there was, in many instances, a second 
mortgage placed upon his columns. The period mentioned 
brought to the front many of the greatest so-called ''country 
editors" who have ever been known in Illinois — men firm in 
their unwavering belief and unyielding in their advo- 
cacy of the principles which controlled them. The slavery 
question was the all-absorbing theme and on its opposite sides 
the editors rallied in no uncertain manner. Paul Selby, Smith 
D. Atkins, Ben F. Shaw, W. H. Hainline, Benjamin R. Hamp- 
ton, John Moses and many others were constant "in season 
and out" in advocating anti-slavery sentiments. It was Mr. 
Paul Selby who had the foresight to call the editors named 
and others together to organize a party which should take un- 
qualified grounds in opposition to slavery, and from this meet- 
ing there was organized the Republican party which has been 
in control of the State, with two exceptions, since 1856. It was 
at this period that John M. Palmer, though a Democrat, but 
strongly opposed to slavery, felt called upon to establish, at 
Carlinville, a paper which he called the "Free Democrat" but 
which soon was classed in the ranks of the Republican press 
of the State. On the Democratic side standing like a stone 
wall, behind Senator Douglas and paying him the greatest 
homage ever a constituency paid to its senator, was a number 
of editors prominent among whom were Charles H. Lanphier, 
John Y\ r . Merritt, Austin Brooks, J. M. Davidson, A. H. Swain, 
J. B. Danforth, J. M. Bush, C. H. TVhittaker, TV. T. Davidson, 
J. R. Bailey, H. L. Clay and others. Among those named 
none was more prominent than the subject of this sketch. 

James Monroe Davidson was born in Madison county, Illi- 
nois, May 22, 1828. In 1835 the family removed to Peters- 
burg, Menard county and three years later removed to Lewis- 
town, Fulton county. Mr. Davidson was raised in an atmos- 
phere of politics ; his father had served as sergeant at arms in 
the Illinois senate and was for years a deputy sheriff of the 
county and held numerous other positions. Schools were poor 
and it is doubtful if he was different from the average boy and 
looked upon the school room as a place of punishment. The 



187 

printing business, however, appealed to him, and in 1843 ; "he 
entered the Fulton Banner office, in what in thos^e days was 
a most important relation, and was called the "■devil." In 
1846 the paper was moved from Lewis-town to Canton and Mr. 
Davidson, though only eighteen years of age ? in company with 
Charles McDowell, established the Fulton Gazette, which they 
published for one year, when Mr. Davidson retired. 

Mr. Davidson had a great taste for music and after leaving 
the Fulton Gazette he went to St. Louis to attend a musical 
convention given by Prof. William B. Bradbury, who at that 
time was one of the leading musicians of the L^nited States and 
who was the composer of many gospel hymns. Professor 
Bradbury was attracted to young Davidson and urged him to 
become a teacher of music. This proposition appealed to him 
and for several years he traveled over parts of Illinois and 
gave music lessons in various cities ; in later life he would fre- 
quently refer to this period, and it was a great satisfaction to 
him to recall that among his pupils had been Mrs. Abraham 
Lincoln and her son Eobert. He had learned from Prof. Brad- 
bury the Pestalozzian system of teaching music and was 
one of the first to introduce in Illinois the modern system of 
notation, superceding the old-fashioned "buckwheat notes." 
He was so successful as a teacher of music that his friends 
hoped that would be his life work. But the lure of the news- 
paper field was too great and in 1855 he established the Ful- 
ton Democrat at Lewistown. Naturally, an unusually bright 
and m^st vigorous writer, a close student of politics, his edi- 
torials at once attracted attention from other newspapers and 
the Democrat soon possessed a phenomenal influence outside 
the limits of Illinois. Senator Douglas had no greater friend 
with the Democratic press of the State and was often quoted 
outside of Illinois. Senator Douglas had no greater friend 
than Mr. Davidson; while the Senator drew around him 
thousands of most ardent and devoted friends who had never 
seen him, Mr. Davidson had in addition an intimate personal 
acquaintance running back to his boyhood days, when the 
senator was frequently a guest at his home. After the elec- 



188 

tion, in 1858 he sold the Democrat to his brother William. 
During the legislative session of 1859 he represented the St. 
Louis Republic (then called the Republican). Soon after the 
close of the session he purchased the Mason County Herald, 
at Havana, and changed the name of the paper to the "Squat- 
ter Sovereign." The name of the paper at once attracted the 
attention of the public and the papers throughout the coun- 
try; this, coupled with the vigorous, and at times vitrolic edi- 
torials, soon made the "Squatter" a most welcome visitor in 
thousands of homes and at the editorial tables of many news- 
papers. The "Squatter" was the first weekly in Illinois to 
indulge in cartoons for the purpose, as the editor said, "to 
show up by cuts what he could not cut up by thrusts." His 
cartoons were made by himself, his engravers' tools consist- 
ing of a pen knife and he generally used the underside of a 
patent medicine "cut." 

The nomination of Mr. Lincoln for president seemed .to Mr. 
Davidson absolutely ridiculous. The idea of defeating men 
like Seward and Chase with the Sangamon county lawyer was, 
to his mind, giving up the fight in advance. He compared 
Lincoln with Douglas and after the Democratic party divided 
he could see no possible chance for the defeat of the man at 
whose feet he worshipped. At Petersburg and later at Lew- 
istown and Havana, he had met Mr. Lincoln and heard him 
in the trial of cases in the court of the county seats of those 
counties. Earlier in his life in "traveling the circuit." Mr. 
Lincoln had, no doubt, much better success than in his later 
years. After Mr. Davidson grew to manhood, Mr. Lincoln, 
when he came to Lewistown, was, in the trial of cases, brought 
into contact with such lawyers as Kellogg, Purple,TVeed,Goudy, 
Ross, and men of that character; these men, several of whom 
afterwards became judges and congressmen, had warm per- 
sonal friends, some of whom would always be on the jury and 
too often the issues were lost sight of by their personal pref- 
erences for "home talent." At no time, during the campaign 
of 1860 could he treat Mr. Lincoln's candidacy seriously. He 
felt, like many others, that Mr. Lincoln was placed on the tick- 






189 

et to be beaten and that in the next four years Seward or a 
man like him would be nominated in .the hope he could be 
elected. The campaign of 1860 was a most strenuous one for 
Mr. Davidson. His paper was filled with able editorials while 
as stated above, it was the only weekly in the State which was 
illuminated with cartoons; and in that day, as sometimes now, 
the cartoon was the most forceful argument. Political defeats 
were new to him, and the fact that his political ideal was de- 
feated by the Springfield lawyer was like the loss of a dear 
friend. 

During the winter following the election of 18G0 he took 
strong ground in opposition to secession and also merciless- 
ly lashed those who advocated letting the South go. When 
Southern States began to secede he followed the course of 
Douglas as he had for years, His editorials were master 
strokes of patriotism and were widely copied. Many things 
go to show that he was in confidential correspondence with 
the senator, so closely did he interpret the course pursued by 
Douglas. 

The morning the news came that Fort Sumpter had been 
fired upon he issued an extra giving all the news available. He 
called a meeting for that night at the court house. After the 
organization of the meeting Mr. Davidson was called upon to 
address the audience ; he answered he was no speaker but if 
his friend Jack Mallory would come forward he would favor 
them with a song. The two gentlemen then sang the Bed, 
White and Blue and for an encore the Star Spangled Banner. 
After twelve minutes of applause had expired, Mr. Davidson 
called attention to the fact they had met for the more serious 
business of forming a company of volunteers to defend the 
union. A committee was appointed to organize the company 
and the meeting adjourned. 

The shot that was fired on Fort Sumpter killed forever the 
principle of " Squatter Sovereignty," and Mr. Davidson 
changed the name of the paper to the " Havana Post." The 
change in the name made no difference in the editorial course 
of the paper. With Douglas he believed there could be but 



190 

two parties : Patriots and Traitors. "With the former he in- 
cluded every one who was willing to stand by the president; 
with the latter he included those, who -as partisans of the 
president were continually finding fault and in this way em- 
barrassing the executive. In Mason county, as in other coun- 
ties of Illinois, there were some Democrats who were strongly 
opposed to what Douglas stood for in those dark days; and 
these men had no friendly feeling for the Post or its editor. 
The loss of patronage was not inconsiderable, but the greater 
loss was the consciousness that he had lost the influence and re- 
spect of men who had once been his friends — and he had lost 
it because he was standing by his country in the hour of its 
greatest peril and that on the success of men whom he had 
opposed rested the perpetuity of the union. The summer of 
1861 was no doubt the unhappiest one he had ever spent. The 
writer of this was at that time a young apprentice in his office 
and a member of his household and can speak from personal 
knowledge of the heart aches caused by the fear, indulged in 
by many at the North, that the Union would be dissolved and 
the South succeed in establishing a confederacy based on 
slavery as its corner stone. A few years before, while the 
steamboat Ocean Spray was burning, Mr. Davidson jumped 
into the Mississippi river in an attempt to swim to the shore 
when a large log struck him in the breast and nearly killed 
him; this rendered him incapable of military service, but he 
did valiant service to the Union cause by the use of his news- 
paper, and did much to aid in raising the 17th and 85th regi- 
merts. While articles from his paper were widely copied both 
in the metropolitan and other papers, he knew that many peo- 
ple with whom he had fought, shoulder to shoulder, in politi- 
cal battles had become estranged and knowing that he was 
merely following the path the then dead Douglas had marked 
out, he accepted an offer made by John B. Wright and dis- 
posed of the Post, believing that in other fields he could ac- 
complish more for his country. 

In June, 1861, Wilbur F. Storey, of Detroit, Michigan, be- 
came proprietor of the Chicago Times. Mr. Storey was han- 



191 

dicapped from the start by not knowing the Democrats of the 
State; he felt some knowledge of them and their various in- 
terest was necessary to make the Times the dominant and con- 
trolling factor in Illinois Democracy. Influential and promi- 
ment Democrats learning that Dr. Davidson had sold the 
Post and knowing him well and having great confidence in 
him were instrumental in having Mr. Storey offer him a confi- 
dential editorial position which he accepted. He could not pre- 
vail on Mr. Storey to accept his views as to the duty of the 
Democratic party and the Times drifted farther and farther 
until he felt compelled to resign his position. 

In September, 1863, he purchased the Carthage Republican, 
a Democratic paper which he successfully conducted until his 
death. For two years the paper had been under the control 
of Maj. R. TV. McClaughery. Prior to Maj. McClaughrey as- 
suming control of the paper it had been a rather radical anti- 
war publication and indulged in elaborate and unfriendly 
criticism of administration and its policy. Maj. McClaughery 
had just graduated from college and while he was a Demo- 
crat, he was what was popularly called a "war Democrat." 
This did not suit a number of the radical Democrats and when 
the Major sold the paper he entered the army. Upon assum- 
ing charge of the Republican, Mr. Davidson soon learned he 
had no easy task before him; there were the same dissensions 
in his party he had encountered in Mason county and in addi- 
tion to this the county had not fully recovered from the 
Mormon war. There were a number of people who, while not 
holding to the Mormon faith and not sympathizing with their 
religious belief, yet felt the Mormons had not been fairly 
treated; others saw in the decadence of the city of Nauvoo, 
the failure of what they believed would be a great city com- 
posed of thousands of happy and industrious people. Care- 
fully considering the whole question Mr. Davidson decided 
that as the ''Mormon war" was over, it need no longer be a 
matter for editorial discussion. As to politics he would stand 
loyally by the National administration, but would be unspar- 
ing in his war on the Republican party as a party organiza- 



192 

tion. By carrying out this policy he won the plaudits of the 
people and soon brought under his influence the great major- 
ity of his partisan friends. 

After his return from the army Major McClaughery be- 
came the nominee of the Eepublican party for county clerk. 
The campaign was a most bitter one and Mr. Davidson did 
all he could to defeat the Major, but was unsuccessful. Upon 
his removal to Carthage to take charge of his office the Major 
was made Superintendent of the Presbyterian Sunday 
School. The children of Mr. Davidson were attendants at the 
school as there was then no Episcopal church in the town. 
Learning of Mr. Davidson's ability as a musician he asked 
him to come to the school and take charge of the music; the 
request was acceded to and for a number of years Mr. David- 
son had charge of the music in the school but he retired when 
his own church was established in Carthage. 

He entered journalism in the day when personal journalism 
flourished. Intense in all things, and being the master of in- 
vective, sarcasm, wit, pathos and a student of history and 
politics, he was no mean adversary as was found out by many 
a candidate of the opposite party and many an editor who did 
not know what an adversary he was. Later in life, however, 
he took a leading part in placing the country paper on a 
higher plane, making it an educational institution and keeping 
it free from anything which could not be read in the home and 
by the most modest woman. It became his pride that his pa- 
per was recognized by press and people as an able, clean, 
honest journal in which they could have unbounded confidence. 
The reader might not agree with him but their differences 
would be treated in the most gentlemanly manner and to all 
there was extended the right of opinion. 

"When he went to Carthage the city was possessed of a num- 
ber of saloons. He recognized the fact that the proprietors 
were paying for the privilege of selling liquor, and that the 
responsibility of their continuance rested upon the people. 
He at once adopted the policy of educating the people to the 
fact that they did not have to license the saloon with all the 



193 



harm following in. its wake, for money to conduct the city gov- 
ernment. His method was a little slow to suit some of the so- 
called "reformers," hut it won in the end and for many years 
Carthage has not had a licensed saloon and they were voted 
out by the people and there was none of the bitterness that so 
often follows the ejection of the saloon. 

Learning that the Lutheran church organization was con- 
templating the establishment of a college, he did, as he had 
done at Havana when Fort Sumpter was fired upon, called a 
meeting of the citizens and laid the matter before them with 
his plan of securing the college for Carthage. His plan was 
followed and today Carthage College, one of the finest re- 
ligious institutions is pointed to with pride by the people of 
the town. 

As an evidence of his character and how he was esteemed 
when he was yet a boy, it is related that the County Treasurer 
of Fulton County desired to send to Springfield a large sum 
of money to pay the taxes due the State. He selected Mr. 
Davidson to make the trip. There were no railroads ; the way 
was through a rough country, but the lad started and for two 
days plod along over the rough country roads. Arriving at 
Springfield late at night he found the State Treasurer and 
paid over the money; when asked why he did not wait until 
morning he replied his instructions were to pay over the 
money as soon as he reached Springfield and get a receipt. 
His action was an index to his whole life ; whatever he had to 
do was done correctly and promptly. 

He answered the Governor's call to take part in the "Mor- 
mon war" but before the scene of conflict was reached by his 
company, the "war" was over. However, he went on to Nauvoo 
and remained there several days and wrote accounts of the 
trouble and descriptions of the city. 

As a printer he was an artist. His newspapers were always 
the finest specimens of the typographic art and his job 
printing received many encomiums from the few typographi- 
cal magazines then published. He was one of the first, if not 
the first, to establish a system of country correspondence and 



194 

in this, as in other things, he was a pioneer whose path was 
gladly followed by newspaper men over the State. 

Mr. Davidson was a leader among that fast disappearing 
class who were the makers of history and have done so much 
to place Illinois in the front rank of States. Firm in his con- 
victions, especially during the war, when he was threatened 
by those who differed with him, in his courage and adherence 
to what he believed to be right, and as a forceful advocate of 
his lofty ideals, he has left his impress upon the history of 
the State and his life is an inspiration to the young men and 
women of today. To cement the contending factions of his 
party, to eliminate forever the saloons from the city he had 
made his home, to lead in the establishment of a great college, 
to raise a splendid family who are each a credit to him and the 
community and the State ore achievements which place his 
name high on the rolls of the very best and most progressive 
citizenship. A most kindly man to those in his employ, a 
model husband and father, the world was made richer by his 
life, and his death created a void which it will be hard to fill. 

On the 28th day of November, 1853, Mr. Davidson 
was united in marriage to Miss Susan Candace Sprin- 
ger. The wedding took place in the city of Springfield, 
and was celebrated by Eev. Mr. McGee, the Methodist 
minister, whose wife was a relative of Mr. Davidson. 
To this union there were born twelve children five boys 
and seven girls. Two of the boys are now ministers 
of the Episcopal church; one is postmaster at Carthage, one 
is a very prominent business man of Springfield. The other 
son died after having made a great reputation for himself as 
a journalist. One daughter is a musician of ability and one 
is conducting the paper of which Mr. Davidson's widow is 
proprietor. 

If ever a man was blessed in his marriage, it was Mr. Dav- 
idson. Naturally very brilliant, well educated, with a clear in- 
sight into life and all its various ramifications, Mrs. David- 
son has been the ideal wife and mother. 



195 



Original Letters 

Parthenia Lockwood to Her Brother and Sister. 
Contributed by Mrs. John H. Hanley, Monmouth, 111. 



Illinois Rapids, Jan. 15, 1825. 
Dear Brother and Sister : — 

We have at length arrived at this place after a tedious jour- 
ney of nine weeks- and through the mercy of God we are now 
in the enjoyment of good health. We had a pleasant journey 
to Buffalo where we arrived on the 2nd of October and waited 
for the sailing of the vessel until the 6th. Arrived at San- 
dusky the 9th, two hundred and fifty miles. Here we found a 
vessel was bound for Chicago, and the only one which was go- 
ing thither during the fall. It was a new one and thought to 
be altogether safe, though not convenient, the cabin being un- 
finished. We left Sandusky the 11th and arrived in Detroit 
the 12th. Here we were detained until the 26th when we left 
there and proceeded on our journey. There were six pas- 
sengers beside our family on board, all men. We were on the 
river St. Clair and Lake Huron until the 3d of November, 
when we arrived at Mackinac. This is truly a gloomy looking 
place, built on the rocks and gravel stone. There are a few 
decent buildings, but principally very poor. There is one 
company of soldiers stationed there, which it would otherwise 
be deprived of. We left this the 6th and after passing the 
Straits of Mackinac, we found ourselves on Lake Michigan. 
Here we were tossed about in the most imminent danger, some 
part of the time having contrary winds and very high. There 
is only one good harbor on the lake, and that is at. the Manitou 
Island, a desert, gloomy-looking place sixty miles south of 
Michelmackinac. At those islands we lay ten days, the vessel 
set out in a very severe gale of wind in which we expected to 



196 

be wrecked ; but the merciful Lord preserved us, and on the 
21st of November we were landed at Chicago . Here we met 
with much kindness from Mrs. L. and Dr. W 's fam- 
ily. There we staid until the 1st of December, when in hopes 
of getting to Lewistown we hired a team and started for the 
rapids of the Illinois. There is no settlement between this 
and Chicago. We had to encamp out four nights but none of 
us got sick. We are now at the rapids, one-half mile south of 
the river, where the Fox River enters it. We are in an open 
log house with a family of five persons with one room 16x18 
for us all. It is the best we can procure except one which is 
four miles from the settlement. To this place we went and 
stayed there three weeks, in which time Dr. Davidson who 
lived in one part of the house, took sick and died. After his 
death we felt it was not safe for us to remain so far from in- 
habitants and thought it most prudent to go into the settle- 
ment. This doctor is the man that the news prints mentioned 
as being found living alone at the junction of the Illinois and 
Spoon rivers. The weather is cold for this country. There 
has been no boating since the last of November and there is no 
road to Fort Clark except for footmen, so that it is uncertain 
how long we will be detained here. ****** j^ h as milcn 
defeated our calculations in not being able to get through our 
journey in the fall. There is a man here who talks of leaving 
his house which he made the year past and if he should we ex- 
pect to get it and continue here through the summer, for 
should we be obliged to wait here until the spring it would 
make it late about getting in a crop on our land, but if we 
should not get that we shall get through in the spring, if not 
before, and do what we can. 

There are only five families here besides ourselves, except- 
ing the Methodist Mission, and they are removing twenty 
miles up the Fox River. Some more families are expected 
here in the spring. It is pleasant here for a new country, the 
climate milder than New York, but we have cold weather here. 
The most snow that has fallen at one time as yet is about 
seven inches. It sometimes falls so deep as to make a little 



197 

sleighing but does not last long. The Indians are plenty here 
and prairie wolves are not scarce and the rattlesnake is an 
inhabitant of this part of the country. I think I should feel 
well contented if we could get settled at our home. 

Whilst at Chicago I knit and sold socks for which I took 
three dollars. I sold my socks for seventy-five cents per pair. 
I could have sold all that I could have knit had I stayed there 
through the winter. I have several pairs of mittens to knit 
for the fur company. I have fifty cents per pair for knitting ; 
they find the yarn. 

We feel anxious to hear from you. The reason that we 
have not written before is that there is no regular mail from 

neither from this place, and we have not had 

convenient opportunity of sending letters, although several 
opportunities have escaped us. Direct your first letter to 
Peoria, in Peoria county. 

Should any one think of coming into this country by the way 
of the lakes, the most pleasant time is generally from the first 
of June through the month of July. It is probable that there 
will be more sailing on lakes Huron and Michigan the ensuing 
summer than formerly. 

S says he shall write when he gets settled — thinks of 

all friends and should be pleased to see them. We have trav- 
eled fifteen hundred miles to get here although the distance by 
land is not more than one thousand miles. We are about one 
hundred miles from Chicago and one fifty from Lewistown. 
It is getting late and I am tired, so must close. With much 
love to you and our other relatives, I should be pleased to 
particularize them all but time fails me as my sheet. 

*Pap.thenia Lockwood. 



•This letter was written to friends in the East by Mrs. Parthenia Lockwood, wife 
of Sheldon Lockwood, one of the earliest residents of Warren County. Mrs. Lock- 
wood was one of the first pioneer women to come to Chicago. 
Where blanks occur in this letter, writing illegible. 



198 



John M. Peck to Pascal Enos 

Bock Springs, Illinois, March 20, 1832. 
To Mr. Enos, 
Dear Sir: 

The rev. Mr. Loomis 1 teacher at Kaskaskia is de- 
sirous to locate himself in some flourishing town permanently 
where he can teach either a select school or a public Academy. 
Besides other places I have mentioned Springfield as an eli- 
gible place & promised him to visit it and examine the situa- 
tion, prospects, <S:c & confer with the people. Sickness in my 
family makes it impossible for me to visit your place as I 
projected and promised him. I have written Dr. Todd 2 & Mr. 
3 Frances the printer on the subject & I also request you, (if 
you take an interest in the object) to consult with other gen- 
tlemen and write to Mr. Lcomis, soon as it can well be done. 

1. Is there an opening for a select english & classical 
school. Mr. Loomis is unquestionably one of the ablest teach- 
ers in the western country, & could not fail soon as known to 
attract students. 

2. Can a school house or comfortable room be had by 
May? Would the people build an Academy? 

3. Can a comfortable dwelling be had for his family? 

4. Can boarders be accommodated in private families at a 
reasonable rate? 

An answer sent to Mr. Loomis, Kaskaskia, would be a favor 
both to him & me. 

I intend before many weeks to visit your place & see what 
advances have been made since my last visit. 

After my respects to Mrs. Enos and family, I remain re- 
spectfully yours &c. 

J. M. Peck. 



1 Uev. Hubbcl LoomK Clergvman and Educator. Born in Colchester, Conn., May 81, 
1775. Died at Upper Alton, Dec. 15, 1872. Settled In Upper Alton 1S31, where he 



199 

resided until his death. 1832 opened Alton Seminary ; It became the foundation 
for Shurtleff College. Rev. Loomls was one of the founders of Sburtleff College and 
for many years a member of the faculty, and that Institution Is partly a memorial 
of his life. 



2 Dr. John Todd. Born April 27, ITS", near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kv., Died Jan. 
0, 1SC5. Moved to Edwardsville, 111. in 1817. In 1827 appointed by President 
John Quincy Adams Register of the United States Land Office at Springfield and 
at once moved there. He remained in office until 1829, when for political reasons 
he was removed by President Jackson. 



3 Simeon Francis, Pioneer Journalist. Born at Wethersfield, Conn., May 14, 179G. 
Died at Portland, Oregon, Oct. 25, 1872. Editor of the Sangamo Journal. 1S31-1S55. 
now The Illinois State Journal. 



200 



The Illinois State Flag or Banner. 

The people of Illinois have contributed largely to all move- 
ments for the advancement of America. They have given men 
and resources to the nation both in peace and war. When- 
ever representatives from the various states meet for any pur- 
pose, delegates from Illinois occupy conspicuous positions. 
In such conventions and processions many states display dis- 
tinctive banners, by which they ma3 r be recognized, but until 
the last session of the General Assembly, Illinois had no such 
flag or insignia. 

For some years past, Mrs. Ella Park Lawrence, now honor- 
ary regent for Illinois Daughters of the American Revolution, 
formerly State Regent, had felt deeply the need of this for 
Illinois. Especially had she noted this in the beautiful Conti- 
nental Memorial Hall in Washington, D. C, built b} T the 
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. In this impressive building, to which the Illinois D. A. 
R. has contributed so much in money and effort, Mrs. Lawrence 
particularly desired to see the flag of Illinois taking its place 
with the banners of other states. She began the work of build- 
ing up a sentiment throughout the State, especially in the 
chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution, in 
favor of securing through the General Assembly authority 
for the use of such a State flag or emblem. 

Mrs. Lawrence worked zealously for several years and final- 
ly the Forty-ninth General Assembly of the State, by an 
act of 1915 authorized the use of such flag or banner. 

The reports of the committees of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution giving a full account of the work of Mrs. 
Lawrence and her associates :.": herewith given: 

Mrs. Lawrence was six years regent of the Rebecca Park 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, Galesburg, 
Illinois. She was then State regent of Illinois Daughters of 
the American Revolution, for three years : 1911-1914. In 1916 
she was made Honorary State Regent of Illinois for life. 



201 

Early in 1912 Mrs. Lawrence thought Illinois should have a 
State Flag, and began to work for it. Visiting and writing 
chapters to get their opinions, and promises of co-operation. 
In 1913 and 1911 she wrote several letters to each of the chap- 
ters in the State, and offered a prize of twenty-five dollars to 
the chapter sending a design for a State Flag, which would 
receive the highest vote of four judges. Thirty-five designs 
were submitted. The Judges were : 

Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson, Secretary of State ; 

Hon. Charles C. Craig, Associate Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois : 

Hon. Francis G. Blair, Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion; and 

Hon. Hugh Magill, Jr., Member of the Art Commission of 
the State of Illinois. 

These gentlemen awarded the prize of twenty-five dollars to 
Rockford Chapter. 

Mrs. Lawrence by giving a prize hoped to awaken the in- 
terest of over forty-five hundred Daughters in Illinois. At the 
same time she herself wrote hundreds of letters to members 
of the Senate and House, stating her thought, and work for a 
flag for Illinois. In 1911 steps were taken to introduce a Bill 
for adoption of a State Flag. Mrs. Lawrence is greatly in- 
debted and most appreciative for the valuable services given by 
our Secretary of State, Honorable Lewis G. Stevenson; Sena- 
tor Raymond D. Meeker; and, Honorable Thomas N. Gorman, 
of the House of Representatives, v/ho presented and worked 
with her for the Bill. 

The Bill is entitled 

Senate Bill No. 446. 
and is as follows : — 

An Act to Authorize the Reproduction of the Emblem on the 
"Great Seal of the State of Illinois" for Use as a State 
Banner. 

Whereas, it is useful and advantageous for a State to have 
a distinguishing insignia or banner for the use of its military, 
civic and other organizations and of individuals when meeting 



202 

or co-operating with the representatives of other states ; and 

Whereas, the great State of Illinois has no such emblem or 
insignia fixed or designated by any law; and 

Whereas, the use of the great seal of the State of Illinois is 
prohibited by Statute, except as directed by law, and it ap- 
pearing that the emblem upon said great seal would be a most 
appropriate insignia for the uses indicated herein ; therefore, 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, represented in the General Assembly : That the repro- 
duction of the emblem only on the "great seal of the State of 
Illinois" be authorized and permitted when reproduced in 
black or in the National colors upon a white sheet or back- 
ground for use as a State Banner or insignia under the condi- 
tions and subject to the restrictions provided by the laws of 
the United States and of the State of Illinois as to the United 
States or State Flag or ensign. 

Section 2. It shall be lawful for the Secretary of State as 
custodian of the "great seal of the State of Illinois" to per- 
mit at his discretion the inspection and examination of said 
seal for the purpose of copying or reproducing the emblem 
only on the same for the uses and purposes authorized by this 
law. 

Filed July 6th, 1915. 

Full reports were given at October, 1915, State Conference. 
It was a real work, and Mrs. Lawrence though sometimes dis- 
couraged, kept at it, and felt repaid when success crowned her 
desire and labors. 

Mrs. Lawrence at once had the first official Illinois State 
Flags made by the Meyers Military Flag-Shop Company, 
Washington, D. C. They are three by live feet, in size, of 
white silk, and made as per requirement by the State. A per- 
mit for making was given by Honorable L. G. Stevenson, the 
Secretary of State of Illinois. One flag was given Honorable 
L. G. Stevenson ; one to the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution of Illinois; one to hang in our Memorial Continental 
Hall in Washington; and one to the "Illinois State Historical 
Society." 



203 

The Illinois State Flag is one result of the work of Daugh- 
ters of the American Eevolution for patriotism. It has met 
with unstinted commendation of Daughters of the American 
Eevolution in Illinois, and unanimous and unqualified praise 
of the National Congress of Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, held in "Washington last April, where it now hangs with 
the flags of so many of our sister states. We must not forget 
that this happy result has heen made possible only through 
the thought and persistent effort of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, 
in its behalf. 

(Signed) Anne M. Baiinsen, 

State Regent of Illinois. 
(Signed) Jessie S. Page, 

Ex. State Regent of Illinois. 
(Signed) Mrs. John H. Hanley, 

Vice State Regent of 111. D. A. R. 
June, 1916. 

Galesburg, Illinois, October 18, 1915. 
To the State Regent and Daughters of the Illinois 
Daughters of the American Revolution, 
Nineteenth Annual Conference. 

The undersigned special Committee to secure for the State 
of Illinois the adoption of a State Flag for Illinois, if possible, 
would respectfully report : 

The movement for the accomplishment of this laudable pur- 
pose had its origin in a circular letter, issued on April 1, 1914, 
by Ella Park Lawrence (then State Regent of the Illinois 
Daughters of the American Revolution.) This letter was sug- 
gested by the fact that nearly all of the States of the Union 
had adopted a distinctive flag, which could be used on occa- 
sions with special reference to the identification of the State 
as such, and the feeling that Illinois was entitled to maintain 
its own insignia in common with the other states. The circular 
letter (copy of which is hereto attached) suggested the under- 
taking of a campaign to bring about the adoption of such a 
flag by the State of Illinois, by a state-wide movement, look- 
ing towards the passage of necessary legislation and the selec- 



204 

tion of some suitable design for a State Flag, when proper 
legislation was provided. 

A copy of this letter (April. 1914) was sent to the Regent of 
every Chapter in the State of Illinois, and in this letter the 
then State Regent (Mrs. G. A. Lawrence) offered a prize of 
Twenty-five dollars to be awarded the Chapter presenting 
the best design therefor. It, also, suggested the appointment 
of a committee of Illinois representative citizens to pass upon 
the design submitted and to award the prize therefor. This 
did not involve the choice of a design for the State Flag, but 
was issued with the thought that it would stimulate interest in 
the proposition, and be of advantage in bringing about the de- 
sired result. 

While this circular was mailed to the Regent of every Chap- 
ter, within the State, but one response was received by the 
State Regent, before the expiration of her term of office. After 
the election of Mrs. Page as our State Regent, and in De- 
cember, 1914, 1 was notified that she wished me to take up and 
carry out the plan I had suggested, and in consequence of this 
appointment, I issued a second circular letter, dated January 
5, 1915 (a copy of which is attached hereto) calling attention 
to the suggestion of a competitive contest for the best design, 
and again offering a prize of Twenty-five dollars to the Chap- 
ter submitting the best design. 

I am very glad to say that this circular letter met with a very 
considerable response, and that thirty-five designs were sub- 
mitted by different Chapters of the State, and were in my 
hands by February 1, 1915. 

I am making this statement for the purpose of showing the 
general interest taken by the Illinois Daughters in the purpose 
for which we were striving. 

Carrying out the suggestion in the first circular, as to the se- 
lection of Judges, the following persons were selected to con- 
stitute the Board of Judges. 

Hon. Lewis G. Stevexson, Secretary of State, and Keeper 
of the Great Seal of the State ; 






205 

Hon. Francis Gt. Blair, Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion; 

Hon. Hugh Magill, Jr., Member of the Art Commission of 
the State of Illinois ; 

Hon. Charles C. Craig, Associate Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois. 

The designs were submitted to this Board and resulted in 
the awarding of the prize to the design submitted by the Rock- 
ford Chapter. 

This statement is made only for the purpose of illustrating 
the method taken to arouse not only the interest of the Daugh- 
ters in the work, but to call attention in a public way to the fact 
that the Daughters of the American Revolution of the State of 
Illinois had enlisted themselves to bring about its accomplish- 
ment. It has nothing to do with the result of my work under 
the appointment of our State Regent. 

Steps were taken to introduce a Bill, being the first step in 
necessary legislation for the adoption of a State Flag, and we 
are indebted to the valuable services of Honorable Raymond 
D. Meeker, Senator from the 24th Senatorial District of the 
State of Illinois, who introduced a Senate Bill for that pur- 
pose, asking at the same time that as such committeeman, I 
should make any suggestions for the betterment of the Bill, so 
that he might more adequately represent our purpose in urg- 
ing its passage. 

It transpired that considerable opposition developed from 
various sources, (which it is not necessary to recapitulate) 
against the adoption of a State Flag as such, and conference 
was had with Senator Meeker, the Chairman of the Legisla- 
tive Bureau, and others interested, with the purpose of secur- 
ing some legislation, which would accomplish our purpose, 
during a session, that was already over-crowded with work, 
and in which many hundred bills already introduced must 
necessarily fail of passage. 



206 

A Bill was finally introduced by Senator Meeker, being 

Senate Bill No. 446 in House, 
entitled : — 

A BILL 

For an Act to authorize the reproduction of the emblem on the 
"great seal of the State of Illinois" for use as a State 
Banner, and which is as follows : 

Whereas, It is useful and advantageous for a State to have 
a distinguishing insignia or banner for the use of its military, 
civic and other organizations, and, of individuals when meet- 
ing or co-operating with the representatives of other states; 
and 

Whereas, The great State of Illinois has no such emblem or 
insignia fixed or designated by any law ; and 

Whereas, The use of the great seal of the State of Illinois is 
prohibited by Statute, except as directed by law, and it ap- 
pearing that the emblem upon said great seal would be a most 
appropriate insignia for the uses indicated herein; therefore, 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, represented in the General Assembly : That the produc- 
tion of the emblem only on the "great seal of the State of Illi- 
nois" be authorized and permitted when reproduced in black 
or in the National colors upon a white sheet or background 
for use as a State banner, or insignia, under the directions and 
subject to the restrictions provided by the laws of the United 
States and of the State of Illinois as to the United States or 
State Flag or ensign. 

Section 2. It shall be lawful for the Secretary of State as 
custodian of the ' ■ Great Seal of the State of Illinois ' ' to permit 
at his discretion the inspection and examination of said seal 
for the purpose of copying or reproducing the emblem only on 
the same for the uses and purposes authorized by this law. 

This Bill, after passage in the Senate, was sent to the House 
of Representatives, and in that body was in charge of the 
Honorable Thomas N. Gorman, of Peoria County, and we are 
indebted to his valuable services, in spite of a calendar already 
crowded, for the ultimate passage of the Bill as copied above. 



207 

It is now the law of the State, and we are authorized to re- 
produce in black, or in the National colors, upon a white sheet 
or background, for use as a State banner or insignia, the Great 
Seal of the State of Illinois ; and it is available for our use as 
an organization as a distinctive State Flag. 

I think the Daughters of the State of Illinois may well con- 
gratulate themselves upon the speedy completion of their work 
in this behalf. We all know that the last session of our Legis- 
lature was an unusually busy one and that hundreds (perhaps 
thousands) of bills failed of passage; many of them for lack 
of time and many of them undoubtedly most worthy. 

We are especially indebted for the unstinted services and 
suggestions of Honorable Lewis G. Stevenson, Secretary of 
State; Senator Raymond D. Meeker; Representative Thomas 
N. Gorman; also, the head of the Legislative Bureau, who as- 
sisted in the draft of the Bill as passed. 

Our thanks are also due to the Board of Judges, who al- 
though unusually busy men, so graciously decided the contest 
among our Chapters. Allow me to suggest that some action 
be taken by this National Conference, in appreciation of the 
services of these gentlemen. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Ella Pakk Lawrence, 
Galesburg, 111. 

This report was read March 29th, 1916, at the twentieth 
annual conference of Daughters of the iVmerican Revolution, 
held in Ottawa, Illinois. 

In February, 1916, Mrs. Lawrence secured from the Hon- 
orable Secretary of State the permit for using the emblem on 
the "great seal of the State of Illinois," and she ordered five 
white silk flags with the emblem in National colors on, made. 
She expects to present to the State Conference of Illinois D. 
A. R. one of these flags, the first Illinois State Flags made, 
March 29, 1916. 

Flags given by Mrs. Lawrence to 
1. Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson, Secretary of State; 



208 

2. Daughters of the American Revolution in Illinois, (The 

State Regent to be its keeper). 

3. National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. 

(To hang in Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, 
D.C.) 

4. Rebecca Parke Chapter, Galesburg, 111. 

5. Illinois State Historical Society. 

March, 1916, flags were made in Washington, D. C, by Mey- 
er 's Military Shop. 






&-*-^~^s /\^A~^C-U, i^, Jtz/p^ 




?fi<W 









fc&— l?ch-j ^^c*-~CZ" £^J£e, fen — ^ ^fe. 



209 



Law Partnerships of Abraham Lincoln 

Letter from Mr. Judd Stewart. 

New York, June 16, 1916. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Illinois State Historical Society, 

Springfield, 111. 
Dear Mrs. Weber: 

In the Journal of October, 1915, No. 3, Vol. 8, page 498, is an 
article "Lincoln in Many Law Firms" from which one might 
very properly conclude that Mr. Lincoln had had as law part- 
ners at various times Picklin, Harlan, Lamon and Goodrich in 
addition to Stuart, Logan and Herndon. 

As a matter of historical accuracy this record, it seems to me, 
should be corrected, and since the accompanying fac-simile 
from my own collection establishes Lincoln's partnerships for 
the years 1844 to 1850 you may, if you desire, reproduce it in 
the next number of the Journal and perhaps you would like to 
include the following notes : 

Lincoln was licensed to practice law in March, 1837 ; in the 
same year he was admitted to partnership by Jno. T. Stuart 
with whom he was associated for four years, or until April 
14th, 1841. (Herndon 's Lincoln, p. 264). He then became 
the partner of S. T. Logan till somewhere between November, 
1843 and March, 1844 (Hill's Lincoln, The Lawyer, pp. 132-3— 
Herndon 's Lincoln, page 265 states that the partnership of 
Lincoln and Herndon was formed in 1843). My document in- 
dicates Logan was his partner in 1844. 

Now with respect to the documents mentioned in the October, 
1915 number of the Journal : The Ficklin & Lincoln signature 
to document dated Oct. 25th, 1842, is clearly at the time Mr. 
Lincoln was in partnership with Judge Logan. There is no 
question but that Lincoln remained the partner of Herndon 
until Lincoln left for Washington; therefore, the documents 
signed, 

Harlan & Lincoln, Oct. 10th, 1845 
Lincoln & Lamon May 1855 

Goodrich & Lincoln, Oct. 9th, 1855 



210 

were all during the time that Lincoln and Herndon were part- 
ners. 

The document in Lincoln's autograph, fae-simiie enclosed, 
doesn't say that Logan was his partner in so many words, nor 
does it fix the date that the Lincoln -Kerndon partnership was 
formed. It does, however, tend to straighten out the record of 
partnerships from 1844 to 1850, and shows conclusively that 
Herndon was Lincoln's partner when the documents signed — 
Harlan & Lincoln, Lincoln & Lamon and Goodrich & Lincoln, 
were executed. 

My understanding of the reason for these signatures indicat- 
ing a partnership is that it was customary in those days when- 
ever two firms of lawyers appeared in a case, instead of sign- 
ing as lawyers do now their firm names as "Lincoln & Hern- 
don" and" Goodrich & " the lawyers simply signed 

their individual names. In any event, the autograph state- 
ment of Mr. Lincoln, of which I enclose photograph, disposes 
of the question of partnerships other than with Logan and 
Herndon from 1844 to 1S50, and in my judgment the only 
partners he ever had were : 

Jno. T. Stuart 1837-1841 

. S. T. Logan 1841-1843 

Wm. H. Herndon 1843-1860 

Yours very truly, 

Judd Stewart. 



211 



A Letter From a Venerable Member of the Illinois 

State Historical Society 

To Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Dear Lady: — 

In an effort to comply with the request you made me last 
May, when I called on you at your office in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, that I write something of my experience and observa- 
tions, to be printed in the records of the Illinois Historical 
Society, I herewith submit these lines. 

My birthday will be October 1st, 1916, at which time I will 
be 93 years old. I am in fairly good health and strength, I 
think of reasonable sound mind and memory; but I realize 
that the time is soon to arrive when I shall surrender all 
earthly ties and possessions and take that last and final 
journey into the unknown and unknowable hereafter. 

First, I wish to declare my abiding faith and loyalty to the 
foundation principles of our great and glorious government. 
(Made sacred, and I hope secure for all time to come by the 
shedding of so much precious blood.) The first is that all men 
are created equal; and when I say men I mean men and 
women. 

The second great principle is that all are equally entitled 
to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and when I pledge 
allegiance to that principle, I do not mean that it carries with 
it a license for one man to encroach upon the rights or liber- 
ties of his fellow-man; man's liberties cease where the lawful 
rights of his fellow-man begin. I believe in the organization 
and consolidation of wealth, of labor, of intellect, where the 
object and aim of said organization and consolidation is for 
the good of humanity, the welfare of the nation. But, I am op- 
posed to such organization and consolidation when the object 
is to oppose just laws, thwart justice and strangle healthy com- 
petition. While I believe in the intercourse of nations under 
well defined international laws, or rules of action, and that 
Americans while domiciled in a foreign country should recog- 



212 

nize and obey the laws of the country in which they are so- 
journing, yet I believe in a fealty and loyalty which knows 
but one allegiance and that allegiance is and always has been 
with me America — my America. And I claim that we have a 
right to demand and enforce the position that all persons exer- 
cising the right of citizenship and claiming protection under 
our flag should yield strict, undivided allegiance to our flag, 
to our laws, to our country, and again, when he or she has done 
this, and is doing this, they are entitled to the protection 
of this government in all that the word protection implies, 
w T hen taken in connection with those words — life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness. It matters not whether that citizen 
is upon our own soil or upon the high seas or in foreign lands. 
Under treaty arrangement or under international laws, made 
by the civilized nations of the world, he should be made to feel 
secure in his life, his liberty and his property rights, under the 
strong arm of this nation, which if clearly asserted and force- 
fully demanded will always have the moral support of the law- 
loving people of all civilized nations. For me I have but one 
national allegiance and that is America. I have but one party 
allegiance and that is progressive republicanism. I have but 
one religious allegiance and that is the cause of humanity. I 
have but one objective allegiance and that is to do good. I 
have always welcomed the torches of knowledge, of light, of 
love. I have always tried to stand on the solid rocks of 
reason and truth. 

I was born in Wilson County, Tennessee, near Lebanon, 
October 1st, 1823. I was brought by my father and mother, 
Nathaniel Gowin and Sabry Gowin, by covered wagon and ox- 
team in 1827 up through Kentucky, across the corner of In- 
diana into the southeastern part of Illinois and then across 
the sparsely settled region of south-central Illinois, until we 
reached the country now known as Jersey County, Illinois. 
Into the west woods as it was called, a few miles west of where 
Jerseyville now stands, my father pulled, as it would not do to 
stop away out on the wild and wind-swept prairies. Shifting 
from one locality to another small settlement, through what is 
now Jersey County (then a part of Greene), I spent my boy- 



213 

hood and young manhood days, sometimes on foot, sometimes 
on horseback, sometimes in old-style farm wagons, I traveled 
over the unbroken ground where the city of Jerseyville now 
stands. Many the furrow in the virgin soil 1 plowed, many 
the tree I felled, many the rail I split, many the day a cradle I 
swung to cut the golden grain. In 1846 I was married to 
Nancy Beeman. To this union ten children were born. Four 
of them died in early infancy and childhood, six of them grew 
to manhood and womanhood as follows : Stephen L., now of 
Fulton, Missouri; Ellis M., drowned in 1901 near Buffalo, 
Missouri, at the age of 51 years ; Nannie T., now Mrs. Walter 
Grundy (a widow), at Morrisonville, 111.; Arnest E., residing 
now at Morrisonville, Illinois; Orman G., now a resident of 
McCune, Kansas, and Mary A, now Mary A. Gorman (a 
widow) of Muskogee, Oklahoma. In 1868 I moved with my 
family to Montgomery Co., 111. In 1884 I moved with my wife 
to McCune, Kansas. In 1896 we celebrated our fiftieth anni- 
versary of wedded life. In 1900 my wife died. She was bur- 
ied at McCune, Kansas. In 1903, I was married to Louisa 
Campbell of Jerseyville, Illinois. Lived there one year, then 
we moved to McCune, Kansas. In 1916 my second wife died. 
She also was buried at McCune, Kansas. I am at this writing 
still maintaining my home at McCune, Kansas. 

I have voted at eighteen presidential elections, thirteen of 
those I have voted for have been elected. If I live and have 
my health at election time this fall, I shall vote for Charles E. 
Hughes for president, and of course expect him to be elected. 

"While I have lived for a great many years in Kansas, there 
has scarcely been a year when I did not return once or twice 
to Illinois. I have always kept in close touch with her prog- 
ress and development and have personally known so many of 
her great men and having been so closely related to and asso- 
ciated with so very, very many of her so-called ordinary men 
and women, it is still a comfort and inspiration to mingle with 
so great a people. 

My advice to those beginning in life is, be industrious, be 
saving, be honest, be temperate in all things, be true to your- 
self and just to others, and above all else be true and loyal to 
your government, be brave to meet the issues of the day as 
they arise and be strong to battle ever for the right. 

MINER S. GOWIN. 

McCune, Kansas. 



EDITORIAL 



21T" 



.TOTJBNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATS HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER. EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. P?.ga 

Applications for membership in the Society inay be sent to the Secretary of 

the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 
Membership Fee, One Dollar — Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

Vol. IX July, 1916. No. 2. 

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OP THE 
ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was held in the Senate Chamber in the State Capitol Build- 
ing, on Thursday and Friday, May 11-12, 1916. 

The annual address, entitled "The First Two Counties in 
Illinois" was presented by Hon. Fred J. Kern, Chairman of 
the Illinois State Board of Administration. Mr. Kern is an 
enthusiastic student of State history and the address was full 
of facts and information not easily accessible to the reader. 

Mr. Kern gave a history of the counties of St. Clair and 
Randolph that included an account of the principal events 
which have occurred from the first French settlements in those 
counties to the present day. 

Mr. Kern is a collector of Illinois historical material and 
has some rare volumes, especially the published works of 
Gov. John Reynolds. 

Mr. Kern is a resident of Belleville, the home city of the 
"Old Ranger," and he has a fine collection of his quaint his- 
torical and political writings. 

The program of the meeting as printed was carried out with 
but few changes. 



Sig. 7. 



218 

On Thursday evening Mrs. Dunne gave a reception at the 
Executive Mansion for the Historical Society. 

Mr. W. J. Onahan in a most interesting manner told the His- 
torical Society of some "Random Recollections of Sixty 
Years in Chicago." Mr. Onahan, was an early banker of 
Chicago, a member of the Board of Education and his acquain- 
tance with public men and events is truly remarkable. The 
address was a great pleasure to the Society and its friends. 

Governor Dunne had expected to receive the Society with 
Mrs. Dunne, but he was called to Washington on important 
business. 

Mrs. Dunne and her charming daughters were most gracious 
hostesses, and the Society appreciates the privilege of being 
entertained by them in the historic Governor's Mansion. 

The program of exercises was printed in the April number 
of the Journal. 



BRONZE TABLET MARKS FOUNDING ROCK RIVER 

CONFERENCE. 

A granite boulder four and a half feet high and bearing a 
bronze plate with a suitable inscription now stands in the 
church yard of the Methodist Episcopal church at Mount Mor- 
ris, Illinois, where it was placed as a memorial of the founding 
of the Rock river conference seventy-six years ago. The cere- 
mony of unveiling the monument took place before an audi- 
ence of four thousand persons, including many ministers. On 
Sunday, the day following, the services in the church contin- 
ued the commemorative ceremoiry. 

The Rev. 0. F. Mattison of Evanston read an historical 
sketch of the organization of the conference, which took place 
in a log house without a board floor, roof, windows, or door. 
Bishop Thomas Nicholson delivered the principal address. 
The Rock river conference now embraces the Aurora, Dixon, 
Rockford, and two Chicago districts. 



219 

BATTLE OF SAEATOGA— A COKRECTION. 

In the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Vol. 8, 
No. 2, July 1915, page 269, in the valuable article on the North- 
west Territory by Prof. Charles A. Kent, the statement is made 
that Burgoyne's forces at the Battle of Saratoga (1777) were 
opposed by the American forces under the command of Gen- 
eral Greene. 

This is of course an error, as the American forces were 
commanded by Gen. Horatio Gates. 

Members of the Society please make this correction in their 
copies of the Journal. 



GENERAL JOHN L RINAKER; HIS ELECTION TO 
CONGRESS. A CORRECTION. 

In the biographical sketch of the late Gen. John I. Rinaker, 
published in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety, Vol. 7, No. 4, January, 1915, page 419, the statement is 
made that "in 1894 General Rinaker was again a candidate 
for Congress, and although his opponent was, after a contest 
in Congress, awarded the certificate of election by a majority 
of but sixty votes, this was not decided until near the close of 
the term during which General Rinaker had occupied the seat 
of Congressman at "Washington." 

This is an error. The facts are, that General Rinaker made 
the race for Congress in the Sixteenth district, and his op- 
ponent was awarded the certificate of election on a bare major- 
ity of sixty-votes on the face of the returns ; but a recount was 
ordered by the Fifty-fourth Congress and this showed a ma- 
jority for General Rinaker and he was seated before the close 
of the first session and served as Congressman during that 
Congress. 



'o 1 



ARMY CHEST OF GEN. JOSEPH D. WEBSTER, PRE- 
SENTED TO THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
Mrs. Elvira H. Adams, widow of Col. Charles H. Adams, has 
given to the Illinois State Historical Society the Army chest 
owned and used during the war between the States by Gen. 



220 

Joseph D. Webster. The letters or Mrs. Adams telling how 
the chest came into her possession and her sketch of General 
Webster are full of interest and are published herewith : 

225 Western Ave, Oak Park. 
My dear Mrs. Weber: 

Sometime ago, there was a request for " relics" connected 
with State history. I have an army chest that belonged to Col. 
Webster, Colonel of the First 111. Light Artillery and so 
marked. 

When he was made General on Grant's staff he transferred 
the chest to my husband, Lieut. Col. Chas. H. Adams, who used 
it during the war. It was in their possession during numerous 
battles— "Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh," where the artil- 
lery saved the day, the General fiimly believed, in spite of Gen. 
Wallace claiming that honor. 

Since my husband's death I have treasured it, but no longer 
have a place for it. Have you? 

It is not handsome — the Historical rooms may already have 
more of that kind of relic than it wishes. I will send it at my 
own expense if you wish for it. If not, forget I mentioned it. 

Sincerely yours, 

Elvira H. Adams. 



1527 N. Cherry St., Galesburg, 111. 
My dear Mrs. Weber: 

This is the long delayed sketch of Gen. Webster. There is 
no mention of his camp life during the "Siege of Corinth." I 
wish I could reproduce some of the interesting things he told 
us. I first met him at Cairo, afterwards at the "Gayoso 
House," Memphis. Col. Taylor, 5th Ohio Cavalry and Lieut. 
Col. Adams — my husband — were there also. Gen. Webster 
and they had quarters assigned them in an abandoned house. 

Mrs. Webster and I were part of the company. They were 
delightful people. 

The general was a New Englander ; Col. Taylor a Virginian 
— both good talkers. 



221 

I am very grateful to you for taking the chest in your keep- 
ing. I have been told I should have given it to Chicago, but 
the State means more than a city. 

Sincerely yours, 

Elvika Adams. 



GENERAL J. D. WEBSTER. 

Gen. Joseph Dana Webster was a son of Rev. Josiah Web- 
ster, of Hempton, New Hampshire, a kinsman of Daniel Web- 
ster. He was born Aug. 25, 1811, and prepared for college at 
Hampton Academy, after which he entered Darmouth Col- 
lege, and graduated in 1832. He commenced the study of law 
in Newburyport, Mass. In 1835 he went to Washington, where 
on the offer of Gen. Cass, the Secretary of War, he entered 
the Corps of the Civil Engineers. 

In 1838 he became a member of the U. S. Topographical 
Engineers, the civil engineers corps being abolished. That 
year he removed to Milwaukee and took charge of the govern- 
ment survey at that point, and continued on this work of coast 
and other surveys until 1847. 

From Milwaukee he removed to Detroit, where he had 
charge of the harbor until he was ordered to Mexico to make 
military surveys on the Rio Grande. In 1818 he returned to 
Washington and was then ordered to Chicago to take charge of 
harbor work. In 1851 he resigned and retired to private life, 
but on the breaking out of the rebellion he at once volunteered 
and as paymaster with the rank of major, was with the first 
troops that arrived in Cairo. Soon after reaching Cairo he 
was appointed Chief of Engineers, with the rank of Colonel. 
He planned and superintended the works around Cairo and 
Birds Point until the spring of 18G2, when he was commis- 
sioned Colonel of the First 111. Light Artillery. Col. Webster 
took part in the battles of Belmont, Fort Henry, Donelson and 
Shiloh. 

In that battle, one of the most important of that period of 
the war, he rendered distinguished and conspicuous service. 
Gen. Sherman said of him — ''that as an officer he was one in 



222 

whose keeping Gen. Grant and I could always repose any trust 
with a sense of absolute security. ' ' At Shiloh he arranged and 
commanded that battery and reserve forces which made that 
fierce onslaught on the enemy and repulsed them just before 
nightfall of April 6, 1862. 

From Shiloh Col. Webster went with Gen. Grant to Memphis 
and was appointed Military Commander in the summer of 
1863. He had a severe spell of sickness and after his recovery 
was given charge of the military railway as Gen. Grant's chief 
of staff, and remained on this duty during the Vicksburg cam- 
paign until Gen. Sherman took charge of the army of the Ten- 
nessee. With Gen. Sherman he went to Nashville, took part 
in that battle. Throughout the remainder of the war he was 
chief of staff of Gen. Sherman and had charge of headquarters 
during the "March to the Sea." 

In the spring of 1S65 Col. Webster moved to Savannah, 
where he joined Gen. Sherman. The war over, he resigned his 
military office find returning to Chicago employed himself 
principally in superintending hospitals. He also went on a 
tour through the South to inspect the railroads and at the re- 
quest of the Postmaster General made a report thereon as a 
basis for the reorganization of the mail service. 

In 1868 he was appointed collector of internal revenue, which 
office he held until it was abolished in 1873. Soon afterwards 
he was appointed assistant treasurer and when the campaign 
against whiskey frauds opened he became collector of internal 
revenue for the First District of Illinois. 

Gen. Webster died at the Palmer House, March 12, 1876. 

The notice of his death that appeared in the daily papers 
together with the general expression of grief and sense of loss, 
showed how universal among men of all shades of political 
opinion was the estimation of such a character as his. 



223 

GIFTS TO THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND 

SOCIETY. 

The Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society and the Trustees of 
the Illinois State Historical Library acknowledge these gifts and thank the 
donors for them: 

Archbald, (Pa.) Citizen. Issues of the Archbald Citizen with historical 
articles as follows: The Indian Cave. The Local Indians. Dress in the 
Early Days. More About the Old Times. Holidays of the Pioneers. Busi- 
ness in Pioneer Days. Gift of Mr. P. A. Phiibin, Archbald, Pa. 

Buffalo Historical Societv. Publications Buffalo Historical Society. Vol. 
XIX, 1915, 392 pages. Gift of Buffalo Historical Society, Euffalo, N. Y. 

Cairo, Illinois. Summary of the Proceedings of the City of Cairo, 111., May, 
1916. 29 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Robert A. Hatcher, Cairo, 111. 

California Society Sons of the Revolution. Spirit of patriotism as evi- 
denced by the revolutionary and ancestral records of the Society Sons of 
the Revolution in the State of California. Los Angeles, Cal. 1916. Gift of 
California Society, Sons of the Revolution, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Recommendations on In- 
ternational Law and official commentary thereon of the second Pan Ameri- 
can Congress held in Washington, D. C, Dec. 27, 1915, Jan. 8, 1916. Edited 
by James Brown Scott. New York. 1916. Oxford University Press, 53 pp. 
8vo. Gift of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D. C. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Feace. Hague Conventions .and 
Declarations of 1899 and 1907. Edited by James Brown Scott. New York, 

1915, Oxford University Press, XXXIII and 303 pp. 8vo. Gift Carnegie En- 
dowment for International Peace, Washington, D. C. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Instructions to the Ameri- 
can Delegates to the Hague Peace Conference and their official reports. 
Edited by James Brown Scott, New York, 1916, Oxford University Press, 
138 pp. 8vo. Gift of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Chicago, Illinois. A History of the University of Chicago, 1891-1916, by 
Thomas Wakefield Goodspeed. 522 pp. 8vo. Chicago, 1916. Pub. Chicago 
University Press. Chicago, 111. Gift of the University of Chicago. 

Chicago, Illinois. The Development of Chicago, 1674-1914. Shown in a 
series of contemporary original narratives. Comp. and edited by Milo M. 
Quaife, Superintendent of State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Chicago, 

1916. The Caxton Club. 290 pp. 8vo. Gift of Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Room 
1205, 38 S. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Colleges and Secondary Schools. Minutes of the Ninth Conference of the 
National Conference Committee on Standards of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools held at New York City, March 31, 1916. Middletown, Conn., 1916, 
8 pp. Gift of the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

Constantinian Orders of Knighthood. An inquiry respecting the deriva- 
tion and Legitimacy of Constantinian Orders of Knighthood. By George W. 
Warvelle, LL. D. Press of E. E. Pettibone & Co., Chicago, 1916, 23 pp. 8 vo. 
Gift of George W. Warvelle, 1901 Masonic Temple, Chicago. 

Cook County, (111.) Comptroller's Report for the fiscal year 1915. 211 pp. 
Chicago, 1916. Gift of Robert M. Sweitzer, comptroller, Chicago, 111. 

Corbett, Boston. The True Story of Boston Corbett, by Francis E. Leupp, 
15 pp. 8 vo. Privately printed, 1916. Gift of Gilbert A. Tracy, Putnam, Conn. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Fourteenth annual Conference, 
Decatur, 1910, 121 pp. 8 vo., no date, no publisher. Gift of Mrs. H. S. Mc- 
Nulta, 250 N. College Ave., Decatur, 111. 



224 

Douglas, Senator Stephen A. Remarks of Senator Douglas of Illinois In 
reply to Senator Collamer on Kansas Territorial Affairs. Delivered in the 
United States Senate, April 4, 1856. 15 pp. 8 vo., Washington. Gift of Miss 
Louisa I. Enos, 825 N. 7th St. Springfield, 111. 

Edwards, Benjamin; Edwards, Margaret. Two photographs. Gift of 
Ernest Macpherson, Louisville, Ky. 

Elgin, Illinois. Summary of the Proceedings of the City Council and de- 
tailed itemized statement of all receipts and expenses for Jan., Feb., March, 
1916. (3 pamphlets). Auditor's Report. Finances City of Elgin for year 
ending Dec. 31, 1914. Gift of City of Elgin, W. F. Hunter, Com. Accounts and 
Finances, Elgin, 111. 

England's Efforts. By Mrs. Humphrey Ward. With preface by Joseph H. 
Choate, XXIX and 183 pp. 8 vo., New York, 1916. Charles Scribner's sons. 
Gift of Sir Gilbert Parker, 20 Carlton House Terrace, London, ri. W. 
England. ^ 

Feigenbutz, Emil. Erinnerung, Belleville, 111. Liederkranz, n. d. \ 

Genealogy. The Alden Kindred. Line of Descent of Frank Albert i-lden. 
Gift of Frank Albert Alden, Chicago, Illinois. 

Genealogy. Newkirk, Hamilton and Bayless families. By Thomas J. New- 
kirk; no publisher, no date, 88 pp, 8 vo. Gift of Thomas J. Newkirk, 820 
Sheridan Rd., Evanston, 111. 

Genealogy. Shiner. The Descendants of George Hughes Shiner. By 
Harry Lawrence Shiner. 1915. Gift of H. L. Shiner, Topeka, Kans. 

Greenbush, 111. Early Days in Greenbush with biographical sketches of 
the Old Settlers. By William L. Snapp. 195 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 111., 1905, 
H. W. Rokker Co., printers. Gift of Wm. L. Snapp, Avon, 111. 

Harper's Weekly, Vol. XIII, No. 666, October 2, 1869. Gift of Miss Louisa 
I. Enos, 825 N. 7th St., Springfield, 111. 

Hinrichsen, Edward S. Deed to land in Morgan County, 111., by President, 
Directors and Company of the State Bank of Illinois to Edward S. Hinrich- 
sen, filed June 24, 1850. Gift of Miss Savillah Hinrichsen, 1141 S. 3d St., 
Springfield, 111. 

Illinois. A Syllabus of Twelve Studies in IlliDois History. By Mrs. Mar- 
garet Bangs, Pamphlet; no date, no publisher. Gift of Mrs. Margaret Bangs 
of Chicago, 111. (2 copies). 

Illinois. Chicago Voting Machine Investigation. Report of the Legisla- 
tive Committee appointed by the 48th Genl. Assembly. 776 pp. 8 vo. Gunth- 
rop-Warren Printing Co., Chicago, 111. Gift of the Illinois Legislative Com- 
mittee, Hon. F. C. Campbell, Secretary, Xenia, 111. 

Illinois. Proceeding of the Seventeenth Triennial Reunion Ninety-Second 
Regiment Illinois Volunteers, Sept. 2, 3, 1915, at Byron, 111. J. M. Norton, 
comp. Byron, 111. Albert L. Hall & Co., 72 pp., 8 vo. Gift of J. M. Norton, 
Rockford, 111. 

Illinois Society Sons of the Revolution. Year Book of the Society of Sons 
of the Revolution in the State of Illinois, 131 pp. 8 vo., Chicago, 1913. Pub- 
lished by Board of Managers, Illinois Society Sons of the Revolution. Gift 
of Illinois Society Sons of the Revolution, 54 W. Randolph St., Chicago. 

Illinois Society Sons of the Revolution. Membership Roll and Constitu- 
tion, 1915. Gift of Illinois Society Sons of the Revolution, 54 W. Randolph 
St Chicago, Illinois. 

Illinois State Flag. Flag, pole and standard. Gift of Mrs. George A. 
Lawrence, Galesburg, 111. 

Illinois Veteran Infantry Volunteers. Proceedings of the Reunion held 
In 1915 by the Association of Survivors Seventh Regiment Illinois Veteran 
Infantry Volunteers, Springfield, 111., Sept. 22, 1915. Springfield, 111., 1916; 



225 

State Register Printing House, 72 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Major E. S. Johnson, 
Springfield, 111. 

Indiana. Corydon, Indiana Democrat. Two issues; June 7th, 1916; June 
14, 1916, giving account of Centennial Celebration. Gift of Mrs. A. W. Sale, 
Springfield, 111. 

Indiana. The pageant of Corydon, the pioneer capital of Indiana, 1816- 
1916. By William Chauncey Langdon, 43 pp. 8 vo., New Albany, Ind., 1916. 
Baker's Printing House. Gift of William Chauncey Langdon, Box 1013, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Kentuckv Register. Published by the Kentucky Historical Society: Vol. 

II, No. 32, Mav, 1913; Vol. 12, No. 35, May, 1914; Vol. 12, No. 36, Sept. 1914; 
Vol. 13, No. 37, Jan. 1915; Vol. 13, No. 39, Sept. 1915; Vol. 14, No. 40, Jan. 
1916; Vol. 14, No. 41, May, 1916. Kentucky in the War of 1812. By Ander- f 
son Chenault Quisenberry. A Few Press Notices of Pictures in Silver and t 
"Her Dearest Friend" poems. By Mrs. Jennie C. Morton. Arbor Day at the % 
Capitol, Frankfort, Ky. Gift of Mrs. Jennie C. Morton, Sec. Kentucky State ji 
Historical Society, Frankfort. Ky. ^ 

Letters. Original letters, John M. Richardson to P. P. Enos, dated Bur- 
lington, Vt, April 26, 1821; Ninian Edwards to P. P. Enos, dated Washington 
City, Jan. 27, 1823; J. M. Peck to P. P. Enos, dated Rock Springs, 111., March 
20, 1832; George Forquer to P. P. Enos, dated Springfield, 111., Jan. 16, 1332. 
Gift of Miss Louisa I. Enos, 825 N. 7th St., Springfield, 111. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Abraham Lincoln and His Last Resting Place. Leaflet 
published for distribution at the National Lincoln Monument, Springfield, 

III. Comp. by E. S. Johnson, custodian. No publisher, no date, 28 pp. 8 vo. ■ 
Gift of E. S. Johnson, Custodian Lincoln Monument, Springfield, 111. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Address by Hon. Frederick A. Smith, Lincoln Birth- 
day Service, Memorial Hall, Feb. 12, 1913. 15 pp. no date, no publisher. Gift 
of Gen. Walter R. Robbins, Chicago, 111. 

Lincoln-Douglas Debate. Life of Lincoln Series. A calendar. Gift of 
Angel Cafe, Springfield, 111. 

Louisiana. Louisiana at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San 
Francisco, Cal., 1916. Report of the Louisiana Commission, New Orleans, 
La., 114 pp. Gift of the Louisiana State Board of Agriculture and Immigra- 
tion, New Orleans, La. 

Maps. Map of Oregon Territory. By the U. S. Ex. Charles Wilkes, Esq. 
Commander, 1841. Gift of Miss Louisa I. Enos, 825 N. 7th St., Springfield, 
Illinois. 

Maps. Wells' New Map of the Seat of War. Published by G. S. Wells, 140 

Nassau St., New York, 1855. Gift of Miss Louisa I. Enos, 825 N. 7th St. 
Springfield, 111. 

Marshall Field & Co. The Cathedral of all the stores. (Poem). By Irvln 
C. Lambert. Gift of John G. Shedd, President Marshall Field & Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Memorial Day Observance. Stephenson Post No. 30, G. A. R., Springfield, 
111. 49th Annual Observance of Memorial Day, 1915. 50th Annual Obser- 
vance of Memorial Day, 1916. (2 pamphlets). Gift of Major E. S. Johnson, 
Springfield, 111. 

Memorial. Emil Feigenbuk, Belleville, 111. Gift of Belleville Public Library, 
Belleville, 111. 

Merna, 111. A Chronological Sketch of St. Patrick's Parish, Merna, 111. 
36 pp. Bloomington, 111., 1916. Pantagraph Printing & Stationery Co. Gift 
of F. G. Lentz, Merna, 111. 



226 

Michigan Historical Commission Bulletin No. 5. Names cf Places of In- 
terest on Mackinac Island, Mich. 83 pp. 8 vo. Wynkoop Hollenbeck Craw- 
ford Co., State Printers, Lansing. Mich, 1915. Gift of Michigan Historical 
Commission, Lansing, Mich. 

Missouri. Constitution of the State of Missouri. 40 pp. 12 mo. St. Louis, 
Mo., 1820. Gift of Miss Louisa. I. Enos, Springfield, 111. 

Missouri. University of Missouri Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 12: Library Series 
No. 8. Opening Exercises of the New Library Building, January 6. 191G. 
22 pp. 8 vo. University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.. 1916. Gift of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

New York. A List of Books relating to the History of the State of New 
York. Albany, N. Y., 1916. University cf the State of New York, 40 pp. 
8 vo. Gift of the University of the State of New York, Albany, N. Y. 

New York, Albany. Early records of the city and county of Albany and 
Colony of Rensselaerswyck. New York State Library, History Bulletin No. 
9, Vol. 2. Translated from the original Dutch by Jonathan Pearson, revised 
and edited by A. J. F. Van Laer, archivist, Albany, N. Y. 1916. University of 
the State of New York. 438 pp. 8 vo. Gift of New York State Library, 
Albany, N. Y. 

Nicholson, John Page. Catalogue of Library of Brevet Lieut. Colonel 
John Page Nicholson, relating to the war of the Rebellion, 1861-1866. John 
T. Palmer Co., printers, Philadelphia, 1914. 1022 pp. 8 vo. Gift of John 
Page Nicholson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pan-American Scientific Congress, Second. Held in the city of Washing- 
ton, December 27, 1915-January 8, 1916. "The Final Act." Prepared by 
James Brown Scott, A. M., J. U. D„ LL. D. 520 pp. 8 vo., Washington, D. C, 
1916. Government Printing Office. Gift of Carnegie Endowment for Inter- 
national Peace, Washington, D. C. 

Park College, Parkville, Mo. Narva, publication of Park College; n. p. 
1916. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 111. 

Quincy, Illinois. Year Book Cem City Business College, Quincy, 111., 
1916-1917, 64 pp. 8 vo. 1916. Gift of Gem City Business College, Quincy 
Illinois. 

Red Cross of Constantine. Proceedings of the Grand Imperial Council of 
the Red Cross of Constantine at its forty-fourth Annual Assembly at Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, June 2, 1916. P. F. Pettibone & Co., printers, Chicago, 1916. 
8 vo. Gift of George W. Warvelle, 1901 Masonic Temple, Chicago. 

Republican National Convention, Chicago, 1916. History of the Begin- 
ning of the Republican Party. Gift of Mr. David E. Shanahan, 115 S. Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111. 

Shakespeare Tercentary Celebration during the week of April 24-29, 1916. 
Gift of Scruggs, Vandervort & Barney, St. Louis, Mo. 

Snyder, Dr. J. E. Gift of newspaper files and pamphlets. 

Sons of the Revolution. General Society Sons of the Revolution. Report 
of the Proceedings of the General Society, Sons of the Revolution held in 
Washington, D. C, April 1914. 180 pp. S vo. n. p., n. d. Gift Illinois Society 
Sons of the American Revolution, 54 West Randolph St.. Chicago. 

Spain. Fourteen pamphlets on Spain. Gift of the Hispanic Society of 
America, New York City, N. Y. 

United Shoe Machinery Co. "Good Sport, Good Health, Good Work." 49 
page booklet. Gift of the United Shoe Machinery Co., Boston, Mass. 

United Shoe Machinery Co. "The Story of Three Partners." 49 page 
booklet. Gift of United Shoe Machinery Co., Boston, Mass. 

United Shoe Machinery Co. "Efficiency Through Hygiene." 18 page 
booklet. Gift United Shoe Machinery Co., Boston, Mass. 



227 

Washington, D. C. The Washington Sketch Book, a Society Souvenir. By- 
Ida Hinman. 128 pp. 8 vo. Washington, D. C, 1895. Hartman & Cadick, 
printers. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 111. 

White, (Capt.) Patrick H. Original manuscript of the services of Captain 
Patrick H. White, of the Chicago Merc. Battery during the Civil War, a 
clipping from the Reporter (Extra) of Tyler, May 21, 1864. War Depart- 
ment letter dated April 6, 1867, signed I. C. Kelton, Asst. Adj. Gift of J. E. 
Boos, 20 Dudley Heights, Albany, N. Y. 

Wisconsin. Early Milwaukee. Papers from the Archives of the Old 
Settlers' Club of Milwaukee County, Milwaukee, Wis., 1916. Published by 
Old Settlers' Club. 149 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Old Settlers' Club, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wisconsin. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Proceedings of the 
Society at its 63d Annual Meeting, October 21, 1915. Madison, 1916. 231 
pp. 8 vo. Published by State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Gift of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Yale University. A list of newspapers in the Yale University Library. 
Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 1916. 216 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 



NECROLOGY 






231 



LEO WAMPOLD. 

BORN CHICAGO, SEPT 5, 1865. DIED CHICAGO, FEB. 4, 1916. 

Leo Wampold was born in Chicago, September 5, 1865, and 
attended the public schools and the Harvard School at Twen- 
ty-first street and Indiana avenue. He then entered the 
School of Mines of Columbia College of New York City, from 
which he was graduated in 1888. 

Upon his return to Chicago, he became a member of the 
wholesale clothing firm of Calm, Wampold and Company, of 
which his father, Louis Wampold, was the senior partner and 
in this business he continued until the dissolution of the firm. 

He was the organizer of the old Chicago City Troop in 
1893; was later first lieutenant of Troop C, First Cavalry; 
the adjutant of the first squadron, First Cavalry, lieutenant 
colonel and inspector general of the fourth brigade and from 
1906 to 1914 was lieutenant colonel and chief quarter master 
of the State National Guard. Military honors were accorded 
at the funeral service in Sinai Temple and at the grave in 
Rosehill Cemetery. 

Mr. Wampold was a member of the Union League and the 
Standard Club and for a number of years held offices in the 
Deutsche Gesellshaft and the Associated Jewish Charities. 
He was a member of the Illinois State Historical Society and 
was much interested in its activities. At the time of his death 
February 4, 1916, Mr. Wampold was associated with Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Smith, in the firm of Wampold and Smith, insurance 
adjusters. 



23S 



JOHN McCAN DAVIS. 

BlOGEAPHICAL SKETCH PkEFABKI) AT THE REQUEST OF HISTOR- 
ICAL Society by Clinton L. Conkling and 
H. W. Clendenin. 

John McCan Davis was born in Fulton County, Illinois, 
November 19, 1866, and died suddenly of apoplexy at bis home 
in Springfield, on the evening- of May 11, 1916. 

He obtained his early education in the public schools of his 
home county. Early in life he developed a taste for journal- 
ism and at the age of fifteen years was a contributor to news- 
papers. While yet a boy he studied shorthand and was able to 
report speeches. Later he taught school for a short time, but 
when nineteen years old became editor of a weekly paper at 
Canton, Illinois. During this time he also acted as official 
court stenographer. Leaving this field he was for a short time 
engaged in newspaper work in Iowa, being managing editor of 
a daily paper at Council Bluffs. 

In the fall of 1888 he came to Springfield and for about two 
years was City Editor of the Illinois State Journal. In 1889 
he became resident correspondent for the Chicago Times. At 
one time he managed and had a controlling interest in the 
Springfield News. For many years he was manager of the 
Legislative Bureau of the Associated Press at Springfield, 
and acted as correspondent for a number of metropolitan 
newspapers in Chicago, St. Louis, New York and Boston. In 
1891 he was appointed special correspondent of the St. Louis 
Globe Democrat and continuously represented that paper at 
the State Capital for many years. Between the years 1895 and 
1899 he practiced law. In 1897 he was appointed Secretary of 
the State Board of Arbitration and became an authority on in- 
dustrial conciliation and arbitration. He drafted the acts 
passed by the General Assembly of the State of Illinois in 
1899 and 1901 amending the arbitration law. 

In 1900 he was called before the United States Industrial 
Commission to testify before it as an expert. He served one 
term of six years, from 1908 to 1914, as Clerk of the Supreme 



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J. McCan Davis. 



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233 

Court of Illinois, to which office he was elected upon the Re- 
publican ticket, by a plurality of upwards of 165,000 votes. 
"The Illinois Statesman" an illustrated Weekly Magazine 
for Illinois was founded by him in April 1911. The last politi- 
cal campaign in which he engaged as a candidate was in 1914 
when he ran on the Republican ticket for the place of con- 
gressman-at-large. W. Elza Williams of Pittsfield received 
375,465 votes and J. McCan Davis 373,682. He later went be- 
fore the House of Representatives and asked for a recount on 
the ground that he had been counted out in a few precincts in 
Chicago. The committee on elections refused his request and 
seated Mr. Williams. 

The Capitol Engraving Company, since consolidated with 
the Lawson & Shores Engraving Company, was organized by 
him. 

Few men in the State possessed such a grasp of political 
conditions as Mr. Davis. He was an authority on the history 
of Illinois politics and at one time collected material for a 
book to cover this ground, but it was never finished. He also 
contemplated a life of Stephen A. Douglas and did some pre- 
paratory work upon it. 

Aside from his newspaper work he was widely known as an 
authority on the life of Abraham Lincoln. 

Among his writings are : 

The Early Life of Abraham Lincoln, containing many un- 
published documents and unpublished remininscences of Lin- 
coln's early friends. By Ida M. Tarbell, assisted by Mr. J. 
McCan Davis. Pub. N. Y., S. S. McClure, Limited. London, 
1896. 

Abraham Lincoln, His Book. A facsimile reproduction of 
the original with an explanatory note. By J. McCan Davis. 
New York. McClure Phillips & Co., 1901. 

Breaking the Deadlock. Being an accurate and authentic 
account of the contest of 1903-1904 for the republican nomina- 
tion for governor of Illinois ; including the story of the long 
and remarkable campaign, the proceedings of the State Con- 
vention May 12th to June 3rd, 1904. 441 pp. 8 vo., Spring- 
field, Illinois, 1904. H. O. Shepard, Pub. 



234 

How Abraham Lincoln Became President. Centennial Edi- 
tion 1809-1909. 93 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. The Illinois 
Company, Pub. 

Mr. Davis was a member of the American Bar Association, 
the Illinois State Bar Association, the National Press Asso- 
ciation, the Illinois Press Association, the National Press 
Club of Washington, D. C, the Hamilton Club of Chicago, the 
Illinois State Historical Society and others. 

Mr. Davis was one of the earliest and most active members 
of the Illinois State Historical Society. He was for a number 
of years, chairman of its publication committee. He served 
the Society as its secretary from January, 1902 to January, 
1903. At the time of Mr. Davis ' death the Historical Society 
was holding its annual meeting and as soon as the announce- 
ment of it was made, resolutions were passed by the Society 
expressing its sense of the loss it had sustained and offering 
sympathy to his family. 

Not long before his death he suffered the loss of his right 
eye by an accident. The suffering resulting from this injury 
and the worry it occasioned had a serious effect upon him in 
his weakened condition, the result of some months of ill health. 

Surviving him are his wife, Mrs. Florence P. Davis, former- 
ly Miss Florence Flower Packard, of Canton, Illinois; his 
father, M. L. Davis of Peoria; also two brothers and two sis- 
ters. He had no children. 



ilJWW ii^^^^^"'/-^ r T f " ' ■ ■■■-.-- . -;*:---■■- =,-;■?- -v.vr 1 --^— T?;' ? ■T?/r-' r "*"-?-^r- 



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WILLIAM A. HASKELL, M. D. 



235 



DR. WILLIAM A. HASKELL, 
By W. T. Nosto?v\ 

Dr. William A. Haskell, for ma^y years a leading physi- 
cian of Alton, 111., passed away July 13, 1916, at the age of 
71 years. He had long been a sufferer from an insidious 
malady, diabetes, which caused his retirement from active 
practice some fourteen years ago. 

The death of no other man in Alton could have occasioned 
such a shock to the community as did that of Dr. Haskell. 
His name was a household word. In hundreds of homes the 
sad dispensation fell with the weight of a personal affliction. 
During over thirty years of active practice he was trusted and 
honored as falls to the lot of few men, not only as the wise and 
skillful physician, but as the helpful, sympathetic friend. His 
presence in the sick room was as a gleam of sunshine pene- 
trating the clouds of doubt and fear. He radiated hope and 
cheer. His magnetic personality seemed in itself a panacea 
for suffering and an anodyne for pain. 

Dr. Haskell was born at Hillsboro, HI., June 22, 1845. He 
was the son of Dr. A. S. and Lucy Parkhurst Haskell, descend- 
ants of old colonial and revolutionary families of New Eng- 
land. He received his early education in the Hillsboro Acad- 
emy and the Franklin Military School in Boston, subsequently 
entering Harvard University where he graduated in 1866 with 
the degree of B.A. He began the study of medicine with his 
ft iher and later received his degree of M.D. from the Harvard 
Medical School. He began active practice in Edwardsville in 
1869 and the following year removed to Alton, where his 
father had located in 1864 in partnership with the late Dr. 
Hez. Williams. Dr. W. A. Haskell at once entered upon a suc- 
cessful career and his influence was soon widely felt both in 
his profession and in public affairs. He held membership in 
the Illinois State Medical Society, the American Medical 
Association, the American Public Health Association, the 
Madison County Medical Society, the Alton Medical Society, 



236 

of which he was the first president. In 1S81 he was appointed 
a member of the State Board of Health and continued on the 
board for eleven years, and from 1887 to 1892 was its presi- 
dent when he resigned. For many years Dr. Haskell was the 
surgeon in charge of St. Joseph's Hospital and his service 
there was a wonderful record of skilled efficiency. 

But his devotion to his profession, the sacrifices he made 
for others, gradually undermined a naturally robust constitu- 
tion, and the inroads of a malady which eventually cost him 
his life, forced him to retire from active practice. He wore 
himself out in the labor of relieving suffering and distress. 
No night was too dark, no weather too tempestuous for him 
to refuse the call of those who needed his services, no matter 
how poor or lowly the patient. When duty called he knew no 
distinction of class but gave the best of his skill and service 
to those in extremity. 

Dr. Haskell was married June 17, 1877, to Miss Florence E., 
daughter of the late John E. Hayner, the well-known banker 
and financier. The union was an ideal one in its happiness 
and content. He is survived by his wife, his son, John A. Has- 
kell, his sister, Miss Helen Haskell, and two grandchildren. 
Dr. Haskell and his wife suffered great bereavement in the loss 
of two children, Lucy A., born 1880 and died in 1889, and Flor- 
ence H., born in February, 1891, and died the following Octo- 
ber. Dr. Haskell died July 13, 1916. 

The farewell services were conducted from the home the 
Sunday following his death, and were attended by a great con- 
course of acquaintances and friends from near and far. Rev. 
Dr. Thomas Gordon, of Washington, and the venerable Rev. 
Jasper Douthitt, of Shelbyville, both old friends of the family, 
officiated. The latter, an instructor of the doctor's boyhood, 
made a most touching and appreciative address in eulogy of 
the noble life and services to mankind of the departed. The 
interment was in the family lot in the City Cemetery. The 
summer sunlight was fading in the west as the mourners 
turned away in loneliness and sorrow from the flower-laden 
mound where their loved one lay sleeping. 



. 



237 

William A. Haskell was one of the remarkable men of his 
generation. In scholarly attainments, in professional skill, 
in scientific knowledge and in broad comprehension of all the 
great questions of the day he stood on a plane by himself. 
His versatility was phenomenal. He was abreast of all the 
progress of the age in medicine, science, chemistry and the late 
marvels of invention that have marked the advancement of 
culture and civilization. In his chosen profession it is not too 
much to say that he had no superior in the State. He loved it 
for its possibilities in the conservation of human life; he was 
jealous of its ethics and ever labored to elevate and broaden 
its standards. The profession meant to him not merely an 
occupation but a call to service. It was a mission. He held in 
his hand the gift of healing and the responsibility lay heavy 
upon him. It meant devotion to duty at whatever personal 
sacrifice, even of life itself. And how often in scenes of suf- 
fering and calamity he risked his own life is known only to 
those he rescued or reclaimed by his courage and skill. In his 
almost life-long encounters with disease and death he knew no 
fear and never regarded personal consequences. When duty 
beckoned he neither faltered nor failed. As a surgeon his 
career was particularly brilliant, and he scored many a 
triumph where a favorable issue seemed impossible. He sel- 
dom asked questions in the sick room. His diagnosis of a case 
seemed intuitive and instantaneous. He was not only a great 
healer by virtue of attainment but a doctor by right of hered- 
ity. He represented the flowering of four generations of phy- 
cians. His great grandfather, Abraham Haskell, was a phy- 
sician in Massachusetts before the Eevolution; his grand- 
father and father followed in the same profession, and on the 
maternal side he was the grandson of Dr. William Parkhurst, 
He was likewise a descendant of Rev. John Cotton and Rev. 
Cotton Mather, two distingmrhed divines of early colonial 
days. That he had in early manhood no thought of other pro- 
fession than that of medicine was natural, and that he should 
enter upon its study with all the eager enthusiasm that ever 
characterized him was equally natural. Probably old Har- 
vard boasted no more brilliant student either in her classical 



23S 

or medical curriculum. His memory was remarkable and his 
perception acute. He was always a student, always reaching 
out for further knowledge and retaining what he read. This 
habit of life continued even after his retirement from active 
service. 

Dr. Haskell was a natural leader of men. He had a mag- 
netic personality. His gift of leadership was instinctively 
conceded in any assembly in which he was placed and he was 
forced to the front. "Where he sat was the head of the 
table." This was emphatically true in political affairs. He 
was a Bepublican by conviction but cherished no animosity 
towards his opponents. He was a worker as well as a leader 
and gave generously of his means and his strength to the cause 
he supported, but without personal ambition. Old citizens 
will recall the grand rallies, the mammoth torchlight proces- 
sions and the general illuminations along the line of march 
that characterized the political life of the seventies and eight- 
ies, and Dr. Haskell was the Warwick, the power behind the 
throne, of them all. He had no political aspirations for him- 
self and repeatedly refused high preferment, only accepting 
the honor of representing his party in State and National 
conventions. His life w T as dedicated to his profession and 
nothing could swerve him from its service. 

On no occasion was his talent for leadership more dramatic- 
ally exemplified than at the ghastly Wann disaster of January 
21, 1893, the most terrible tragedy in the annals of Madison 
County, when thirty-two persons lost their lives and twice 
that number were horribly burned and disfigured for life. 
The tragedy was the result of a fast passenger train taking a 
misplaced switch and colliding with a string of tank cars, filled 
with oil. The tank cars w r ere set on fire and later exploded. 
A cloud of burning oil ascended many feet into the air and 
then descended on a crowd of spectators covering an area of 
an acre. A scene of unequaled horror followed. Some were 
instantly burned to death; others rushed from the scene 
wrapped in sheets of flame. Summoned to the scene of the 
accident, just before the explosion, as the surgeon of the rail- 
road company, Dr. Haskell at once took command of the situ- 



239 

ation, and with wonderful coolness and nerve brought order 
out of the wild confusion prevailing; organized a corps of 
assistants to attend the injured; commanded a relief train 
and brought the living victims to the hospital. Later the rail- 
road company refused to allow the bills of the hospital and at- 
tending physicians for care of the victims, but Dr. Haskell 
fought the claims through the courts and won a victory. His 
life was filled with other incidents where cool courage and 
nerve were the main factors in averting or alleviating trage- 
dies. 

Of the scope and success of his practice in Alton and vicin- 
ity, his continuous ministrations to the poor and lowly, with- 
out hope of reward, there is no need to enlarge. They are a 
proud part of our local annals. They won him fame and repu- 
tation abroad and he was often summoned to distant cities 
for consultation or to perform hazardous operations. His 
work on the State Board of Health was broad and comprehen- 
sive, and laid the foundations of the State's sanitary system. 
He served on the board wisely and well for eleven years, 
the last five as president of that body. In this work 
his scientific and technical knowledge were invaluable to 
the State. His contributions to various medical magazines 
and review were not only scholarly but of rare scien- 
tific value. His taste for the best in literature was culti- 
vated and enriched throughout his life. His magnificent li- 
brary represented the best thought and expression of past 
and present generations, and he was master of its contents 
in all the varied fields it traversed. His desire that others 
might have the benefit of the education of books was shown in 
his generous donations to the Hayner Memorial Library. 
After his retirement his loyalty to his profession was shown 
by his adding to this collection his own splendid medical li- 
brary, for the benefit of his fellow physicians, and keeping it 
up to date. 

The great grief of his life, next to the domestic bereave- 
ments which shadowed his home, was the retirement from 
active practice which failing health necessitated, some four- 
teen years ago. How bravely and patiently he endured this 



240 

affliction, how splendid a fight he made against the inroads of 
a disease brought on by his self-sacrificing labors for his pa- 
tients, none can appreciate save those within the sacred pre- 
cincts of his home. But it was wonderful and appealing. In 
quest of relief from his malady he traveled much amid the 
wonders of the old world, and their histories were to him an 
open book. He had journeyed up the gloomy Egyptian river 
to the Cataracts and to the wilderness of Nubia beyond. He 
had surveyed the Sphinx of mystery and the pyramids. He 
had unearthed archaeological treasures from the tombs of 
kings who reigned five thousand years ago. But this was not 
satisfying to his restless spirit. "Everything here is so old, 
so old," he wrote me once from Egypt. "I long for some- 
thing new." He had tarried under the sunny skies of Italy; 
had visited all the great cities of continental Europe, had lin- 
gered amid the green lanes and stately parks of England, and 
the glens and rugged hills of Scotland. The isles of the Indies 
knew him for a frequent winter visitor; the Panama Canal 
commanded his admiration, while in his own country Florida 
and California unfolded for him their attractions. And in 
spite of feeble health and limited strength he enjoyed it all. 
He was so alert, so vivid, so vibrant, so interested in all he 
saw that physical weakness was almost forgotten. But with 
all the wonders that the new and old world brought him his 
thoughts ever turned towards home, the scene of his man- 
hood's triumphs, the abode of peace and content. His beau- 
tiful estate was his pride and his marvelous garden of flowers 
was ever a joy. The Doctor delighted in all manly recrea- 
tions. He loved boating and voyaging on the Mississippi and 
the Illinois in his famous yacht and was happy in entertain- 
ing his friends while cleaving their classic waters. 

In all his wanderings abroad he was accompanied by his 
faithful wife and sometimes by all his family. It is not too 
much to say but that for the unwearied devotion of his wife, 
alert to every symptom of danger, wise in the wisdom of love 
and experience, he would long since have closed his eyes in 
some foreign land. But, thanks to her, when he passed to the 
higher life, it was from the place he would have chosen, the 



241 

place he loved the best. From there the transition was only 
a step beyond. "And there shall be no night there; neither 
sorrow nor crying." 

Less than a week before the closing scene the writer passed 
a memorable hour with the Doctor, made delightful by the 
charm of his personality. He was as bright and entertaining 
as ever. As we crossed the threshold his parting words, and 
words that will ever abide in memory, were a genial, "Come 
again. ' ' 

Yes, dear friend, all who loved you are coming — and it will 
not be long. 

"For love will dream, and faith will trust, 
Since He who knows our need is just, 
That somehow, somewhere meet we must." 



DR. WILLIAM A. HASKELL— AN APPRECIATION. 

It is fitting when the close of a career such as that of Dr. 
Haskell has been reached, that it should receive more than the 
usual comment ordinarily given such events. 

In many years there has not been in Alton a man more 
widely known, more generally respected and admired, more 
individually beloved. There is a note of mournful regret to 
be heard in all the comment concerning his death, alike from 
the rich and the poor, the high and the lowly. 

As a physician, his exceptional ability inspired in his pa- 
tients a degree of confidence and trust almost childishly im- 
plicit. When he entered the sick-room door, fear seemed to 
flee and worry to vanish. There was that in his greeting, 
cheery, hopeful, heartening, that lightened the mind, buoyed 
the hope, dispelled the gloom. Even though, perchance, the 
silent step of the Angel of Death followed him in, and no skill 
could avail the sufferer, there seemed always to be felt by the 
bereaved ones a consolation tempering the anguish of the sep- 
aration — the feeling that all that could be, had been done, and 
if Doctor Haskell could not hold the precious life from slip- 
ping aw r ay the task was beyond any human agency. 



242 

In his day as a practitioner, no call for help, regardless of 
situation or circumstance, was ever too unimportant for him, 
day or night, far or near. The poor were as certain and sure 
of his ready service, so often freely rendered, as those who 
would be willing to pay any price for what he could do for 
them. When duty called the doctor was no respecter of per- 
son, race, color or religion. Suffering humanity was the only 
appeal necessary to enlist his heart, his energy, his skill. 

When the many years of his active, arduous, self-forgetful 
practice resulted in the doctor's enforced retirement, dismay 
and panic seized upon the many who for so long had looked 
upon him as their bulwark against all the ills that flesh is 
heir to. They felt at a loss which way to turn — it seemed in- 
credible and stupefying that no longer could they call for and 
receive his ready response, but must perforce look elsewhere, 
however dubiously and uncertainly for some one to fill his 
place, and this place, in the minds and hearts of many who 
placed their trust in him, has never been filled. 

It has seemed a cruel decree of Fate that one who had been 
so much to and done so much for others, should in his later 
years have to be deprived of the healthful rest and enjoyment 
of life so deservedly earned, but he bore his troubles with the 
same courage and determination that he had always tried to 
instill into others. A large measure of reward, however, must 
have come to him in the knowledge and thought of his many 
achievements, his standing in the community and in his pro- 
fession, and his host of appreciative and admiring friends, 
whose regard for and faith in him had never wavered nor 
lessened. 

Of a truth it can well be said the world is better for his 
having lived in it. 



243 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 



No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8vo. 
r rringneld, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. 15 pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 3. *Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph. D. 170 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 111., 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D. 55 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. *Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects, 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 6 to 21. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901 to 1915. (Nos. 6 to 12 and No. 18 out of print.) 

♦Illinois flistorical Collections, Vol. I, Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IT. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord. SLVI and 663 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1907. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series. Vol I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1908. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governors' Letter-Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8vo. Springfield. 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 6S1 pp 8vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited bv Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

! Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. 11. 
Governors' Letter-Books, 1840-1S53. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
diaries Manfred Thompson, CXVIII and 469 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Biographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck, 514 pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections Vol. X: British Series Vol. 1. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter, LVII and 597 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1915. 



244 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New 
Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Ed^vin Carter, XXVIII and 700 pp. Svo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the Stale of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8vo. Springfield, ID15. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Hi'*tptic;jil Library, Vol. I. No. I. September, 

1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
38 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 

1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. 34 pp. Svo. Sprmgfield, 1906. 

♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1, November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer 
Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

♦Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Georgia L. Osborne, compiler, 8vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1, April 1908 to 
Vol. 9, No. 2, July, 1916. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I. II, II, IV, V, VI, VII. 



* Out of print. 



VOL. 9 



OCTOBER, 1916 



NO. 3 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



lieois State Hist 



rica! Socio 



^-;-5>>S> s 



i 
r 

( 









£& 



** 






Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C a* Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16. 1894. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 






Jessie Palmer Weber, Editor. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 






OFFICES S OF THE SOCIETY. 

Honorary President 
Clark E. Carr , Galesburg 

President 
Otto L. Schmidt . . Chicago 

First Vice-President 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice-President 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice-President 
Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice-President 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp , Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice-Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies throughout the 
State of Illinois. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I N. H. Debel. The Development of the Veto Power 

of the Governor of Illinois 245 

II Charles A. Kent, A. M. Lincoln and Gettysburg 

after Fifty Years, Nov. 19, 1863-1913 257 

III Edward MacPherson. Benjamin Edwards 279 

IV Orrin S. Holt. Russel Farnham 284 

V H. P. Simonson. History of the Bock Island Post 

Office 292 

History of the Rock Island Argus 294 

VI George Manierre. A Description of Caisson 
Work to Bed Bock in Chicago for Modern High 

Buildings 296 

VII Charles A. Love. The Massacre during the Black 
Hawk War on Turkev Creek, near Aurora, 

Illinois > 301 

VIII W. T. Norton. Stephen A. Douglas Monument at 

Brandon, Vermont 303 

IX J. W. Becker. Jersey County Centennial Asso- 
ciation 306 

X Original Letters. George Forquer to Pascal P. 

Enos. Dated Springfield, Jan. 16, 1832 308 

Mrs. David L. Gregg to Miss Susan Enos. Dated 
Carribean Sea, Oct. 15, 1853 311 

XI William S. Porter. The Lincoln Funeral Train. . 315 
XII Louis Germain. Body Guard at Funeral of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, Springfield, Illinois 320 

XIII Jesse W. Fell Memorial Gateway 321 

XIV Celebration of the Seventieth Anniversary of 

the Founding of the Bishop Hill Colony, Henry 
County, Illinois 344 

XV Editorial: 

Plans for the Illinois Centennial Celebration 359 

Reunion Sangamon County Old Settlers Associa- 
tion 360 

Daughters of the American Revolution Assist in 
Celebration of Fort xVrmstrong Centennial 371 



Prizes Offered for Historical Essays on DeKalb 
County History 373 

Ogle Countv Erects Monument to its Soldiers of 
the Civil War 375 

XVI Necrology : 

Charles M. Parker 383 

Mrs. Florence Denton Dugan 386 

Horace White 388 

XVII Publications of the Illinois State Historical Li- 

brary and Society 399 



The Development of the Veto Power of the Governor of 

Illinois. 



By N, H. Debel. 
University of Illinois. 

The veto power, like so many others of our political insti- 
tutions, is an adaptation of a British institution transplanted 
to American soil. In England it was a royal prerogative. The 
king enacted laws upon the petition of his people. In the 
course of the development of Parliament he was forced to 
agree not to alter petitions, which had come to be presented 
in the precise form in which it was desired to have them 
enacted. But his assent was still necessary to give them 
validity. He could refuse his assent as late as 1707— when the 
last veto of a parliamentary act occurred. 

Though the veto power at home declined, it was found con- 
venient to maintain it for colonial purposes. Legislation in 
British colonies is still subject to disallowance by the king. 
That he always acts "in council" is simply a convenient 
method to insure that he does not act contrary to the will of 
the party in power. While vetoes of colonial legislation are 
sparingly made in the British Empire today, that can hardly 
be said of the practice of a hundred and fifty years ago. Here 
the veto power was practically undiminished. That the power 
was wielded not in vain is abundantly testified by the fact 
that the first of the long list of grievances against the king 
of Great Britain enumerated by the Declaration of Independ- 
ence is on account of the use of the veto power. "He has 
refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public good," so runs the indictment. 

In the American colonies before the revolution no uniform- 
ity with regard to the veto power existed. In Rhode Island 
and Connecticut, where the governors were elected by the 
people, no veto power existed. In the proprietary colonies 
the veto power was exercised by the proprietor or his deputy. 



246^ 

In Pennsylvania, besides, the king retained the right to veto 
colonial legislation. In the royal colonies the governor was 
given an absolute veto. Not only that, but his power of assent 
was limited. Finally, all measures assented to by the royal 
governor were subject to disallowance afterwards by the king. 

During the struggle with Great Britain the governor had 
been the ally of the king. The popular assembly, on the other 
hand, had truly represented the people. The result was that 
our early American state builders had confidence in legisla- 
tive assemblies, with a corresponding distrust of the execu- 
tive. This is clearly reflected in the absence of the executive 
veto power in most of our early state constitutions. Of the 
thirteen original states, only two provided for a veto power, 
namely, New York and Massachusetts. . 

The veto provisions adopted by these two states differed 
widely. The one in New York, adopted in 1777, vested the 
veto power in the council of revision, composed of the gov- 
ernor and the members of the supreme court. A bill passed 
by the legislature had to be presented to the council for 
revisal and consideration. If they approved it, they were to 
sign it. If not, they were to return it, with their objections 
in writing, to the house in which it had originated. Here it 
might be passed over the disapproval of the council by the 
vote of two-thirds of the total membership. It was then to 
be sent to the other house, where two-thirds of those present 
might pass it over the veto. 

The council was given ten days for the consideration of 
bills. Failure to disapprove a bill within that time resulted 
in its becoming law without approval. If the legislature, by 
adjournment within the ten-day period, should prevent the 
return of a bill, return was to be made on the first day of the 
next meeting of the legislature, or the bill would become law. 

The chief importance of the New York plan is that it was 
practically unique. It is of special interest only to us, for 
Illinois was the only other state in the Union to adopt it. 

Another provision, the one adopted by Massachusetts in 
1780, was destined to have much wider influence. Most of its 
essential features were adopted by the National Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1787, and thereafter by most states of 
the Union. It provided that a bill or resolve passed by the 
general court should be submitted to the governor for 



247 

approval or disapproval; that if he should approve it, he 
should sign it ; but that if he did not, he should return it with 
the reasons iu writing to the house in which it had originated ; 
that his message should be entered on the journal; and that 
upon reconsideration two-thirds of the members of each 
house might pass the bill over his veto. The time given the 
governor for the consideration of bills was five days. If any 
bill should not be returned by the expiration of that period, it- 
was to become law without his assent. No provision was made 
for the contingency of adjournment before the expiration of 
the five days. Bills could, therefore, not be vetoed after ad- 
journment. To remedy this defect an amendment was adopted 
in 1820, providing that bills vetoed, the return of which had 
been prevented by the adjournment of the general court, 
should not become law. 

The situation in regard to the veto power at the time of 
the admission of Illinois in 1818 may be briefly summarized 
as follows : Ten states, or exactly one-half, still denied their 
governors the power to disapprove bills. The other ten 
granted that power in varying degrees. New York, as we 
have seen, provided for a council of revision. Nine states 
had granted the veto power to the governor. The time allowed 
for the consideration of bills varied from five to ten days. 
The vote required to over-ride the veto varied from a ma- 
jority to two-thirds of each house of the legislature. In all 
cases except New York, as noted above, the majorities re- 
quired were based on the total membership of the houses, 
respectively. 

The Illinois constitutional convention of 1818, therefore, 
had two general precedents to follow. Two different plans 
were formally advanced and considered by it. One, which 
was eventually adopted, was the New York council of revision 
plan. The other was a strong veto power lodged in the hands 
of the governor. It was similar to the provisions in force in 
Louisiana and Pennsylvania. Both of these states required a 
two-thirds vote to override the governor's veto. Both gave 
him ten days for the consideration of bills. And both re- 
quired that bills vetoed after the adjournment of the legisla- 
ture should be returned within the first three days of the 
following session. The plan proposed in the Illinois conven- 
tion differed only in tha't it required bills vetoed after 



.. . . 



..-. . 



248 

adjournment to be returned on tlie first day of the following 
session of the general assembly. 

It was noted above that not a single state had followed the 
New York plan of a eoimeil of revision, but that, on the other 
hand, since then nine states and the United States had vested 
the veto power in their chief executives. That Illinois, never- 
theless, adopted the New York plan must be ascribed mainly 
to the influence of Elias Kent Kane, who was a member of 
the convention. Mr. Kane was born in New York, educated 
at Yale, and had studied law in New York. He had removed 
to Illinois in 1814. In the convention of 1818 he was a member 
of the committee of fifteen entrusted witb the work of draft- 
ing the new constitution. He appears to have been one of 
the most prominent and influential members. 

The committee of fifteen reported as section 15 of Article 
III, dealing with the executive department, almost word for 
word that section of the New York constitution of 1777 estab- 
lishing the council of re-vision. A few days later, while the 
plan of the committee of fifteen was being considered, an 
alternative plan, already referred to, was offered. It gave 
the veto power to the governor. It allowed him ten days for 
the consideration of bills. It required a two-thirds vote of 
each house to override the veto. It provided that if the 
legislature by adjournment should prevent the return of bills 
within the ten days allowed, such bills were to be returned 
on the first day of the following session or become laws. 

This plan is not heard of any more, however. Three days 
later, on August 17, Article III being considered, section by 
section, the council of revision plan as originally proposed by 
the committee of fifteen was adopted. The vote required to 
override the veto, however, was placed at a majority of each 
house, and not at two-thirds, as in New York. This section, 
without any further change, was adopted on the final reading. 

The veto power in its final form was found in section 19 of 
Article III of the constitution. It provided that: 

"The governor, for the time being, and the judges of the 
supreme court, or a major part of them, together with the 
governor, shall be and are hereby, constituted a council to 
revise all bills about to be passed into laws by the general 
assembly; and for that purpose shall assemble themselves 
from time to time when the general assembly shall be con- 



249 

vened, for which, nevertheless, they shall not receive any 
salary or consideration under any pretense whatever; and all 
bills which have passed the senate and house of representa- 
tives shall, before they become laws, be presented to the said 
council for their revisal and consideration ; and if, upon such 
revisal and consideration, it shall appear improper to the 
said council, or a majority of them, that the bill should become 
a law of this state, they shall return the same, together with 
their objections thereto in writing - , to the senate or house of 
representatives (in whichsoever the same shall have origi- 
nated), who shall enter the objections set down by the council 
at large in their minutes, and proceed to reconsider the said 
bill. But if, after such reconsideration, the said senate or 
house of representatives shall, notwithstanding the said ob- 
jections, agree to pass the same by a majority of the whole 
number of members elected, it shall, together with the said 
objections, be sent to the other branch of the general assem- 
bly, where it shall also be reconsidered, and if approved by a 
majority of all the members elected, it shall become a law. If 
any bill shall not be returned within ten days after it shall 
have been presented, the same shall be a law, unless the gen- 
eral assembly shall by their adjournment render a return 
of the said bill in ten days impracticable; in which case the 
said bill shall be returned on the first day of the meeting of 
the general assembly, after the expiration of the said ten 
days, or be a law." 

The council of revision lasted for thirty years— 1818 to 
1848. Though its record was very creditable indeed, it was 
not destined to continue a part of our constitutional system. 
The purely judicial work of the members of the supreme 
court demanded all of their time. This was especially true 
after 1841, -when they were required to hold circuit courts as 
well. A change had become imperative. 

In the constitutional convention of 1848 there was never 
any doubt that the council of revision would be discontinued. 
There seems to have been no sentiment at all for its retention. 
On the other hand, several resolutions proposing alterations 
in the constitution contained provisions for its abolition. The 
attitude is clearly reflected in a statement made by Mr. Alfred 
Kitchell, a member of the convention. He objected to the 
presentation of too many questions at once. He urged that 



250 

they should be presented one at a time. "For example," lie 
said, "let it be the abolition of the council of revision. There 
is probably not a member not prepared to discuss and vote 
on that proposition." 

However, there was considerable diversity of opinion re- 
garding the merits of a veto power lodged in the hands of the 
governor. On the other hand, there were the customary 
speeches against the power of one man to thwart the will of 
the people. It was said to be a vestige of royalty and unre- 
pubHcan. On the other side, it was urged that the tyranny 
of one is less dangerous than the tyranny of many; that the 
governor is more nearly the representative of all the people 
than is the legislature; that he could be held to more definite 
responsibility; and that, as a matter of fact, it had proved 
satisfactory wherever tried. 

Perhaps only a small percentage of the convention would 
have favored the abolition of the veto power altogether. On 
the question of granting a strong or weak veto power to the 
governor, the members were very nearly evenly divided. On 
the whole, the Democrats seem to have favored the former, 
while the Whigs seem to have favored the latter. 

The committee of ten appointed to draft the article on the 
executive was headed by Samuel D. Lockwood, who had been 
a member of the supreme court and the council of revision 
since 1825. On June 18 they reported to the convention. 
Section 20 of the article reported proposed to vest the veto 
power in the hands of the governor. It required a two-thirds 
vote of those present to override the veto. 

In the convention itself section 20 had a rather checkered 
experience. It was considered in committee of the whole on 
the 16th and 17th of July. On the 16th an amendment offered 
by Mr. R. J. Cross, providing that a majority of the total 
membership of each house of the legislature should be suffi- 
cient to override the veto, was rejected. On the following 
day an amendment offered by Mr. William A. Minshall was 
accepted. It required a three-fifths vote of the total member- 
ship to override the veto. But on August 11th, at the final 
consideration of the report of the committee of the whole by 
the convention, it was again amended. This amendment, 
offered by Mr. J. M. Davis, lowered the vote required for re- 
passage from three-fifths, as in the Minshall amendment, to a 



251 

majority of the total membership, as proposed by the Cross 
amendment. 

The veto section, as finally adopted by the convention, is 
found in section 21 of Article IV of the constitution of 1848. 
It provides: 

"Every bill -which shall have passed the senate and house 
of representatives shall, before it becomes law, be presented 
to the governor; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he 
shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it 
shall have originated; and the said house shall enter the ob- 
jections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it. If, after such reconsideration, a majority of the members 
elected shall agree to pass the bill it shall be sent, together 
with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall like- 
wise be reconsidered; and if approved by a majority of the 
members elected, it shall become a. law. notwithstanding the 
objections of the governor. But in all such cases the votes of 
both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, to be en- 
tered on the journals of each house, respectively. If any bill 
shall not be returned by the governor within ten days (Sun- 
days excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the 
same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, un- 
less the general assembly shall, by their adjournment, prevent 
its return, in which case the said bill shall be returned on the 
first day of the meeting of the general assembly, after the 
expiration of said ten days, or be a law." 

An examination of the provision just quoted shows that it 
provided merely a suspensive veto. Elsewhere the constitu- 
tion provided that no bill should become a law without the 
concurrence of a majority elected to each house of the general 
assembly. Should the governor object to the passage of any 
bill, the same majority would be able to pass it over his veto. 
The most that he could do would be to force a reconsideration. 

Nevertheless, the governor's hands had been strengthened. 
The veto power had not been changed essentially from what 
it was under the council of revision. But it had all been 
placed in his hands. He was not obliged to share it with the 
members of the supreme court, who might outvote him in the 
council. 

However, the suspensive veto proved inadequate. This is 
especially true of the period after the civil war. The demand 



252 

for private legislation— especially for charters of incorpora- 
tion — became too strong for the general assembly to resist. 
The governors, especially Oglesby and Palmer, had striven 
valiantly to stem the tide. But these efforts had been largely 
in vain. Most of the important bills disapproved had been 
repassed. The tyranny of the many had proved intolerable. 
The people in 1870 were ready to strengthen the governor's 
hand very considerably. 

The constitutional convention of 1862 had proposed a 
strengthening of the veto power. The veto provision of the 
proposed constitution, found in section 14 of Article V, re- 
quired a two-thirds vote of the whole membership of each 
house of the general assembly to override the governor's 
disapproval. It would have allowed the governor ten days 
for the consideration of bills, both after adjournment as well 
as during the session. 

Unfortunately this constitution was not ratified by the 
people. Though the state had been Republican at the election 
of 1860, nevertheless, a majority of the members of the con- 
stitutional convention were Democrats. The Republican press 
found it comparatively easy to discredit their work. The con- 
vention itself played into the hands of its enemies by foolish 
pretensions to sovereign powers. 

The constitutional convention of 1869-1870 was overwhelm- 
ingly in favor of strengthening the veto power. The orgies 
of special legislation indulged in by recent legislatures were 
fresh in the minds of the members. So were also Governor 
Palmer's heroic efforts of 1869 to stem the tide. But it was 
equally well realized that he had been largely helpless against 
the will of the general assembly. 

Before the convention had appointed its committees, a reso- 
lution urging that the veto power be strengthened was offered. 
Very early in its proceedings the convention requested a re- 
print of Governor Palmer's veto messages of 1869, together 
with a report of the action of the general assembly on the 
vetoes. Many speeches and resolutions referred to the evils 
of special legislation and expressed the belief that a strong 
veto power would have checked it. To quote one member, 
Mr. James C. Allen of Crawford county, in supporting the 
strong veto power proposed by the committee on the execu- 
tive, he said that an effective veto would have saved the state 



253 

from "the curse of much of the vicious legislation that has 
prevailed for the last, few years." 

The committee of nine, to whom the task of drafting the 
article on the executive department was entrusted, reported 
on January 26, 1870. They unanimously reported a veto sec- 
tion providing that a two-thirds vote in each house should be 
required to override the governor 's disapproval, and that the 
governor should have ten days for the consideration of hills, 
both during the session and after adjournment. 

On February 19 the article on the executive department was 
taken up for consideration. Mr. Elliott Anthony of Chicago, 
the chairman of the committee of nine, referring to section 
20 of the proposed article, said: "Had our present governor 
been clothed with this veto power, what untold miseries would 
he have saved us from." Replying to critics of the so-called 
one man power, he contended that the argument did not turn 
on that point, but upon the facts proved by experience ; that 
the legislature was not infallible; that love of power might 
cause it to encroach upon the other departments ; that fac- 
tional strife might prevent deliberation, and that it might be 
led astray by haste or by the impressions of the moment. He 
believed that it was necessary to give the executive the veto 
power to enable him to defend himself and to increase the 
chances of the community against the enactment of bad laws, 
either through haste, inadvertence or design. As for the argu- 
ment that the veto power might be invoked to prevent the 
passage of good laws, he held that there was less danger of 
that contingency. 

Efforts were made to reduce the majority required to over- 
ride the veto, on February 22 and April 20. Both would have 
reduced it to a majority of the total membership, as under the 
constitution of 1848. The attitude of the convention is shown 
by the vote on two amendments offered on April 20. The first 
was an attempt to have inserted the provision of the constitu- 
tion of 1848, that bills vetoed after adjournment should be 
submitted to the next meeting of the general assembly for 
reconsideration. It was rejected by the vote of 47-11. The 
second was a proposal that the general assembly, if it should 
fail to pass a bill over the veto, might by majority vote submit 
it to the people for adoption or rejection. This amendment 
was rejected by the vote of 53-12. 



254 

The veto provision as adopted by the convention is found 
in section 16 of Article V of the constitution. It provides that: 

''Every bill passed by the general assembly shall, before it 
becomes a law, be presented to the governor. If he approve, 
he shall sign it, and thereupon it shall become a law; but if 
he do not approve, he shall return it, with his objections, to 
the house in which it shall have originated, which house shall 
enter the objections at large upon its journal, and proceed to 
reconsider the bill. If, then, two-thirds of the members elected 
agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together with the ob- 
jectionSj to the other house, da- which it shall likewise be re- 
considered, and if approved by two-thirds of the members 
elected to that house, it shall become a law, notwithstanding 
the objections of the governor. But in all such cases the vote 
of each house shall be determined by yeas and nays, to be 
entered on the journal. Any bill which shall not be returned 
by the governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it 
shall have been presented to him, shall become a law in like 
manner as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly 
shall, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case 
it shall be filed, with his objections, in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State, within ten days after such adjournment, or 
become a law." 

The constitutional eonveiition of 1870 did not complete the 
task of perfecting the veto power. The power to veto items 
in appropriation bills was still lacking. It was not added in 
Illinois before 1884. Agitation had started early in the 
eighties. A resolution offered by Senator Kelly of Adams 
county during the session of 1881 is of interest as pointing 
toward an early adoption of the power to veto items in appro- 
priation bills. The resolution proposed read : 

"Whereas, Appropriation bills have often been delayed to 
nearly the end of the session before they are put upon their 
passage, and reductions that have been carefully considered 
*and adopted are frequently reinstated by committees of con- 
ference of the two houses without much deliberation, at the 
closing hours of the session ; therefore, 

Resolved, That all appropriation bills be considered and 
disposed of at least three days before the day fixed for ad- 
journment." 



255 

Though the resolution failed, it is of interest to note that 
it received twenty votes, as against twenty-three opposed. 

Governor Oullom, in his regular message to the general 
assembly of 1883, recommended that an amendment to the 
constitution giving the governor the power to veto items in 
appropriation bills, be submitted to the people. He called at- 
tention to the fact that many state governors possessed this 
power ; that the mayors of Illinois had been given this power 
in 1875; and that President Arthur had just recommended its 
adoption for the United States. Early in the session Senator 
William B. Archer of Pike county introduced a resolution for 
an amendment to the constitution, requiring appropriation 
bills to be itemized, and giving the governor the power to veto 
distinct items or sections. Senator Archer had been a mem- 
ber of the constitutional conventions of 1847 and 1869, in both 
of which he had urged the adoption of a strong veto power. 
The resolution without change was adopted in both houses of 
the general assembly by overwhelming majorities — in the sen- 
ate by the vote of 35-7, and in the house of representatives by 
107-2. It was submitted to the people for ratification at the 
general election November 4, 1S84, where it was approved bv 
the vote of 427,821-60,244, out of a total vote of 673,096 cas't 
at the election. The amendment adopted was inserted in the 
body of section 16 of Article V of the Constitution and reads 
as follows : 

"Bills making appropriations of money out of the treasury 
shall specify the objects and purposes for which the same are 
made, and appropriate to them respectively their several 
amounts in distinct items and sections, and if the governor 
shall not approve any one or more of the items or sections 
contained in any bill, but shall approve the residue thereof, 
it shall become a law as to the residue in like manner as if 
he had signed it. The governor shall then return the bill, with 
his objections to the items or sections of the same not ap- 
proved by him, to the house in which the bill shall have origi- 
nated, which house shall enter the objections at large upon its 
journal, and proceed to reconsider so much of said bill as is 
not- approved by the governor. The same proceedings shall 
be had in both houses in reconsidering the same as is herein- 
before provided in ease of an entire bill returned by the gov- 
ernor with his objections ; and if any item or section of said 



256 

bill not approved by the governor shall be passed by two- 
thirds of the members elected to each of the two houses of 
the general assembly, it shall become part of said law, not- 
withstanding the objections of the governor." 

The present veto power of the governor of Illinois has 
proved very effective. It is practically impossible to pass a 
bill over his disapproval. But though this power is practi- 
cally absolute, there has never occurred an instance of serious 
abuse. The governors of Illinois have on the whole exercised 
this power wisely and conscientiously. The people expect the 
governor to exercise independent judgment on bills presented 
to him for approval or rejection. They have confidence in 
him. JHtewioare nearly tluui any other. officer in the state gov- 
ernment represents all the people. Thus, we have the strange 
spectacle of the veto power, once a royal prerogative, having 
become an indispensable power in the hands of a democratic 
executive. 



257 



Lincoln and Gettysburg After Fifty Years. 
November 19, 1863-1913. 

By Charles A. Kent, A. M.* 

Nearly five hundred years before the Christian era, 
Miltiades led a determined host of his Athenian countrymen 
against the Persians on the shores of the Attic Sea, and 
Marathon became historic. We recall it as recording a vic- 
tory for the establishment of representative government and 
overthrow of despotism, and as marking the first instance, 
which has survived, of a custom of memorializing heroic 
deeds, in celebration by the state. 

On the field of that great day a monumental mound, which 
remains to the present time, was thrown up in honor of the 
patriot dead of Greece, and their thousand Platean allies. 
Shortly after Greece vanquished her invading foe, it became 
a custom that at a great gathering of the people a funeral 
oration should be pronounced by some citizen of the realm. 
at a public concourse. Two evidences of this celebration of 
the state in memory of fallen heroes have come down to us 
from the mists of those far-off years. One is the funeral 
speech of Pericles, delivered presumably at Marathon, or in 
the suburb gardens of Athens, where great numbers of the 
dead of battle slept, wherein he likened Athenian heroism 
and civilization to a brilliant and guiding torch, handed on 
through the ages, to shed its light even "upon the pages of 
our own time." 

The other testimony is in mutest marble, that of the 
Mourning Athene, found in excavation several years ago 
on the Acropolis at Athens. The figure typifies the youth 
and personality of the Greek nation of that ancient time, and 



• Address on "Lincoln and Gettysburg after Fifty Years,*' delivered by Charles 
A. Kent. A. JL, principal Eugene Field Elementary School, Chicago. November If), 101H, 
at the fiftieth anniversary of the Lincoln Gettysburg Address, under the auspices of 
the Chicago Historical Society. Members of the Grand Army of the Republic and of 
the Loyal Legion being present as guests. 



258 

speaks in eloquent stone of her grief over heroes who had 
fallen in the defense of their country, on the battle field. 

It has come to the lot of our own proud republic, twenty- 
five hundred years after, to re-inaugurate the public testi- 
monial to the soldier in the cause of right and of the nation 
in the right, and Gettysburg, in the terrors of its awful 
carnage of war, as well as in loyalty to the sacred dead — 
Gettysburg thrills all our hearts and lifts us to higher faith 
in the integrity of that nation Ave love, now stronger for the 
struggle, braver in its example, and more powerful, infinitely, 
in its union! 

The development of representative government and of 
liberty are both consonant with the creation of this nation; 
and the terrible four years half a century ago were not 
fought in vain, and we now tender our poor tribute to the 
occasion and the man, in whose memory we gather, for recall 
of heroic deeds and heroic testimony. 

The institution of human slavery had lingered from the 
misty days of the past, and slowly, but stubbornly, was 
opposed in its abandonment by the march of ideas of human 
right and conduct. The American nation, once entirely apart 
from the tribute of a mother country too long and too insist- 
ently intolerant with taxation and indifferent colonial man- 
agement, found itself increasingly perplexed with the problem 
of human rights. The question of black slavery proved a 
constant apple of discord and an increasing menace to 
state harmony and coherent national life. The Articles of 
Confederation, written into the law of the land amidst the 
trials of war with England during the Kevolution, proved 
inadequate to direct the affairs of a republic in modern times. 
after a trial of less than ten years. The Constitution, adopted 
in 1789, was now in turn to demonstrate its right to an exist- 
ence, in the testing ordeal of civil combat. The years as they 
ran apace marked wider and wider divergence of interests 
and opinion in the sections known soon politically as well as 
geographically as the North and the South. Statesmen of 
older contests struggled with the problem, prescribing, com- 
promise, retaliation, colonization on distant shores, national 
purchase of slaves, and abolition. For forty years and more 
the North pleaded with the South and pacified selfish inter- 
ests in all sections of the country where it was sought to 



- 



259 

perpetuate chattel slavery. The patriotic hope for a per- 
petual union, the vision of a strong and united nation wherein 
over> T one might indeed be reckoned free, was breathed by 
increasing thousands as the years ran farther into discord, 
suspicion, inaction. But the god of destiny, through Abra- 
ham Lincoln, was to solve the problem of human slavery and 
national integrity on foundations as solid as the world, as 
enduring as time. 

His life, whose history runs parallel to the decline and end 
of slavery in this country, found its beginning in the hills 
of Kentucky over a century ago. His youth and early man- 
hood were spent in the territory of political compromise. His 
sympathies and the acquaintance of his kindred were with 
the South ; his convictions and his sense of justice were with 
the North. The clanking of chains at an auction block in 
New Orleans in 1831 never ceased to ring in his sympathetic 
ear till thirty-one years later he struck the shackles from four 
million slaves. While a member of the General Assembly 
of Illinois, Lincoln placed himself on record against the 
cause of slavery, manifesting in obedience to the great con- 
viction of his life, the courage to stand alone — the first 
requisite of a leader in a great cause. 

His consuming ideal through the trying years before the 
war was a strong and perpetual union, wherein all men were 
to be free. He studied closely the trend of events, analyzed 
the effects of human thought and human conduct on affairs 
of national life, and saw, as afar, with keenest vision, the 
crisis approaching. A wave of prejudice and distrust, fanned 
by selfishness and the spirit of disunion, was about to sweep 
away centuries of growth of integral national life. From 
the heights of a great intellect and the fortress of a logical 
mind, above the loose morality of party politics, and above 
the storm of doubt and denunciation, Abraham Lincoln was 
courageous enough to dedicate the nation to justice in these 
words : 

"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe 
that this government cannot permanently endure, half slave 
and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I 
do not expect the house to fall ; but I do expect it will cease 
to be divided." 1 



1 Extract from speech of Mr. Lincoln, Springfield, June 16, 185S. 



260 

Nominated at Chicago, the commercial and political key- 
stone in the arch of loyal states to the west and southwest, 
Lincoln's triumphant election to the presidency was seeming 
signal to the South to carry out' withdrawal from the Union, 
and possession was at once taken of the forts, ships and war 
munitions in the region of disaffection. Secession had long 
been threatened and deliberately planned; now it was boldly 
acted upon as a public policy. 

The situation at Washington was discouraging enough. 
Former friends, with lips sealed to silence by their fears, 
added to the gloom of uncertainty. Every department of the 
government was permeated with the virus of disloyalty. The 
very army was badly disorganized ; the navy scattered. A cry 
for " peace at any price" arose from every side. Irrational 
partisanship lost sight for the moment of the moral prestige 
of a new administration and courted compromise. Powerful 
influences were at work in Europe with a desire, ill con- 
cealed, for the downfall of the American republic. France 
and England were only waiting for an opportunity to lend 
the rebellious South a helping hand. Vain, indeed, were the 
efforts at reconciliation. Sumter was fired upon. A divided 
nation sprang to arms and precipitated that bitterest of con- 
flicts — a civil war! 

With admittedly superior numbers, the first two years of 
the war saw too many victories to the South, with corre- 
sponding discouragement in the North. While the conflict 
began and largely continued in a sweep over the lands and 
estates of the South, it roused that section to a greater fight- 
ing spirit than could be shown by any people whose territory 
was not scourged by an invading adversary. It needs no 
great amount of history to convince us what this incentive 
can accomplish. Every brave man carries it in the deepest 
recesses of his heart, and reads his first willing duty in the 
eyes of the wife, the child, the mother or the sweetheart, to 
preserve whose sacred right to a peaceful home his life 
stands always as a ready sacrifice. The North was scarcely 
at all called upon for this effort, this self-denial in the pres- 
ence of an invasion. That it were capable of yielding it when 
called upon need not be disputed. There is sufficient to be 
proud of in American manhood not to draw lines of politics 
or latitude in extolling the manhood, courage and fortitude 



261 

of men who marched and fought through our Civil War side 
by side or pitted against each other. 

The reverses of Bull Run and Chancellorsville and the 
heavy sacrifices at Antietam and Shiloh soon demonstrated 
to the North the desperate character of the fight the southern 
armies were putting into the balance in the hope of victor}. 
It is true, most of the conflict had been on southern soil, thus 
nerving the soldiers of that section to the fight a desperate 
defensive can offer, but Lee had actually invaded Maryland 
in 1862, and the frequent exchange of commanders of the 
Army of the Potomac, with McClellan, Pope, Burnside and 
Hooker, successively, directing affairs in the field, showed to 
the world that Lincoln had yet to find different material with 
which to forge the anchor to make fast the ship of state in 
the turbulent waves of awful battle, of an awful war. 

There were grave political developments late in 1862 that 
had the two-fold effect of discouraging northern support of 
the war, as carried on, and of nerving Lee to again plan on 
invading the region north of Mason and Dixon's line. A 
numerous party, and one active beyond its numerical 
strength, had bitterly opposed the war. The Emancipation 
Proclamation had concentrated and intensified this opposi- 
tion. During the hundred days which intervened between 
the announcement of Lincoln's purpose to put forth this 
proclamation and its actual promulgation, elections had been 
held in ten states of the Union. In these, Mr. Lincoln had, in 
the elections of 1860, a majority of more than 200,000; now, 
the opposing majority was 35,000. In 1860 these states sent 
78 Republicans and 37 Democratic Representatives to Con- 
gress; now, they elected 51 administration and 67 opposition 
members. The draft, moreover, which was soon to go into 
effect, was vehemently denounced and declared unconstitu- 
tional by many, and threats openly made that its enforcement 
would be violently resisted. There was fair occasion for the 
South to be persuaded that any great success at arms gained 
over the Union army would elicit such a feeling throughout 
the North that the government would be compelled to desist 
from the further prosecution of the war. This opinion, that 
the people of the North wearied of the war, was not confined 
to the South, whose interests and feelings were so strongly 
enlisted, for the British minister at Washington had six 



262 

months before shared the same opinion and had so informed 
his government. The series of almost uninterrupted successes 
to the Confederates, defeating Burnside at Fredericksburg, 
foiling Hooker at Chancellorsville, resisting attack of Union 
gunboats at Charleston and Vicksburg, capturing Galveston, 
and, with the "Alabama" and the "Florida," creating havoc 
on the high seas with our merchantmen — all these seemed 
to need nothing more to invite a successful invasion of the 
North to secure a final triumph, set up a southern and seced- 
ing federation of states, secure the recognition of the same 
from Europe, and end the war. 

The result at Chancellorsville had inspired the South 
with unbounded confidence in Lee, and there was univer- 
sal clamor that the invincible Army of Virginia assume 
the offensive, carry the war beyond the bounds of the Con- 
federacy and conquer peace on Federal soil. To carry out 
such a stupendous program, a comprehensive campaign was 
mapped out, with the ultimate design of the capture of Wash- 
ington, the national capital, for by such performance there 
would be tremendous additions to the prestige of the South- 
ern cause, since now foreign nations would have greater 
likelihood, according to usual custom, to recognize the rebel- 
lion and its hand-maiden, human slavery. 

It was at once necessary for Lee to collect his entire force, 
except that engaged in the west, and concentrate in northern 
Virginia. In conformity to this plan, Longstreet's three 
divisions, which had been engaged south of Richmond, were 
brought up, one by one, toward the Rappahannock River. 
During the first week in June, 1863, therefore, the whole 
effective fighting force of Lee was concentrated near Cul- 
peper, with the exception of A. P. Hill's division, which was 
left at Fredericksburg to mask the contemplated movement. 
Lee's first object of attack in view was by a rapid movement 
northward, and by maneuvering a portion of his army on the 
east side of the Blue Ridge, to tempt Hooker from his base 
of operations, thus leading him to uncover the approaches to 
Washington, thereby to throw the national capital open to a 
raid by Stuart's cavalry, to be followed by Lee himself, who 
would cross the Potomac in the neighborhood of Poolesville, 
and thus fall upon and capture Washington. 



263 

But Hills' display of forces across the Rappahannock did 
not conceal from Hooker the forward movement by the head 
of Lee's army now hurrying toward the Potomac, for while 
he surmised that the van of the Confederate column was 
heading toward the shores of Mar;/ land, and asked the Presi- 
dent permission to cross in case his suspicions were con- 
firmed, Hooker learned that the main cavalry forces of the 
South were stationed at Culpeper, and sent Pleasonton in 
that direction. Halleck refused his consent to cross the river, 
fearing the menace of the seeming large force which was 
across the river at Fredericksburg, and the President was 
induced to concur in this refusal, couching his opinion in 
words of quaint warning against (i taking any risk of being 
entangled up on the river, like an ox jumped half way over a 
fence and liable to be torn by dogs, front and rear, without 
a fair chance to gore one way or kick the other." 

Pleasonton encountered at Culpeper the main cavalry 
forces of Lee, together with a large force of infantry. Hooker 
was now convinced beyond a doubt of Lee's purpose to move 
down the Shenandoah, either get between him and the 
national capital by a circuitous route to the north of the 
Federal command, or to cross the Potomac and invade the 
North. 

Hooker had occupied the Shenandoah valley the winter 
and spring with his troops, and much time had been con- 
sumed by Lee in his unavailing attempts to out-maneuver 
him; so that, from the time when the Confederates broke 
camp at Fredericksburg and began the advance northward 
June 3, it was three weeks before he entered Maryland with 
his main forces, and instead of crossing the Potomac east 
of the Blue Ridge, he was compelled to ford it at Sheppards- 
town and "Williamsport, ten or fifteen miles to the west, thus 
materially altering his plans. Besides, General Stuart, who 
was to guard the passes of the Blue Ridge, to mask the move- 
ment of Lee and to harass Hooker, should he attempt to cross 
the river, had been himself roughly handled, and instead of 
being able to retard the advance of the Federal Army, he 
was driven miles away from the main army of Lee — cut 
off for a fortnight from all communication with it — a circum- 
stance that General Lee referred to frequently afterwards 
with evident displeasure. With this arm of dependence cut 



264 

off for the time, Hooker quickly saw that he should pursue 
Lee, who had now crossed the Potomac. So he got his army 
over at Edwards' Ferry, the same place Lee had used for 
invading Maryland the year before, and almost within sight 
of the old battle field of Antietam. 

The columns under Hill and Longstreet pressed forward 
hour by hour and united at Hagerstown, whence again they 
advanced to Chambersburg and rested for some information 
from Stuart, who was too far away to bring tidings of the 
movements of the Union army so devoutly wished for by Lee, 
now that he so little could rely on the surrounding country, 
once again hostile to him, and forced to depend so much the 
more on the strategy, swiftness of movement and trust- 
worthiness of his cavalry command. The southern army had 
advanced so far into the state of Pennsylvania by this time 
that Hooker was eager to attack his base of supplies, and 
thus weaken Lee's advance and invasion, and so he asked for 
every available man to enlist and swell the Army of the 
Potomac to the greatest proportions. 

At Harper's Ferry ten thousand men were stationed under 
French, and the forces under Hooker and Lee were so evenly 
balanced that an additional ten thousand men might easily 
turn the tide of battle at a critical juncture. Hooker felt this 
situation keenly, and asked for the garrison at the "Ferry" 
to help resist Lee's onslaught. Halleck interposed again 
and refused permission for the transfer, on the grounds that 
the fortifications had cost so much money and labor that he 
could not consent to giving them up except under the direst 
necessity. Hooker forthwith thereafter sent to Washington 
two dispatches, one asking for the force at Harper's Ferry 
and another of same day and hour, tendering his resignation 
as commander of the Army of the Potomac. If Halleck would 
not add French's 10,000 to the troops operating against Lee, 
whose main columns had by this time touched foot upon 
Pennsylvania soil, he would resign. 

President Lincoln had thus placed before him in this criti- 
cal juncture two alternatives — either that Halleck must be 
displaced as commander-in-chief or Hooker must vacate the 
command of the Army of the Potomac. The smaller the 
change at such an urgent crisis, the less apparent evil, and 
so Hooker's request to be relieved of command was promptly 



265 

granted, and General Meade, of the Second Corps, was placed 
in immediate command. Viewed simply as a separate act in 
the great crisis then enveloping, Hooker's move was uncalled 
for and apparently justified subsequent action by the Presi- 
dent. But it cannot well be disassociated from a long series 
of mistakes and jealousies by and among Lincoln's military 
advisers in the campaign of the east, through which, day by 
day, the great man in the White House had to thread his way 
with patience and hope. 

On the appointment of General Meade, not an hour's hesi- 
tation ensued in the advance of any portion of the entire 
army. Hancock was put in command of the Second Corps, 
Keynolds of the First was placed at the left wing of the now 
concentrating Union forces, while Kilpatrick's cavalry, sta- 
tioned at Hanover, met and defeated Stuart, yet separated 
from and in search of Lee's main army. 

Early in June a Union force under Milroy and stationed at 
Winchester, Virginia, had been routed by Ewell and pursued 
across the Potomac as far as Chamber sburg, in Pennsylvania. 
On the 28th of the month he had reached Carlisle, nearly 
twenty miles due north of Gettysburg, and was planning a 
march on Harrisburg, the capital of the state. On the same 
day Hill had reached Fayetteville, on the Cashtown Eoad, 
and was joined by Longstreet the following day. From 
Gettysburg, thirty miles away, could now be seen the camp 
fires on the eastern side of the mountain, and the enemy 
swarmed over the country with his foraging parties. The 
cloud of war so long gathering in might and blackness was 
soon to burst in fury on some part of the devoted neighbor- 
hood of Gettysburg. 

It will be recalled that Lee and Hooker crossed the Poto- 
mac but a few miles apart, and within twenty-four hours of 
each other, Lee keeping west of South Mountain and Hooker 
to the east. This plan General Meade carried forward in 
faithful detail. The line of march of the two armies was 
therefore nearly parallel, with mountains between them, and 
each commander for a few days knew but little of the move- 
ments of the other. Lee, having some days the start, was 
considerably northward of Meade, when the latter, by a rapid 
march westward through the passes, could throw his left 
forces at the rear of Lee, effectually cutting him off from his 



266 

supplies, thereby wholly isolating him in a hostile country. 
Tidings of this purpose reached Lee the night of June 28, and 
he at once saw that his plan of invasion must now halt till 
he engage and drive away Meade's harassing forces at his 
rear. The entire Confederate command was therewith 
directed to mass to the eastward, Ewe!! coming southward 
from Carlisle. 

The town of Gettysburg occupies, as it were, the hub of a 
wheel, from which radiate in all directions, like the spokes 
of a wheel, roads to the northwest in the direction of Cham- 
bersburg, northeastward to Harrisburg, southwest to the 
Potomac and southeast to Baltimore and the sea. Whoever 
held Gettysburg held, if he realized it, the key to a campaign, 
the salient values of which lay in possessing Culp's Hill to 
the east, the ."Round Tops to the south, together with the long, 
low lying, rocky ridge stretching from the latter northward 
to the old cemetery at the edge of the town. 

It chanced that one soldier, and that of the army of Meade, 
had studied the topography of the region, and he had made 
up his mind that Gettysburg was the spot whereat, if it could 
be so maneuvered, the battle was to be waged. This soldier 
was the only person, it so happened, who could have ordered 
events so that the contest take place there. That man was 
Alfred Pleasonton, now commanding the cavalry corps; the 
man by whom the fierce onslaught of Stonewall Jackson at 
Chancellorsville had been stayed. 

Shortly before noon of the 30th of June, General Buford. 
in reconnoitering along the Chambersburg Road, passed 
through Gettysburg; not, however, before seeing by incipient 
skirmishes and challenges with the Confederates that the 
battle lines were rapidly drawing to an inevitable conflict at 
an early moment. He spent the afternoon protecting Rey- 
nolds' occupancy of a position on Marsh Creek northeast of 
the town, there to wait the dawn of the morrow. 

Buford was the first to meet a considerable force of Con- 
federates the morning of July 1, being very shortly rein- 
forced by Reynolds, who had now come up from the Emmits- 
burg Road and his night camp. So clearly did Reynolds 
discern the importance of holding the town that he person- 
ally took command of his division, riding horseback, to aid 
Buford. Not many minutes had elapsed till a sharpshooter's 



267 

bullet killed him, and the command devolved on Doubleday, 
while Howard took charge of the action in the field. Meade, 
who had heard near noon of Reynolds' death, sent Hancock, 
"the superb," who, with Howard, deployed their forces so 
strategically that Cemetery Hill should be saved to the Union 
troops that night, even though sorrowful repulses were in- 
curred during the day farther northward and outside the 
town. 

By 1 o'clock of the morning of July 2 Meade reached the 
scene after riding fourteen miles from Taneytown. Having 
received accurate information of the topography of the 
grounds, and intelligence of the progress of the battle, and 
being fully and completely informed by Hancock and Howard 
of the favorable character of the position, Meade determined 
to give battle to Lee at this place. The remaining corps of 
the arms were dispatched to hasten forward with all speed. 
Few were the moments given to sleep during the waning 
hours of that brief midsummer night by either officers or 
men, though half of the Union troops were exhausted by the 
conflict of the first day and the remainder wearied by the 
forced marches which had brought them to the rescue. The 
full moon, veiled by thin clouds, shone that night on a 
strangely unwonted scene. The silence of the graveyard 
was broken by the heavy tramp of armed men, by the neigh 
of the war horse, the harsh rattle of the wheels of artillery 
hurrying to their stations, and all the indescribable tumult 
of preparation. The Sixth Corps, that of Sedgwick, was the 
last to arrive, having marched thirty-four miles since 9 
o'clock the evening before his arrival, causing the numbers 
of the forces of Meade to approach that of the command 
of Lee. 

It might be profitable at this point to again call attention 
to the increased isolation of Lee's army, so far from a home 
hase of supplies. He was really driven to a choice of one of 
three courses of action: He must attack the Union army in 
their strong position along a higher ridge than existed any- 
where within rifle range of Meade, or draw them from it by 
continuing his march and threaten "Washington and Balti- 
more, or he must retreat across the Potomac into Virginia. 
The third course would be complete abandonment of the 
enterprise which had been so deliberately undertaken; the 






268 

second was strongly urged by Hood, but it would be only 
prolonging the suspense, for an action must soon take place 
somewhere, and the enemy would, without doubt, grow 
stronger in their fortification day by day. Lee decided on 
the first resolve, the controlling motive and factor in the 
decision being found in the temper of the men of his army, 
who had won a series of decisive victories, among which 
they even counted Antietam. At Fredericksburg, with but 
a fraction of their available force, they had beaten Burnside, 
though they held a position largely in their favor; at Chan- 
cellorsville, with two-thirds their present number, they had 
foiled and driven Hooker away, whose force was known to be 
much larger than now counted under the command of Meade. 
There they had successfully attacked the northern army in 
their intrenchments. Why should they not do so now with 
equal success? 

So, on the 2d day of July, Longstreet was ordered to assail 
the extreme Federal left, while Ewell was to make at the 
same time a demonstration on the right, fully five miles away. 
Edward Everett, in his careful analysis of the battle, recited 
at the dedication of the national cemetery four months later, 
dwells on the merciful inactivity of the Confederates the 
greater part of the second day, affording the wearied Union 
troops time to rest and be ready for the great conflict which 
was to inaugurate July 3. Had Lee chosen to renew the 
battle at daybreak July 2, in attacking the Union center, with 
the First and Eleventh Corps exhausted by battle and by 
retreat the evening before, the Third and Twelfth weary 
from their forced march, and the Second, Fifth and Sixth 
not yet arrived, nothing but a miracle could have saved the 
Union army from disaster. But the day dawned cool and 
refreshing, the hours of the morning passed, the forenoon 
and a considerable part of the afternoon wore away, with the 
merest evidence of activity manifested in nothing except the 
occasional booming of cannon, for there were intermittent 
skirmishes between outposts of either side intercepting de- 
tachments of the other, rushing to column and to designated 
position for the inevitable grand assault. During this com- 
forting period of rest and inactivity fully half of the Fed- 
eral forces were gotten into line from scattered positions all 
about, in season for the successful onslaught of July 3. 



269 

At 4 o'clock on the afternoon of the 2cL however, the work 
of death began, in the attack by Longstreet 's men on the 
Union left near Little Hound Top. to resist which General 
Sickles struck out for a spirited attack, but was himself soon 
borne from the field with a shattered limb. There was smart 
fighting at the base of Little Round Top, and the entire as- 
sault of the afternoon was fierce and murderous while it 
lasted, but by nightfall the Union advantage was decisive. 
Little Round Top was still ours and the Union left had not 
been broken or driven back. Strangely enough. Little Round 
Top, the key to the proposed field of battle, was unoccupied 
the greater part of the day, and if the enemy could gain that, 
a few guns planted on that eminence could enfilade the Avhole 
Union army as far as Cemetery Hill. It so happened that 
Warren, with a few signal men, in his capacity as army 
engineer, had reconnoitered the neighborhood and reached 
the summit of Little Round Top in time to take in the ex- 
treme perils of the situation. The Confederates were already 
trying to climb the great boulders that surmounted the emi- 
nence, and some aides who were rushing to assist Sickles 
were hastily summoned to scale the summit, amidst the wild- 
est hand-to-hand fighting imaginable ensuing among the gray 
granite boulders piled up in almost impenetrable confusion. 
The small Union force quickly exhausted their ammunition 
and a bayonet charge put them in possession of this coveted 
barren cliff, which was to aid materially in the victory of the 
following and final day. 

The morning of the 3d of July came, and with it Lee 
planned the same sortie as the day before. Ewell was to 
press his advantage against the extreme Union right, while 
the main assault was to be directed against the Union center. 
But Meade assumed the aggressive and early in the forenoon 
drove Ewell out of his position near the seminary north of 
the town. As this was over two miles away and not in sight 
of Lee's headquarters, that commander received no tidings 
all the forenoon of the mishap to Ewell, whereby one-third 
of his effective force was put out of reach of aiding at the 
critical juncture of the coming afternoon. General Lee sup- 
posed that Ewell would materially aid by threatening, if not 
actually attacking the Union right, and went rapidly forward 
all morning till noon in anticipation of striking Meade's center 



270 

south of the cemetery, and now posted'along the ridge by that 
name. The Emmitsburg Road — or, as better known, Sem- 
inary Ridge — was an admirable height for massing Lee's one 
hundred fifty guns, while Meade could only place eighty guns 
at a time along Cemetery Ridge opposing his, so uneven and 
rocky were the outcroppings of the high places there. But 
Meade must have felt the security of his higher position and 
now slightly superior force. Each side waited through that 
anxious forenoon, a stretch of field of grain lying between. 
Silence and the blue sky smiled down from above. 

Suddenly Lee's one hundred fifty guns opened a terrific 
cannonading, ranged all along Seminary Ridge, filling the air 
with shot and shell, till the very skies seemed vibrant with 
the whistling, screaming, howling thunder, mingled with 
smoke too dense for the eye to penetrate and heat too intense, 
apparently, for human endurance. The center of the fire had 
been directed at Hancock's artillery, posted along the slightly 
higher, but unreplying. Cemetery Ridge. The compliment 
was shortly returned with a tremendous fire from the Union 
batteries and from Little Round Top — indeed, scattered 
along as far to the northward as Culp's Hill — all told, a mile 
and a half of "belching, bellowing death." All at once the 
Union batteries stopped their terrific roar; the skies partially 
cleared, and Lee surmised that the halt was due to the ex- 
haustion of Meade's men or shortage of ammunition, or both. 
But Meade had merely ordered the guns retired for a time 
to cool them and clean their hot and sooty throats for further 
challenge and combat. 

Then came Lee's fatal decision to send an infantry mass 
across the fields of that intervening mile between the two 
lines of artillery to storm the Union center. Against the 
advices of Longstreet and others of Lee's corps commanders. 
General Pickett, with seventeen thousand of the very flower 
of the southern army, was asked to charge across the mid- 
lying plain with his infantry. It would look as if Lee, mis- 
taking the silence of Meade's artillery for exhaustion or 
retreat, felt that he could storm Cemetery Ridge at Meade's 
center, carry the breastworks there, put the Federals to 
flight, follow up his advantage, scatter Meade's forces, set 
out for Philadelphia and Baltimore, descend upon Washing- 
ton, name the terms of capitulation, and end the war. 



271 

That was a vision of military destiny bristling "with amaz- 
ing possibilities, the correctness or error of which would 
mark the triumph or fall of the cause he held so dear. He 
chose the fatal alternative — to send Pickett across that mur- 
derous slope. The world knows the result — how at 3 o'clock 
the fire of artillery had died away and tlie smoke lifted, re- 
vealing Pickett starting on his sweeping challenge across the 
low level plain at the Union front, converging in two brilliant 
ranks as proudly they marched in close columns and by divi- 
sions. At the same moment the guns of Lee thundered their 
faithful rear support, and were answered almost on the 
instant by the artillery along Cemetery Eidge manned by 
Federal gunners, a war chorus of carnage and death, blaring, 
blazing, killing, filling the heavens with the shock of the 
mighty spectacle; belching forth a pitiless fire of iron hail, 
canister and grape, into the human ranks below. Men and 
whole groups of men dropped as though mowed down by 
some mighty sickle, and that was before the days of the 
machine gun, too. Now dozens, now hundreds, drop dead 
and dying from exploding missiles and raking fire, their 
places repeatedly closed up and occupied by surviving com- 
rades. Still, on they come, with colors flying and bayonets 
gleaming in the sun, keeping lines nearly as straight as if 
on parade. Over fences and ditches they come, but still their 
lines do not break. For a moment all is hushed along the 
Union lines as the soldiers in blue gaze admiringly at these 
brave fighters in a forlorn charge. On, on they come ! Now 
can be heard their officers' commands, "Steady, boys, 
steady!" They reach a place within one hundred yards of the 
Union infantry, a constantly decimating body of serried col- 
umns now distinctly wavering. "Fire!" rings down the line 
of Meade's eager battalions, and, rising as one man, the rifles 
of the old Second Corps ring a death knell for many a brave 
heart in butternut dress worthy of a better fate — a knell 
that must echo in hearts of many mothers, sisters and wives 
on many a plantation in the once fair and sunny South, where 
there will be weeping and wailing for the soldier who is not 
to return. 

What a merciless torrent of lead was poured into that 
living windrow of men ! By and by the lines come up thinner 
and thinner, break quicker and are longer in forming. By 



272 

fortunes almost unbelievable one hundred fifteen of Pickett 's 
men struggle to the successful ascent of a bit of stone ledge, 
clubbing their way to the very heart of the Union center. 
They were in a few seconds overpowered and captured, but 
not till the gallant leader, Armistead, who had led them, his 
hat stuck on the point of his sword and hoisted aloft, cheering 
— not till he had fallen, mortally wounded, torn to pieces, it 
is said, by a shot from Webb's battery, fired by Lieutenant 
Gushing, who, holding for a moment his own torn bowels in 
place, snouted to his superior for time to give the enemy 
"just one more shot," and who then himself fell back dead 
beside his gun! 

The "high water mark of the Confederacy" had been 
reached. Pickett's shattered fragments fell back. Lee saw 
his fearful mistake, but galloped up and down his broken 
ranks that late afternoon, cheering by his presence and in- 
spiration the men who gathered themselves for retreat across 
the Potomac, never again to threaten the North "with in- 
vasion. The capitulation of Vicksburg at nearly the same 
hour turned also and in the same direction the fortunes of 
the war for the Union, in the maneuvers of the Army of the 
West under Grant. That growing commander was soon 
brought to the eastern work, and from July 3, 1863, forward 
the course of Union grew, battle after battle, victory after 
victory, into the glory of a reunited nation, a more perfect 
Union ! 

Appomattox became inevitable. 

***** 

Upon the sides of the wooden archway to the cemetery that 
was in Gettysburg long years before the historic battle, the 
soldiers with a grim smile read on the opening days of July 
fifty years ago the solemn warning that "All persons found 
using firearms in these grounds will be prosecuted with the 
utmost rigor of the law." This gateway became the key to the 
Federal lines, the very center of the crudest use of firearms 
yet seen on this continent. On the first day Reynolds had 
discovered the strategic value of Cemetery Hill in case of 
attack and retreat. Howard posted his reserves here and 
Hancock greatly strengthened the position as a fortification 
against attack. One hundred twenty Confederate guns were 
turned against it that last afternoon and in five minutes 



273 

every man of the Federals had been forced to cover. For 
one and one-half hours the shells fell fast thereabouts, deal- 
ing death and laying waste the summer verdure in the little 
graveyard. Up to the very guns of the Federals on Ceme- 
tery Hill, Pickett had led his devoted troops ; the night of the 
third day it was one vast slaughter field. On this eminence 
thousands were buried at the close of the titanic struggle. 

It came to the mind of Judge David Wills, of Gettysburg, 
to first suggest the creation of a national cemetery on the 
battlefield, and, under the direction and co-operation of 
Governor Curtin, he purchased the land, to the amount of 
over six hundred acres, for Pennsylvania and other states 
whose sons had died in the great battle. A formal dedica- 
tion had been planned for October 23 following the battle, 
but Edward Everett, who had been chosen to deliver the 
oration, had engagements for that date, and at his suggestion 
the occasion was postponed to November 19. On the 9th of 
November Judge Wills wrote to the President, advising him 
that the exercises would "doubtless be very imposing and 
solemnly impressive," and that "after the oration" by Mr. 
Everett he was invited "as the chief executive of the nation 
to formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a 
few appropriate remarks." Judge Wills invited the Presi- 
dent to be a guest at his house during his stay in Gettysburg, 
and added that both Mr. Everett and Governor Curtin would 
share the same hospitality. 

Except during the great battle, the little town had never 
had such an outpouring of visitors as on the day when 
Lincoln visited Gettysburg. Secretary Seward was present 
also, and while he had been suspected by some of being luke- 
warm toward the yet-much-talked-of emancipation program, 
his opinion was sounded forth in no uncertain tones on this 
occasion, Avhen the crowd at his front while he spake heard 
him predict the early end of the war, and that the end of the 
war would see the extermination of slavery, and that "when 
that cause for the war is removed, simply by the process of 
abolishing it, as the origin and agent of the treason that is 
without justification and without parallel, we shall henceforth 
be united, be only one country, having only one hope, one 
ambition, one destiny." 



274 

The train from "Washington contained four coaches. ■ No 
one saw Mr. Lincoln en route engaged on his speech. He 
carried notes of it in his pocket, such as he had hastily 
written down the day before leaving the capital, and com- 
pleted the "remarks" in lead pencil , on "fool's cap" paper, 
the morning of the 19th at the Wii)^ home, between 9 and 10 
o'clock in the forenoon. The procession arrived at the grand 
stand erected for the occasion near the wooden archway to 
the cemetery, and moved slowly through the streets of the 
town, reaching the place of making the speeches at 11 o'clock. 
Edward Everett, the crator of the day, came half an hour 
later, and, with the details of arranging the different march- 
ing bodies of visitors and visiting delegations, it was noon 
when Mr. Everett rose to speak, an effort occupying two 
hours and four minutes. A piece of martial music by the 
band came next, after which the President arose for his "few 
remarks." He carried a paper in this hands, which might 
suggest to many who heard him that he was reading his 
speech, but some nearest him, including his private secre- 
tary, declare he spoke without help from his notes. 

From the character of the invitation to the President it 
was entirely natural for everyone to expect that Lincoln's 
part would be a few perfunctory remarks, the mere official 
formality of dedication. There is every probability that the 
assemblage regarded Mr. Everett as the mouthpiece, the 
organ of expression of the thought and feeling of the hour, 
and took it for granted that the President "was there as the 
merest figure head, the culminating decoration, so to speak, 
of the elaborately planned pageant and procession of the day. 
They were therefore totally unprepared for what they heard, 
and could not immediately realize that his words, and not 
those of the carefully chosen orator, were to carry the con- 
centrated thought of the occasion like a trumpet peal to 
farthest posterity. 

There is ample grounds for Lincoln's enduring pre-emi- 
nence and leadership, for, while in his own years he was a 
national character, we are beginning to assign him a place 
in the niche of the great of all ages and nations. When he 
was thrust forward to lead the American people he found 
himself called to face a new peril to the interests of man- 
kind. The conspiracy against the integrity of national life was 



275 

a threat to all the world. It was an attempt to break down the 
warp and woof of national unity and undo the work of cen- 
turies. It would be a reaction from that splendid work which 
had been achieved in old Attican days, all along the way of 
twenty-five hundred years of strife and war. For the world 
had been learning how men could live in fraternity and had 
been incorporating that experience into its laws and institu- 
tions. From individual life to associated interests in the 
family; from family to clan; and from clan to tribe and 
nation, common interest, common striving, had brought a 
larger portion of peace and tranquillity. 

And so the American Union, the consummation of all the 
struggles of men toward a state of universal peace, was the 
life, an aspiration of all the world organized into a nation. 
This union maintained, all other nations might go on and 
enter the portals of permanent peace and gather hope and 
success from righteous diligence in ways unknown to pillage 
and devastation. Destroy this union, and its ruins would 
block the way to progress, and delay the advance of nations 
toward a governmental ideal for perhaps a thousand years. 

It is precisely here that we come upon the character of the 
great war President. How easy in such an hour, says John 
Coleman Adams, "for the wisest to make mistakes! How 
easy to undervalue the real signs of the times, and to be the 
fools of fate by following the lures of the crafty or the 
stupid! * * * To stand upon the swinging deck when the 
rising gales are roaring in one's ears; when the threatening 
cloud just skims the wave and the wave tosses up to the 
cloud; when the blinding wrack of foam sweeps against the 
breath, and the eye can scarcely see the swaying compass as 
the ship goes plunging among hidden reefs; when the 
hardiest sailor turns his back and the coolest is confused, 
uncertain, anxious or appalled: to be cool, to be clear — to 
read the signs of the trackless sea, and, undaunted by the 
play of all these raging elements and these distracting dan- 
gers, to guide the keel straight down the channels where lie 
safety and salvation — this marks the man of God's own 
making, called forth to be the helmsman for a stormy hour, 
the pilot of mighty destinies, and such was Lincoln." 

He it was who saw, from the moment he became convinced 
of the intentions of the South, the one imperative absolute 



276 

aim he must keep in view, and that transcendent issue was 
the preservation of the Union. For therein was the vindica- 
tion of the great principle of the pacific federation of states 
for the cultivation of a larger life of order and fraternity. 
Abraham Lincoln's clear, unerring eye perceived the mean- 
ing of the struggle. His strong mind grasped its import. His 
steadfast soul clung to that purpose with a tenacity that 
could be expressed only in some such words as Saint Paul 
used when he said, "This one thing I do"! 

And so we come to the day and occasion of the great ad- 
dress. Perhaps Lincoln felt with sad joy the waning for- 
tunes of the opposing forces, and that his few words could 
but cement the friendship of the survivors of both sides of 
the carnage of those terrible July days on this battlefield 
of Pennsylvania, where brothers in blue and brothers in gray 
of those still continuing the struggle must look back with 
longing eyes and sweet memories to brave comrades dying 
for a cause dear to them. Perhaps Lincoln's great vision of 
peace led him to speak in a vein of half prophecy, as, peering 
into the distant years of the future, when peace should perch 
on the banners of the North, the time would come when the 
tumult of war would echo back in anthems of peace; a time 
when the blue and the gray should mingle in a common re- 
pulse of a foreign nation whose pitiless colonial policy dinned 
into our ears the crying need of reform in the islands of the 
tropic sea. 

Mayhap he could see with farther vision the splendid 
spectacle of nineteen hundred thirteen, when Gettysburg 
again became the rendezvous of countless thousands, this 
time of half a hundred thousand whose lives had been merci- 
fully spared to celebrate a veterans' semi-centennial on the 
old battlefield; of hundreds of thousands of the patriotic, 
the young and the gay, swelling into one grand chorus of joy 
over the cemented friendships of the war, keenly apprecia- 
tive of the blessings of a united nation and a happy land. 

Gettysburg on its fiftieth anniversary is the most com- 
pletely marked battlefield in the world. More than six hun- 
dred memorial shafts and memorial stones have been erected 
by regiments, states, companies and batteries. Nearly four 
thousand warriors lie sleeping on the hill which was dedi- 
cated by the President as a national cemetery. Today the 



277 



battleground is a great national park, coveriEg 24,460 acres, 
which, when improvements are completed, will be seamed 
with more than one hundred miles of macadamized roads and 
"battle avenues." Here and there are giant observatory 
towers, from which the sightseer may gaze upon the battle 
field as it looked to the warriors on the hill crests half a 
century ago. 

It is the memory of the three mighty days or July, 1863, 
and the favorable turn of affairs in the destiny of national 
life as its immediate consequence, that causes the patriot to 
walk, as it were, with unshod feet amidst this American 
Marathon, which lies cradled in the gentle slopes of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains in southern Pennsylvania. Away to the 
south the mountain roads over which Meade and Lee led 
their armies pass over the border line into Maryland. 

Today, the broad fields of wheat and the orchards testify 
to the thrift of the country folk; sheep graze on the hill- 
sides, and cattle bend over the clear, cool water in creeks that 
once ran crimson with the blood of brothers "who struggled 
here" on the greatest battle ground of the western hemi- 
sphere. 

It was a supreme pleasure for the writer of this article to be 
present those momentous days of the celebration ; to have seen 
the fragment of Pickett 's men ' ' charge " in a feeble way now, 
but friendly, over the same ground where, half a century ago 
at the same hour there were thousands struggling in war's 
awful spectacle. There was demonstrated in outpouring 
affection for one another that peculiarly intelligent and 
righteous impulse which is usually thought of when we call 
it the American spirit which had borne successfully the test 
of fratricidal strife, and which had come away victorious 
over its own baser elements, in the reconstruction of a 
stronger nationality, now pervaded by honest and concerted 
motives, stimulated by high resolves, waiting expectantly 
at every gate of American opportunity! 

It was worth while for Lincoln to take time to come to 
these hills and cheer up the hearts of the North by his pro- 
phetic eloquence; it was worth while for Woodrow "Wilson 
to come thither on the nation's last holiday, to the same 
scenes, under vastly changed conditions, and point the way 
to present and future patriotic duty in the demands of an 



278 

era of peace. It was a pleasure and a delight for more than 
fifty thousand surviving veterans of both sides to again fra- 
ternize there at Gettysburg in a week of semi-centennial 
reminiscence, and to pledge anew a common fealty to our 
great republic, now an unbreakable and indissoluble Union. 

The great President of our own day added his ennobling 
words as the very final act of semi-centennial celebration, in 
an appeal that touched all hearts, when he said : 

"Lift your eyes to the great tracts of life yet to be con- 
quered in the interest of righteous peace, of that prosperity 
which lies in a people's hearts and outlasts all wars and 
errors of men." 

And as if to set forth the spirit of the future to those of 
the world's action and responsibility and leadership of our 
own happy time, he added this invitation: 

"Come, let us be comrades and soldiers yet to serve our 
fellow men in quiet counsel, where the blare of trumpets is 
neither heard nor heeded, and where the things are done 
which make blessed the nations of the world in peace and 
righteousness and love." 



279 



Benjamin Edwards, 

The Father of Ninian Edwards, Governor of Illinois 

Territory. 



By Ernest Macpherson. 

Benjamin Edwards, son of linden (Heydon) Edwards and 
Penelope (Sanford) Edwards, was bom August 12, 1753, in 
Stafford County, Virginia; removed to Montgomery County, 
Maryland, and married Margaret, daughter of Ninian Beall. 

Margaret Beall in her girlhood days was known as the 
"Beauty of Montgomery.*' She was a descendant of General 
Ninian Beall, a man of note in the Colonial wars. 

Benjamin Edwards lived for many years in Maryland on 
his farm, known as Mount Pleasant. He was never a can- 
didate for any office, but represented his county in the Legis- 
lature, was a member of the Maryland convention which 
ratified the Federal Constitution for which he voted, and 
was later a member of Congress from his State. He was a 
lieutenant in the Revolutionary War and was a Baptist in 
religion. 

He removed to Kentucky and was a large laud owner. He 
died November 13, 1826, and was buried on his old home 
place at Elkton, Todd County, Kentucky. His wife pre- 
deceased him a few months. He was known as the "patron 
of William Wirt," for some time Attorney General of the 
United States, who in his young manhood was a tutor in the 
family of Benjamin Edwards. Mr. Wirt wrote the obituary 
with which this sketch concludes. 

The children of Benjamin and Margaret Edwards were: 

1. Ninian Edwards — Born Montgomery County, Mary- 
land, March, 1775. Married Elvira Todd. Died, Belleville, 
Illinois, July 20, 1853. 

2. Mary Edwards — Born Montgomery County, Maryland, 
1777; died at Elizabethtown, Kentucky. Married (1) Henrv 
Whitaker, brother of William White Whitaker, (2) Major 



280 

Benjamin Helm of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She was grand- 
mother of B. H. Bristow, Secretary of Treasury under Grant. 

3. Penelope Edwards — Born Stafford County, Virginia, 
January 18, 1779. Married William White Whitaker of 
Maryland, afterwards of Russellville, Kentucky, January 3, 
1794. Died, Logan County, Kentucky, January 5, 1845. 

4. Elisha Beall Edwards — Born, May 11, 1781, Montgom- 
ery County, Maryland. Died, Elkton, Kentucky, October 13, 
1823. Married (1) Lucy Richardson, of Mercer County, 
Kentucky, February 1, 1811; (2) Martha Feliciana Upshow, 
of Virginia, in Christian County, Kentucky. 

5. Presley Edwards — Born, October 7, 1784. Married at 
Lexington, Kentucky, Hester Pope, November 22, 1810. Died, 
Russellville, Kentucky, 1833. 

6. Elizabeth Edwards — Born, August 8, 1786, Montgom- 
ery County, Maryland. Died, January 30, 1833, Elkton, Ken- 
tucky. Married John Gray. 

7. Lucretia Maria Edwards — Born, January 14, 1792, 
Montgomery County, Maryland. Died near Dalton, Georgia, 
July, 1863. Married General Duff Green, near Bardstown, 
Kentucky, November 25, 1813. 

8. Cyrus Edwards — Born, January 17, 1793, Montgomery 
County, Maryland. Died, Upper Alton, Illinois, August 31, 
1877. Married (1) Nancy H. Reed, in 1819; (2) Sophia 
Loomis, Alton, Illinois. 

9. Matilda Edwards — Died, Christian County, Kentucky, 
May 31, 1878. Married Rev. Franceway Ranna Cossitt, 
January 19, 1834. 

1.0. Rachel Edwards— Married Rev. William C. Warfield. 

11. Margaret Edwards — Died, Princeton, Kentucky. 
Never married. 

12. Benjamin Franklin Edwards — Born, Danestown, 
Maryland, July 2, 1797. Died, Kirkwood, Missouri, 1877. 
Married Eliza Green, 1819. 

13. Washington Edwards — Died young. 



281 



Obituary of Benjamin Edwards. 

"Died on the 13th of November, 1826, at his residence in 
Elkton, Todd County, Kentucky, Benjamin Edwards, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age, and the fifty-sixth of his Chris- 
tian life. His venerable consort, Mrs. Margaret Edwards, 
after a union of more than fifty years, had preceded him to the 
grave about three months before. They both resigned this 
world with that perfect composure and full assurance of fu- 
ture happiness which religion alone can inspire, and left be- 
hind them a numerous and respectable family of children and 
their descendants to imitate their virtues and to deplore their 
loss. Mr. Edwards was a native of Stafford County, Virginia ; 
and before he became of age, he intermarried with Margaret, 
the daughter of Ninian Beall, of Montgomery County, Mary- 
land, and resided, for nearly twenty-five years, on his farm of 
Mount Pleasant, about nine miles above the court house of 
that county. His pursuits were those of agriculture and mer- 
chandise, which he conducted with industry and irreproach- 
able integrity. He had not the advantage of a classical edu- 
cation, but nature had given him a mind of extraordinary 
force and comprehension, and a moral character of uncommon 
elevation and energy. He was one of nature 's great men ; and 
it had stamped this character most strikingly on his counte- 
nance and person. He was large and well-formed ; his counte- 
nance strongly marked with intelligence and benevolence ; his 
steps and movements uncommonly dignified and commanding, 
and in his whole action there was an easy, unaffected, natural 
gracefulness which proclaimed the gentleman and the man of 
feeling in a manner not to be mistaken. Though his manners 
were highly prepossessing, conciliatory, and kind, yet such 
was the dignity that surrounded him, and the respect with 
which he impressed all who approached him, that no man ever 
dreamed of using irreverent liberty or indulging a thought- 
less levity in his presence. His colloquial powers were un- 
rivalled in any company in which the writer of this article 
ever saw him. He had a manly and melodius voice, a natural 



282 

fluency and eloquence that never hesitated, the most striking 
originality and vigor of thought, the aptest and happiest 
illustration drawn from objects of nature around him, and an 
accuracy and integrity of judgment which have never been 
surpassed on the subjects which, called for his decision. He 
had supplied the deficiencies of youthful education by careful 
reading, and had acquired a correct style which was yet 
marked with the native strength and originality of his 
thoughts, and he conversed with great power even on subjects 
of literature, taste, and science, and many have been the flip- 
pant scholars and collegians, who, after the interchange of a 
few remarks, have feit themselves rebuked by his superior 
mind, and learned to listen with instinctive reverence and de- 
light. He had made himself an excellent historian, both in 
ancient and modern history; and to his children and their 
young companions (of whom the writer was one), with whom 
he always took pleasure in conversing, he was one of the most 
instructive companions whom the kindness of Providence 
could have sent them. Though always pious, there was noth- 
ing austere, obtrusive, or revolting, in his religion; and in his 
domestic circle he would often indulge himself with great 
playfulness, and with the most successful humor; yet no oc- 
casion was ever lost of instilling into them pure and honor- 
able, and lofty sentiments and principles, and kindling in 
them the flame of patriotic and virtuous emulation, holding 
up to them, with great eloquence, the examples of ancient pa- 
triots, orators and statesmen, with whom he was as much en- 
amored as if he were still in his youth. He rose to consider- 
able distinction before he left Maryland, which was about 
thirty years ago. He represented the county of Montgomery 
for several years in the state legislature; was a member of 
the state convention which ratified the Federal Constitution, 
and afterwards a member of Congress for the district in 
which he lived. Though nature had made him an orator of 
high order, he spoke but rarely, and then only on local sub- 
jects, when forced forward by a high sense of duty; yet on 
one of these occasions, in the assembly of Maryland, with so 
much force did he strike the house, that the late Samuel Chase 
and several others of the most competent judges of eloquence 
in that body, crossed the floor of the house to congratulate 
him, and to assure him that it rested with himself to become 



283 ' 

one of the most distinguished speakers of the age. But he was 
restrained by aversion to politics from profiting by this sug- 
gestion, and a man who may be justly pronounced to have 
been one of nature's happiest efforts, has now passed away, 
to be forgotten by the world. Never will he be forgotten by 
the grateful heart from which this humble tribute flows ; nor 
that excellent woman who was the fit and happy counterpart 
of so extraordinary a man. They were both an honor to their 
species, ornaments to the church to which they belonged, and 
are now among the spirits of the blessed who surround the 
throne on high. 

William Wirt. ' ' 



284 



Russel Farahatn. 
By Qrrin S. Holt. 

To the Illinois pioneer, Russel Farnham, a native of New 
Haven, Connecticut, belongs the distinction of having been 
the first to encircle the globe by the overland route. He was 
also probably the first American to visit the Saskatchewan 
country and inland Alaska. 

At a later period he was a pioneer of western Illinois, 
having come in 1824 to the vicinity of Fort Armstrong, on the 
island of Eock Island, a few years after its establishment 
and several years in advance of any other white settler, ex- 
cept the hunter and trapper. Antoine Gouque, and those who 
were *onnected with the military post. 

He, in «ompany with Colonel George Davenport, built the 
first house on the main land in the vicinity of Fort Armstrong 
as early as 1826. 

This historic building, later known as "the house of John 
Barrel," was destined to play an important part in the early 
activities of the vicinity. It was the nucleus of the settle- 
ment which finally sprung up near the fort some ten years 
after its establishment, and w T hich was named Farnhamsburg 
in his honor. 

Farnham, in company with Colonel George Davenport, en- 
tered the first. piece of government land in what is now Rock 
Island County, described as section 2, township 17, range 2 
west of the fourth principal meridian. The entry bears the 
date of October 19, 1829. This land is now within the city 
limits of Eock Island, and is readily located by the city's 
beautiful gathering spot, Longview Park, which is near its 
center. 

After the United States government had bought about one 
million square miles of new territory for some eleven million 
dollars, in the Louisiana purchase, it seems to have occurred 
to Congress that it was worth while to find out something of 
the nature and value of the territory so acquired, conse- 



285 

quently the Lewis and Clark expedition was sent across the 
continent to investigate. 

Whatever Congress or the public may have thought of the 
purchase, when Lewis and Clark reported the results of their 
trip, one man at least — John Jacob Astor, the great fur 
trader — thought he saw a promising opportunity for busi- 
ness expansion. To satisfy himself as to the feasibility of a 
line of trading posts across the new country he determined 
on an exploring expedition of his own over the same route 
recently taken by Lewis and Clark, and chose our hero from 
among the numerous employees in his New York office to 
head the party. 

Famham's selection for such an important, hazardous and 
difficult task leads one to think the young man must previ- 
ously have shown evidences of superior ability and trust- 
worthiness. He was at that time only 23 years old, a tall, 
light complexioned young man, with light curly hair and 
brown eyes; not the type of man one would expect to be 
chosen for such a responsible charge. 

Farnham, in the execution of his commission, proceeded 
to St. Louis, by way of the route across the Allegheny Moun- 
tains, down the Ohio to its mouth and up the Mississippi, and 
there organized a company of seventy whites and half-breeds 
to accompany him on his journey. 

If permitted to romance a little at this point in our story, 
we would say that Farnham, while in St. Louis, stopped at 
the tavern of a Frenchman named Charles Bosseron,* who 
had an Indian wife and a comely daughter, Susan, then in 
her teens, and that the dark-eyed beauty made a lasting im- 
pression on the blonde adventurer; at least subsequent 
events make the assumption seem very reasonable. 

In the summer of 1807, with his organization completed, 
P^arnham started on his journey up the Missouri River to its 
head waters, as Lewis and Clark previously had done, en- 
route to the far away Columbia River, down which he de- 
signed to float to its mouth. 

In the meantime, according to promise, Astor dispatched 
two sailing vessels around Cape Horn to meet him when he 
reached the Pacific and bring him home again. 



* Bosseron or Bosserou. 



286 

When Farnham 's slow and laborious journey had brought 
him to the mouth of the Milk River, a tributary to the upper 
Missouri, the snows and storms of winter compelled him to 
halt and wait for spring. As soon as the weather permitted, 
he again boldly pushed on, but with his band reduced to 
thirty, towards the Columbia, which he finally reached after 
many hardships and the loss of all his men but seven. 

With such a highway open before him and the current in 
his favor, he no doubt was greatly elated at the prospect of 
an early termination of his perilous journey and escape from 
the dangers that had so depleted his band. 

He discovered, however, as he proceeded down the river 
that the Indians were in a hostile mood, owing to troubles 
they had experienced with the Lewis and Clark party. They 
offered so much resistance that he was compelled to abandon 
his boats and take to the highlands on foot, which greatly 
retarded his progress and added to his hardships. 

When at last he came out upon the headlands at the mouth 
of the river late in October, 1808, there, sure enough, in the 
river far below, were the two ships sent by Astor to take him 
back to civilization and safety, but what must have been his 
feelings when he discovered that they were floating slowly 
out of the river's mouth, preparatory to putting to sea, 
chased by a horde of hostile savages in canoes. The com- 
mander of the vessels had thought it useless to wait longer 
for the much overdue travelers, particularly as the savages 
were so extremely hostile as to make it appear impossible 
that Farnham could have passed through their country alive. 

The sorely disappointed travelers, their number now re- 
duced to three, watched the ships spread their canvas to the 
breeze and slowly sail away, until at last they sank from 
view below the horizon. They waited, however, three weary 
weeks longer in the vain hope that they might return, when 
they abandoned all hope of seeing them again. 

It must have been a sad day for Farnham and his little 
band when they started to retrace their steps homeward. It 
must have seemed almost hopeless, too, in view of what they 
knew of the hardships of the journey before them and the 
temper of the Indian through whose country they must pass. 
But there was no alternative. They must return as they 
came or surely perish. 



287 

It was midsummer when Farnham came again to the place 
where he had previously wintered on the Missouri. All of 
his companions had perished. He was plodding on alone. 
Possibly he was buoyed up by the faint hope that he might 
be so fortunate as to float down the Missouri to friends and 
civilization again; perhaps he took new courage when his 
thought turned to the Frenchman's tavern near the river's 
mouth, where he imagined little black-eyed Susan still 
waited some word from him. 

Fate, however, had other aud more wonderful things in 
store for him. A band of northern Indians, on the war path 
against the tribes in whose country Farnham was, came upon 
him and took him prisoner. Soon after they returned to 
their own country, three or four hundred miles to the north- 
ward in the Saskatchewan country, taking Farnham with 
them. Here he remained four years in captivity, working 
with the squaws, living like an Indian and learning their 
language. 

It was the custom of this tribe to go annually over 
the mountains to a Russian trading post in southern 
Alaska near the coast. In the fourth year of his 
captivity he was allowed to accompany them on such 
a trip. Here he met the "Russian Fur Company's 
agent and T)lead with all the earnestness of des- 
peration to secure his release from captivity. The trader 
claimed he could do so only by paying a ransom, but that the 
Indians put so high a value on him as to make this impos- 
sible. Besides, as he was responsible for the goods in his 
charge, he would not incur the risk of possible loss. He did, 
however, consent to take charge of a letter that Farnham 
directed to Astor, and start it on its way to New York 
through his Russian superiors. 

Poor Farnham was taken back to the Indian country for 
three years more of captivity, while his letter traveled from 
post to post up the Alaskan coast, across Behring's Strait to 
Siberia, then across her wilds and swamps to Russia, then on 
to St. Petersburg, to Copenhagen and across the Atlantic to 
New York. 

Astor was greatly surprised as well as pleased to learn 
that his trusted agent, though mourned as dead, still lived; 



288 

and immediately set out, through the medium of the Russian 
Fur Company, to secure his release and return. 

Of the details of Farnham's homeward journey, we know 
but little, except that he traveled the same long route, clear 
on, the rest of the Way around the world, as his letter had 
done. 

The next definite information we have of his journey is 
furnished by the original passport on which he traveled on 
the home stretch. The original document is in the collection 
of the Hon. Ben T. Cable, of Rock Island, Illinois. It is 
dated October 16, 1816, and entitled Farnham to travel from 
Copenhagen to Baltimore as super cargo, but does not name 
the vessel on which he was to sail. 

Soon after Farnham 's arrival in America he reported at 
Astor's office in New York, and must have been cordially 
received, for Astor assured Farnham that he considered that 
he had been in his employ for the ten years his involuntary 
trip around the world had occupied, paid him his salary for 
the entire time and reinstated him in the New York office. 

As might be expected, office work proved irksome to one 
who had led the life Farnham had since he left for the west 
ten years before. After his outdoor life he could not endure 
being shut up within four walls, so resigned his position, and 
with his accumulated earnings started west to get into the 
great outdoors again, purposing to engage in the fur busi- 
ness on his own account. 

His choice of location was St. Louis. He might have been 
attracted to that place because it was within the newly ac- 
quired territory; because of its prominence as a trading 
point, for it had enjoyed that distinction under French, Span- 
ish and American rule successively; or it might have been 
because his thoughts turned longingly to the Bosseron tavern 
and the landlord's dark-skinned daughter he had not seen 
for so many years. At any rate, he started straight for that 
place — not so very straight, either, for he chose the route by 
way of the Hudson, Lake Champlain, the St. Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes to Green Bay, from where he followed the 
Fox and Wisconsin Elvers to the Mississippi, as Marquette 
and Joliet had done about one hundred and forty years be- 
fore. Like them, he passed the island of Rock Island, which 






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289 

by this time was made conspicuous by the whitened walls of 
Fort Armstrong, perched on the rocky precipice at its lower 
extremity. 

From what followed it is reasonable to presume that he 
took a good look at the locality, and more than probable that 
he went on shore and made the acquaintance of Colonel Dav- 
enport, the Indian trader, thereby preparing the way for 
their subsequent business partnership. 

On his arrival in St. Louis, Farnham found Astor already 
occupying the territory under some kind of agreement with 
the government as to trading west of the river that gave him 
a monopoly, so he returned northward, but probably not until 
after a good long visit at the Frenchman, Bosseron's, tavern 
and the renewal of old friendships. 

His next stop was at Warsaw, but not for long, for in 1824 
he came to Fort Armstrong and entered into partnership 
with Colonel Davenport, whose business house was on the 
island near the fort. 

In 1826 the new firm built a building on the main shore. 
This was the first building to be built anywhere in the vicinity 
except at the military post. It was located just across 
Twenty-ninth Street west of the Cable residence and quite 
near the railroad tracks. This historic house later bore the 
name of the "house of John Barrel." 

The location for this first venture was probably chosen on 
account of the proximity of the fort, which stood just oppo- 
site across the narrower channel of the Mississippi. Prob- 
ably the big spring, whose pure, cool water boiled up through 
the limestone ledge near by, had its influence also. 

At that time the lands for many miles around were in the 
undisputed possession of the Indians, this particular spot 
being within the Fox village. 

This first building was of logs, the f rontierman 's ever 
ready material. An addition of hewn timber frame work 
soon followed, making altogether a building of considerable 
size. It was of the usual pioneer style of architecture, with 
big fireplaces and outside chimneys at the ends. It was one 
story, with an attic above. 

In addition to being the first building on the main land, it 
had the additional distinction of being the first business 
house, the first tavern, first stage station (Frink & Walker), 



290 

the first post office (except at the fort), the place of the first 
county election, and the first county office. The first terms 
of court were held in it, as were the first meetings of the 
county board. It continued the most important spot in the 
locality until Stephenson was platted by authority of the 
State to become the county seat of Rock Island County in 
1835. The present city of Rock Island includes both of the 
old towns and much other territory, including the Indian 
town of Saukenok. 

After Farnham located here he continued his visits to St. 
Louis on business, and evidently kept up his acquaintance 
at the Bosseron tavern, for he and Susan were married in 
1827 or 1828. 

Russel Farnham died in 1832 at the age of 48. Possibly 
his life was shortened by the hardships he endured on his 
long trip. His wife died a year or two later. Their only 
child, Charles, died in 1848. Therese Bosseron, Mrs. Farn- 
ham 's mother, was still alive in 1859. Charles Bosseron, her 
husband, died in 1826. Therese Bosseron inherited the Farn- 
ham estate through the grandson, who outlived both his par- 
ents, but not his grandmother. 

A part of the facts related here are preserved in a clipping 
from the old Chicago Times, now in the collection of J. D. 
Sperry, of Rock Island. The article in the Times was written 
by Edward Judd, a lawyer, who came across the strange story 
in tracing land titles back to pioneer times. His curiosity 
was so aroused that he sought and obtained an interview with 
the late Bailey Davenport, son of Colonel George Davenport 
previously mentioned. Mr. Davenport knew Farnham well 
and had heard him relate his experiences on that memorable 
trip on many occasions, so he was able to satisfy Judd's 
curiosity, and by reason of the Times having published the 
interview the facts are preserved to us. 

The records of Rock Island County, the first of which Avere 
made in the "house of John Barrel," contain much informa- 
tion on the subject, particularly in the affidavits of Antoine 
Le Claire, the government interpreter, Bailey Davenport and 
others, filed in a suit brought to divide the section 2 before 
mentioned between the heirs of Farnham and Colonel Dav- 
enport. 



291 

The memory of Eussel Farnham deserves to be preserved 
along with those of Daniel Boone, Kit Carson and many other 
daring men -who faced the dangers of frontier life to develop 
this country. 

A more romantic and interesting story would be hard to 
find, even in fiction. 



292 



History of the Rock Island Post Office. 



By H. P. Simonson. 

Mail facilities were first extended to what is now Rock 
Island, April 23, 1825, when Colonel George Davenport, who 
was conducting an Indian trading post near Fort Armstrong 
on Rock Island, was officially authorized to receive and dis- 
patch such mail as there was to be handled. He was never 
sworn into the service. 

John Conway was the first bona fide postmaster. He as- 
sumed the duties of that position April 4, 1834, the office 
being removed on that date from the Davenport home to his 
cabin, which was located just south of the island on the main 
land, in what was then known as Farnhamsburg. As the 
settlement grew another village, known as Stephenson, was 
laid out just west of Farnhamsburg. It was made the county 
seat and the post office was removed to within a few blocks 
of the site of the present federal building. It occupied rented 
quarters at different places within an area of two blocks till 
the first federal building at the present location was com- 
pleted in 1896. This was occupied under the administration 
of Postmaster John W. Potter, when the post office occupied 
for the first time a government building. In 1912, under 
Postmaster Hugh A. J. McDonald, the structure was remod- 
eled to meet growing needs of the post office and to furnish 
additional room for offices for the United States Engineer 
Corps for the upper Mississippi River district, which has 
headquarters there. 

Free delivery was inaugurated in 1888 through the efforts 
of Major C. W. Hawes, then postmaster. The office became 
first class under the administration of Postmaster T. H. 
Thomas in 1899. It attained this rank largely through the 
business of the Modern Woodmen of America which, with 
national headquarters in the city, supplied for a number of 
years, an average of 40 per cent of the total business done. 



293 

The amount of business done has maintained a steady 
growth for the last thirty years or more. 

There are sixty-seven employees connected with the office, 
while sixty-six railway mail clerks run into the city on the 
various railway lines. There are now (1916) sixty-one mails 
dispatched and fifty-eight mails received daily. 

When free delivery was established in 1888 there were five 
carriers. Now there are twenty-six letter carriers in city 
service and one rural carrier. 

At the time the building was remodeled in 1912 the 
Rock Island federal building represented an expenditure of 
$200,000 and was considered the finest government building 
in the State outside of Chicago. 

Following are terms of the various postmasters who have 
served in Rock Island: 

Joseph Conway 1834-1836 

Miles W. Conway 1836-1840 

Joseph B. Wells 1840-1841 

Colonel John Buford 1841-1847 

Harmon G. Eevnolds .1847-1849 

Elbridge E. Bean 1849-1853 

James Kelly 1853-1855 

William Frizzelle 1855-1856 

Lewis N. Webber 1856-1858 

Herman Field 1858-1861 

Dr. Calvin Truesdale 1861-1865 

John B. Hawley 1865-1866 

Captain James F. Copp 1866-1867 

Marcus B. Osborne 1867-1871 

Captain L. M. Haverstick 1871-1873 

WiUiam Jackson 1873-1876 

Thomas Murdock 1876-1880 

Major J. M. Beardsley 1880-1884 

Major C. W. Hawes 1884-1888 

August Huesing 1888-1889 

Howard Wells 1889-1893 

J. W. Potter 1893-1897 

T. H. Thomas 1897-1906 

H. A. J. McDonald 1906-1914 

Harry P. Simpson 1914 



294 



History of the Rock Island Argus. 



October 18, 1851, was issued the first edition of the Rock 
Island Republican, which afterward became the Rock Island 
Argus. The latter name was adopted in 1S55, and was made 
necessary by the forming of the Republican party. The news- 
paper could not well retain its old name after the new party 
came into existence, for it was allied with the Democratic 
cause. 

Fred S. Nichols and John W. Dunham established the 
Republican. They came from St. Louis, bringing a small 
printing outfit with them. Both had had newspaper experi- 
ence, having been associated together on the St. Louis Intel- 
ligencer. Dunham remained but six weeks, selling out to his 
partner and returning south. In November, 1852, Nichols 
s,old a half interest to J. B. Danforth, whose connection with 
the paper was maintained practically all the time until 1869. 
]n the spring of 1853 Mr. Danforth became sole proprietor. 
Three years later he sold an interest to Robert V. Shurley. 

The Republican was the only Democratic newspaper in a 
radius of one hundred miles at the time it was established. 
It was started as a weekly, becoming a daily July 13, 1854. 
At that time there was no other daily nearer than Dubuque. 

September 16, 1857, Pershing and Connelly purchased the 
interests not owned by Mr. Shurley. A week later Mr. Shur- 
ley sold his holdings to Milton Jones, who held an editorial 
position on the paper until 1881. Pershing and Connelly had 
been owners of the Rock Islander and they consolidated the 
two papers, the name becoming the Rock Islander and Argus. 
Two years later Mr. Danforth bought out Pershing and Con- 
nelly and the name was again changed to the Argus. Between 
July 18, 1859, and September 1, 1861, the Argus was pub- 
lished as a tri-weekly, returning to the daily field on the 
latter date. 

In 1869 Robert F. McNeal bought out Mr. Danforth, part- 
ing with his interests the following year to J. S. Drake. In 



295 

1S73 The Argus Company was incorporated with $32,000 
capital stock. In 1871 the Argus entered its first exclusive 
quarters, erected by the Buford heirs. In 1880 the paper 
was taken over by Richardson and Powers, who waged a 
brief struggle with adversity and in 1881 suspended publi- 
cation. Then came J. W. Potter, publisher of the Free- 
port Bulletin, and bought the property for his son, J. W. 
Potter, Jr. 

The first issue under the new management appeared 
August 2, 1882. In May, 1885, the elder Potter died, the son 
becoming sole owner. In 1888 the paper moved into the 
quarters at 1624 Second Avenue, which it now occupies, and 
which have been remodeled from time to time to meet the 
growing needs. 

January 11, 1898, Mr. Potter died, and the J. W. Potter 
Publishing Company was then formed, with Mrs. J. W. 
Potter president. H. P. Simpson, who assumed editorial 
charge on the death of Mr. Potter, retains that position at 
present, being also vice-president of the corporation. J. J. 
VaVelle was business manager, being succeeded at his death 
in 1907 by F. J. Mueller, who still serves in that capacity, and 
is also secretary-treasurer of the corporation. 

The Argus has kept pace with the improvements of the age 
in all its departments. It now has (in 1916) five linotype 
machines and a sixteen-page Duplex stereotype press and 
gives regular employment to forty men and women. 

For the first few months of its existence the Daily Argus 
was an evening paper. Then from 1855 till 1S61 it was a morn- 
ing paper. In the latter year it changed back to an evening 
publication and has continued as such until the present. A 
weekly was published in addition to the daily until four 3*ears 
ago, when it was discontinued. 



296 



A Description of Caisson Work to Bed Rock in Chicago for 
Modern High Buildings. 



By George Mastierre. 

It takes about three weeks to dig a caisson and two and 
one-half days to fill it with cement. This cement is made out 
of one part cement, two parts torpedo sand and four parts 
crushed stone. The time of excavating caissons varies ac- 
cording to what the stratas of the ground are composed of. 
The upper 85 feet is mostly of a plastic clay. Where plastic 
clay is, we dig eleven feet in eight hours. Where we come 
to hard clay and hard pan, five feet in depth will be eight 
hours' work. 

The lower fifteen feet, just above rock, is sometimes a 
quicksand or boulder strata, filled with water, and it takes 
five days, working twenty-four hours a day, to get through 
this fifteen feet. The diameter of these caissons is usually 
seven feet. Most of the caissons in the central business dis- 
trict of Chicago reach rock at about 110 feet below sidewalk 
or inner grade. They are enclosed with hard wood lagging. 
3" thick, tongue and grooved. This lagging is from 3' 6" to 
5' 4" long, and is put in place after the earth below has been 
dug out to a depth to correspond with the length of the lag- 
ging. The lagging is of different lengths, the shorter length, 
3' 6", being used where the ground is very soft or where great 
weight is on the adjacent ground. 

This method of making solid foundations for buildings has 
been in use only twelve years,* and was first used by Mr. Sooy 
Smith, an engineer of Chicago. 

The blue clay, about fifteen feet below iimer grade, is very 
hard, but after boring through we find it much softer, and this 
soft or plastic clay continues down to a depth of seventy feet 
below grade, when it changes to hard clay with gravel and 
small boulders mixed amongst it. In the early history of the 



♦This article was written April 19. 1912. 






0(V7 

city, v, T hen people had to dig wells, they went through the blue 
clay until they struck water mixed with gravel about 90 feet 
below the surface. There is no water laying above this. 

When the caisson is dug within a few feet of the solid rock 
we come across boulders that have distinct evi deuce of having 
been brought to their present position during the glacial per- 
iod. The edges are all worn and other signs indicate this 
origin. These boulders are mostly of limestone, but here and 
there are granite boulders that have come from Wisconsin, 
and pieces of slate with veins of copper in it which may have 
come from Lake Superior. In closely examining the surface 
of the rock at the bottom of these caissons, one can notice the 
scratches or marks where the ice had been ploughing over it. 

The apparatus that is used in excavating these caissons is 
an electric hoist with a tripod above, a hemp rope, and a 
steel bucket 20" in diameter and 2' deep, so constructed that it 
is easily emptied, being protected by a safety lock on the 
side, so that it is impossible for it to overturn in bringing 
the material up. The men go up and down to their work one 
at a time, standing in the bucket. 

A caisson 7' in diameter requires two men at the bottom 
digging, one man at the top, called a "signal man," who 
watches the bucket in its course of being hoisted, and his as- 
sistant, who empties the bucket and loads the wagon at the 
top. The tools used are shovels, pickaxes and mattocks or 
grubs. These mattocks have a face about Sy 2 " wide and are 
used in the hard clay with the boulders in it. The plastic clay 
is easily handled by the spade, but in the hard pan clay the 
mattock has to be used continuously. 

The temperature in these caissons when 20 feet below grade 
is several degrees warmer in winter and cooler in summer 
than the outside atmosphere. 

In the lower portion of the caissons, where there is water, 
the workmen have to use suits of waterproof material, so as 
to protect them from the seepage from the side of the well 
and from the buckets hoisting the water. 

The water found in these caissons is hoisted to the top with 
the same electric hoist that takes up the excavated material 
and is hoisted at the same time as the other material found 
there. A bucket sometimes contains one-half gravel and the 
other half water. 



298 

This work has been found to be safe and healthy for the 
men. They see to work in these wells by electric lamps, which 
are lowered to them. The digging of these caissons has rather 
peculiar effects on adjacent buildings. Sometimes it is per- 
fectly safe to sink them very close to a heavy wall, while at 
other times the sinking may be done with considerable dan- 
ger to the property. This variation is caused by the condi- 
tion of the sub-strata. The ground varies very much in a city 
block and in the sinking of one of these caissons, in going 
through the soft plastic clay, the adjacent buildings seem to 
sink as soon as this soft strata is being taken out, but the 
greatest danger to the neighboring wall comes from taking out 
the soil between caissons to make subbasements. This may 
endanger to a great extent the building which is near it. Un- 
der the present law the owner who is building these caissons 
is not liable for any damage done to the neighboring build- 
ings, provided he has given due notice to the owners of his in- 
tention of sinking caissons and uses proper care in following 
up his work. 

The cost of building one of these caissons as described 
above at this date is about $3,500. 

In the excavation of a caisson, the following is the system 
adapted to keep it plumb from start to finish. In excavating 
a section deep enough for a set of lagging, which is usually 
5' 4" long, the excavation at first is roughly done, the diggers 
keeping away slightly from all sides until they reach the 
depth mentioned above, 5' 4". At this depth a space in the 
bottom is cleared nearly level and of the entire area of the 
caisson. A heavy plummet on a fine line is dropped from the 
center mark at the top of the well and a stake is driven into 
this level bottom, which marks the center. Then a gauge 
stick, with this point as a center, gives the workmen the 
proper form for the lagging. They then trim the sides from 
the bottom up toward the former set of lagging and when the 
sides are trimmed properly the steel ring, which forms the in- 
side brace of the caisson, is laid on top of this borrom and 
the process of setting up the lagging all around against the 
dirt takes place. There are two rings used for each set of 
lagging. "When the lagging has been laid around the well the 
joining part where the laggings meet is wedged up tight with 
shingles, so that the lagging itself forms quite a strong wall 



299 

of resistance against the outside pressure. The wooden lag- 
ging is nearly always left in the caissons now. Heretofore it 
was taken out and used over again, but it was found that 
considerable caving of the dirt into the cement filling took 
place during the process of filling and in such a manner that 
it was impossible to know whether it was caving in amongst 
the concrete or not, so it is deemed unsafe to take any of the 
lagging out. 

The rings used as described above are made in two pieces, 
each one-half of a circle, and are bolted together when they 
are used down in the well, each half of the ring having lugs 
projecting about 3" at right angles to the ring. Consequently 
each half is bolted to the other half through these lugs. Some- 
times when the rings do not exactly fit the size of the lagging, 
we insert hardwood washers between these laggings which 
will extend the diameter of the rings from one to three inches, 
according to what is needed. In caissons where the material 
is of clay, these rings are taken out one by one ahead of the 
concrete filling, but where it is quicksand material all rings 
have to be left in. 

About 97' below the surface is found a body of boulders 
about 10' deep and, except for occasional pockets of gravel, 
the spaces between these boulders are generally filled with 
water. The bottom of the caisson at this depth is found 
to be occupied by this boulder bed. The rock surface 
is found to be level. The boulders do not lie in a 
depression or valley in the rock and the caisson bor- 
ings in this city (Chicago) have shown no cliffs or 
sudden changes of level in the rock surface. The boulder 
bed is practically level and its thickness uniform. Several cais- 
sons in different parts of the city which have struck this 
boulder bed are so distributed as to suggest that it is long, 
winding and narrow. The boulders are overlaid by a thick 
bed of sandy clay. The boulders are from 1" to 2' 6" in di- 
ameter. The four foot space between the boulders and the 
rock surface is occupied by a typical glacial gravel clay. This 
boulder bed is a very unusual phenomenon, although similar 
deposits have been found elsewhere. It is probably a deposit 
left by the narrowest and most rapid portion of a sub-glacial 
stream, flowing under a strong head. The boulders are 
chiefly limestone, cherk (flint) and granite similar to some 



300 

of the Wisconsin granite. It does not seem to represent a 
stream present before the glacial period and may represent 
a stream beneath the ice of the glacial period. Owing to the 
open character of this bed there is certainly a strong stream 
flowing there at present and consequently much water will be 
found in any caisson which strikes it. 

There is no work in the erection of a modern building where 
it is more important to have ail honest contractor than in the 
building of caissons. A firm like D. H. Bnrnham & Company 
and other prominent architects always have a superintendent 
day and night who watches the various portions of cement, 
sand and stone that are to form the concrete that is put into 
the caissons. Recently buildings have been known to sink on 
caissons, where on examination it was found that the con- 
tractor had not put in the proper quantity of cement. 



301 



The Massacre During the Black Hawk War on Turkey Creek, 

Near Aurora, Illinois. 

1832. 

By Charles A. Love. 

The Paymaster for the United States Army and a small 
party were proceeding to Galena, with a chest containing 
four hundred dollars in silver, during the Black Hawk War. 
At the place where the Indian trail crossed Turkey Creek, 
near where Aurora now stands, but then not settled, the party 
was attacked by Indians and all killed, except Private Cas- 
well", who was mortally wounded and died before he finished 
telling that the chest of silver was buried by a white rock, 
about three hundred paces from where the trail crossed 
Turkey Creek. 

The granite boulder at 201 Prairie Street answers the 
description of the rock at 275 paces from the crossing of the 
trail. Parts of the trail can still be seen. 

The war was on, and Black Hawk's braves 

Had fled the land to Koshkonong. 
Galena's folk had welcomed Scott, 

And thanked the Lord in prayer and song. 

To pay the wage for service borne 

By soldiers brave in Scott's command, 

The chest of coin to be conveyed 

By trail and scout and soldier band. 

The trail that led to far northwest, 

To cross the Fox and Turkey Creek, 

Through Hankes' Grove and Chin-no-kee, 
And gravel hills with pointed peak. 



302 

The morn was sweet with heavenly dew. 
The day was fine and noon was high- 

A day in June with leaf and flower 

To hold the sense and paint the sky. 

The creek with song and gurgles filled, 
Invoked the way as free from harm ; 

The soldier train with coin and care 
To cross the creek without alarm. 

Crash! Bang! The muskets rang, 

From ambush in the hills. 
The soldier band, by fatal hand, 

Their faithful heart beat stills. 

The treasure lost? Oh, mercy, no! 

The wounded Caswell drags his form 
And silver chest with pain, and slow, 

To granite rock — a hero born. 

The sacred treasure buried there, 
The hero, Caswell, crawls away; 

And tells the searchers, while they stare, 
That all are dead — and he expires 

The massacre on Turkey Creek, 

Where Caswell's mother used to weep- 

Preserve the spot and sacred keep 

The granite rock on Prairie Street. 



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Monument to memory of Stephen A. Douglas, at his birthplace, Brandon, Vermont. 



Stephen A. Douglas Monument at Brandon, Vermont. 

By W. T. Norton. 

In the Journal of the Historical Society for October, 1912, 
appeared an engraving of the birthplace of Stephen A. 
Douglas, in Brandon, Vermont. Wishing to know if the 
house in which he was born is still standing, in its original 
condition, I wrote to a good friend of mine, Mrs. C. E. Garber, 
a resident of Brandon, for information, enclosing the sketch 
which appeared in the Journal for comparison. Her reply 
is as follows: 

Brandon, Vermont. 

* * * The picture you sent of Stephen A. Douglas' birth- 
place is an exact likeness. The house is over-run, together 
with the roof, with woodbine. Almost in front of it, on 
Conant Square, is a lovely new monument, erected by a 
wealthy man who has a summer home here. The Douglas 
house has been preserved in every way, as far as possible, as 
it was in former years. I am enclosing an article written 
by Mrs. Fiske, a cousin of Douglas, who is the teacher 
of a school near our home. She wrote it in 1908 for the 
"Vermonter. " Very truly, 

Carolyn T. Garber. 

The article by Mrs. Fiske is appended: 

Stephen A. Douglas, Orator and Statesman. 
By His Cousin, Alice Fiske. 

Stephen Arnold Douglas, the "Little Giant," was born 
April 23, 1813, at Brandon. Vermont, the son of Stephen 
Arnold Douglas and Sarah Fiske, his wife. He received the 
greater part of his education in his native town, but com- 
pleted his studies at the Canandaigua Academy, New York. 
At this time he took a lively interest in politics, and at the 
age of 20, having removed to Illinois, he astonished his hear- 



304 

ers with his speeches. Boy he looked and boy he was, almost 
diminutive in stature, but an enthusiastic supporter of the 
policy of President Jackson on the bank question; and in an 
hour's speech at a mass meeting, so discomfited his oppon- 
ents that he swept his audience by storm, and they bore him 
on their shoulders out of the room and around the public 
square. He was the "Little Giant" from that day, and his 
speech became a Democratic tradition. He became an eminent 
statesman. His first great speech in Congress, in 1843, estab- 
lished his reputation as an orator. He defended the Missouri 
Compromise on the ground of abstract right. He supported 
President Polk in his war with Mexico and opposed the Wi'l- 
mot proviso in 1846. Elected to the Senate in 1847, he was 
no less distinguished. He was re-elected in 1852. In 1858 
he and Lincoln stumped the State together, Lincoln losing 
in the Legislature. Douglas was one of the four candidates 
for President in 1860, but was defeated by his rival, Abraham 
Lincoln. His bearing towards Lincoln was generous and 
manly. When Lincoln, rising to deliver his first inaugural, 
looked about for a place to bestow his hat, that he might 
adjust his glasses to read those noble paragraphs, Douglas 
came forward and took his hat from his hand. This graceful 
courtesy won him praise, and that was his attitude towards 
the new administration. He died in 1861, soon after the seces- 
sion of the Confederate States. His last words to his sons 
were: "Support the United States Constitution." And over 
there, released from the coarse clay which pinioned him, we 
compare him forever with the gentle and epic masters of the 
older lands. 



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Douglas monument at Brandon, Vermont. Photograph taken on occasion of dedication 

of the monument, June 27, 1913. 



305 



Douglas Monument, Brandon, Vermont. 

The Vermont monument to Douglas was erected by Albert 
G. Farr, of Chicago, a native of Brandon. It was expected to 
unveil it on April 13, 1913, the centennial anniversary of 
Douglas' birth, but circumstances prevented this until June 
27 of that year. The celebration of the anniversary was at- 
tended by a distinguished company. The town of Brandon 
appropriated $1,000 for the expenses of the commemoration. 
The monument was unveiled by Hon. Martin F. Douglas, a 
grandson of Stephen A. Douglas. The location of the monu- 
ment is on the green facing the cottage where the great 
statesman was born. A series of addresses by eminent ora- 
tors made the occasion notable. They were published in 
pamphlet form. I learn from this pamphlet sent me by Mrs. 
Garber that the father of Douglas was a physician. He died 
suddenly when the future statesman was two months old. 
The circumstances of the father's death came near being a 
double tragedy. He was sitting in the living room before 
an open fire, holding the infant in his arms. John Conant, a 
neighbor, came in and just as he opened the door the father 
died of apoplexy and the infant rolled into the fire. Conant 
sprang to the rescue and saved the child from a frightful 
death. 

On what a slender thread hung the destiny of the peerless 
leader whose memory we delight to honor. 



506 



Jersey County Centennial Association. 

By J. W. Becker. 

The officers of the Jersey County Centennial Celebration 
Commission believe that all the people of the county desire 
to have a share in the proper observance of the State's Cen- 
tennial in 1918. In order to fittingly celebrate this great 
historic event in the county next year, ample preliminary 
preparation must be made during the year 1917. 

In addition to the school, community, town and county 
celebrations to be held next year, the commission is planning 
to erect two historic boulders in the court house yard; to 
remove the Civil War cannon from the railroad park to the 
court house yard and mount them on concrete bases, and to 
place markers at the graves of Revolutionary War soldiers 
buried in the county. 

To do these things will cost probably five hundred dollars. 
The commission believes the people of the county generally 
should be given an opportunity to participate in the raising 
of this fund. They believe that the school children, as well 
as the adults, former residents as well as home citizens, 
should share in contributing the amount. 

With this thought in view, the county commission has de- 
cided to organize The Jersey County Centennial Celebration 
Association, and to issue a beautifully printed membership 
certificate to all contributors to the memorial fund. It is 
suggested that the matter be brought to the attention of the 
children through the schools of the county, and that the 
teachers receive the contributions of the children, for which 
certificates of membership be issued. The commission is of 
the opinion that children should not contribute less than ten 
cents, and more if they like, and that adults should not con- 
tribute less than twenty-five cents, but more if possible. 

It is further suggested that contributions be received by 
all the banks in the county and by the undersigned members 



307 

of the commission. Remittances should be made to Edward 
Cross, treasurer, Jerseyville. All citizens of the county are 
invited to become boosters for the Count}' Centennial Asso- 
ciation. 

Charles E. Warren, 
0. B. Hamilton, 
George W. Ware, 
Edward Cross, 
F. J. Kallal, 
Charles Segraves, 
Grant Thompson, 
J. W. Becker, 
Thomas B. Kuyle, 
A. D. Erwin, 
"William Dougherty, 
E. Meysenburg, 
Frank Rowden, 
W. H. Bartlett, 

Members County Centennial Commission. 



308 



Original Letter. 

George Foequer* to Pascal, P. Enos.I 

Springfield, January 16. 1-832. 
Dear Sir : You have doubtless heard my name mentioned 
in connection with the election for Senator from this county. 
Certain individuals having evinced a willingness that the 
people should avail themselves of my services, has been the 
cause of some hasty and intemperate intimations from some 
persons, from whom I could not have anticipated a well 
found objection. Against their unkind inferences, a bold and 
consistent course for the last ten years of active political life 
and the many sacrifices which it can be shown I have made 



• George Forquer was born near Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1794. Was the son 
of a Revolutionary soldier, and older half-brother of Governor Ford. He settled with 
his mother (then a widow) at New Design, Illinois, in 1804. After learning and 
for several years following the carpenter's trade at St Louis, he returned to Illinois 
and purchased the tract whereon Waterloo now stands. Subsequently he projected 
the town of Bridgewater on the Mississippi. For a time he was a partner in trade 
of Daniel P. Cook. 

Being successful in business, he took up the study of law, in which he attained 
marked success. In 1824 he was elected to represent Monroe County in the House 
of Representatives, but resigned in January of the following year to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, to which lie was appointed by Governor Coles, as suc- 
cessor to Morris Birkbeck, whom the Senate had refused to confirm. 

In 1828, he was a candidate for Congress, but was defeated by Joseph Duncan, 
afterwards Governor. 

At the close of the year he resigned the office of Secretary of State, but, a few 
weeks later, (January, 1829) he was elected by the Legislature Attorney General. 
This position he held until January, 1833, when he resigned, having as it appears, 
at the previous election, been chosen State Senator from Sangamon County, serving 
In the Eight and Ninth General Assemblies. 

Before the close of his term as Senator (1S35) he received the appointment of 
Register at the Land Office at Springfield. 

Mr. Forquer married Ann Cranmer, daughter of Dr. John Crauruer, of Cincinnati. 
Her elder sister, Susannah, married James E. Lamb, a pioneer merchant of Kaskaskia 
and Springfield. His death occurred in Cincinnati in 1S37. His widow afterwards 
married Antrim Campbell of Springfield, Illinois. 

t Pascal Paoli Enos, pioneer, was born at Windsor, Conn., In 1770 ; graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1794 ; studied law, and, after spending some years in 
Vermont, where he served as High Sheriff of Windsor County, in September. 1815, 
removed west, stopping first at Cincinnati. A year later he descended the Ohio by 
flatboat to Shawneetown, Illinois, crossed the State by land, finally locating at St. 
Charles, Mo., and later at St. Louis. Then, having purchased a tract of land in 
Madison County, Illinois, be remained there about two years, when, in 1823, having 
received from President Monroe the appointment of Receiver of the newly established 
Land Office at Springfield, he removed thither, making it his permanent home. He 
was one of the original purchasers of the land on which the city of Springfield now 
stands, and joined with Major Elijah lies, John Taylor and Thomas Cook, the other 
patentees, in laying out the town, to which they first gave the name of Calhoun. 
Mr. Enos remained in office through the administration of President John Qulncy 
Adams, but was removed by President Jackson for political reasons in 1829. Died 
at Springfield, April, 1832. 



309 

upon the altar of my hard earned character, should have 
screened me. Of their unkindness, however, I complain more 
in sorrow than in bitterness. Conscious, however, that they 
are more prompted by a certain design and their ill nature 
for others than by any act or intention of mine, I am relieved 
from the pain of the blow intended to be inflicted. This relief 
is increased when I reflect that those who are most ready to 
indulge in unauthorized suspicion are either such as have 
never been in situations to test their firmness by temtations 
of individual advancement and benefit, or those who have 
made duplicity in politics an article of trafic. To you I will 
say that the idea of my representing this county iu the 
Senate had not its origin with me. It must be seen by every 
one who knows me that the place could not be an object of 
ambition with me, and that I could not accept of it without 
making real sacrifices, both of a pecuniary and political char- 
acter. I would have to lay down an office worth from $5 
to $600 a year, and shut the door against the chance of being 
appointed judge for the circuit, should the Circuit Courts 
be established. Should there be a jndge to elect, no one will 
say that any other man in this circuit could be presented 
against me who would be able to start with as many friends 
in the Legislature. But I have for some time had no ambi- 
tion to gratify and cared very little, either for the place I 
hold or any other. 

Many persons of botli political parties kept talking to me 
until I began to think there was a liberal feeling towards me, 
and that my services were sought for in good faith for the 
sake of the public interest. Acting under this belief, I gave 
an intimation, that if I could be satisfied that the people, 
without reference to party considerations, did realy desire 
my services, I should consider myself bound to make the 
sacrifices above mentioned and serve them, and at the same 
time declaring my unwillingness to have anything to do with 
a county or party contest. That I did not wish to come in 
contact with the ambition of any of the numerous would-be 
great men in the county, and that my being a candidate must 
in a good degree depend upon these being satisfied to allow 
the people to select me in a peaceable and quiet manner. 
There the matter rested for some time, I avoiding carefully 
to mention the subject to any one, supposing that if there 



310 



should exist on the part of our great men in and about town 
a willingness to accept of my services they would give some 
indication of it. But in a few days it turned out just as I 
expected. I ivos not the man. "He must give in his adhe- 
sion to us!' ; Then my pride was aroused. Beiiur an older 
politician than any of them, I thought that they were as much 
bound to give in their adhesion to me. as I was to razee my- 
self, so as to enable me to sale under the wing of their lieu- 
tenant. This, I thought, was putting the boat into the yawl, 
and was rather too squeezing a concern for my pride to sub- 
mit to, though 1" was willing to have sailed alongside. 

After much forbearance on my part, and before I had 
determined to risk the contest, I was informed by my com- 
petitor that I was considered as having alienated myself from 
my party, and that his friends were determined to oppose 
me at all events, and therefore they would not allow him to 
for the N. B. I then for the first time instantly 
determined to let the people decide who constituted the 
party. Whether the people or a few maneuvering, selfish, 
and fence politicians constituted the best party to serve. 

I believe much might be done for this county, if the people 
would be governed by sound policy in selecting a competent 
delegation, who would go to Vandalia friendly and act like 
one man for the interest of the county. The firm belief that 
something might be done for the interest of our people and 
ourselves has had the greatest share in inducing me to allow 
my name to be used ; and I am vain enough to believe that I 
could contribute to some degree to the accomplishment of 
measures promotive of the prosperity of the county in 
general. 

A letter is too narrow a compass to present my views to 
you in, and I should be giad to see you some evening at my 
house, where I could give them to you in detail and explain 
more fully how it happens that my name is used. 

The circumstance which has prevented me from giving my 
opinions to you before now has no connection with the public 
interest, nor with your merits or mine as men. 

Yours very respectfully, 

George Forquer. 

♦Word here illegible. 



311 



Original Letter. 



Mrs. David L. Gregg to Miss Susan Enos, of Springfield, 
Illinois. Dated Carribean Sea, October 15, 1853. 

Mrs. David L. Gregg was Rebecca Eads, daughter of Hon. 
Abner Eads, of Galena, and was married in Chicago to David 
L. Gregg, Secretary of the State of Illinois, September 1, 
1850. 

David L. Gregg, lawyer and Secretary of State, emigrated 
from Albany, New York, and began the practice of law at 
Joliet, Illinois, where, in 1839, he also edited "The Juliet 
Courier," the first paper established in Will County. From 
1842 to 1846 he represented "Will, DuPage and Iroquois 
Counties in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth General Assem- 
blies; later removed to Chicago, after which he served for a 
time as United States District Attorney. In 1847 was chosen 
one of the delegates from Cook County to the State Consti- 
tutional Convention of that year, and served as Secretary of 
State from 1850 to 1853, as successor to Horace S. Cooley, 
who died in office the former year. 

In the Democratic State Convention of 1852 Mr. Gregg 
was a leading candidate for the nomination for Governor, 
though finally defeated by Joel A. Matteson; served as Presi- 
dential elector for that year, and in 1853 was appointed by 
President Pierce commissioner to the Sandwich Islands; still 
later, for a time acting as the minister or adviser of King 
Kamehamaha IV, who died in 1863. 

Returning to California, he was appointed by President 
Lincoln Receiver of Public Moneys at Carson, Nevada, where 
he died December 23, 1868. 






Carribean Sea, October 15, 1853. 

Dear Sue: I promised to write you after we crossed the 
Isthmus, but I learn that the mail will be on this side, ready 
to start back as soon as this steamer arrives. We have had a 
delightful trip so far — no storms — the ocean just as smooth 



312 



as the Mississippi River — we were all sick the first day — and 
it is the meanest kind of sickness, I assure you. You feel as 
though you had cast up your last accounts and closed your 
books for good. We have Colonel Ward, Consul to Panama, 
and Mr. Fletcher, Consul to Aspinwall, both very pleasant, 
gentlemanly men — but Ward especially. We have a mission- 
ary and his wife, bound for Oregon. He was exceedingly 
polite to me the first day, and finally asked me if my husband 
was a missionary — thought, of course, he must be, as he was 
going to the Sandwich Islands. We have a company of theat- 
ricals also on board — some of them exceedingly rude, others 
seem to be perfect ladies. There are seven hundred passen- 
gers in all, and such a time as we have to get something to 
eat. We are all numbered, and unless you go as soon as the 
bell rings, and begin to eat, you cannot get anything at all. 
For several days we have had very poor fare, and yesterday 
the captain discovered that the waiters were in the habit of 
stealing the pies and selling them to the steerage passengers, 
making quite a speculation for themselves. We have had no 
deaths on board. Had one birth, which created a great deal 
of excitement amongst the passengers, both gentlemen and 
ladies. The day after it was born it was brought up in the 
saloon and christened "Gustavus Ohio Nelson," after the 
captain and the steamer. It amused me to see how much 
interest the gentlemen took in the little stranger — quite as 
much as the ladies did. She was poor, and only had money 
enough to carry her to California. It was impossible for her 
to cross the Isthmus in her condition; so the captain started 
a subscription and raised one hundred and twenty-eight dol- 
lars for her, and when we arrived at Kingston he placed her 
under the care of the American Consul until the next steamer 
arrives. She will then be able to go on. The captain is one 
of the best men I ever knew, and his kindness to that poor 
woman will never be forgotten by the passengers on this 
steamer. He intended at first to bear all the expenses him- 
self, but the gentlemen on board would not let him. She had 
not one thing to put on her babe. I had two suits of Charlie 's 
that I gave her. 

There was great rejoicing when we got in sight of land. 
The scenery as you are coming into Kingston is beautiful. 
All along the coast you see the palm and cocoanut trees — and 



313 

a great variety of all kinds. Before we landed at Kingston 
the negroes began to swim out to the boat and hold up their 
hands and say, "Please give me a dime, massa." A great 
many of the gentlemen threw money down, and they would 
watch where it went and then dive down and bring it up. 
While they were bringing in ih^ coal for the boat, the pas- 
sengers all went on shore. Then the negroes were standing 
as thick as bees, all holding out their hands — "Piease give me 
a dime, massa — please give me a dime, misses" — and so it 
was, wherever you went, a half dozen would offer to show you 
the curiosities of the town. I never saw such miserable, 
ragged, dirty beings in my life. The coal is carried on the 
boat by the women in tubs on their heads. Each one of these 
tubs weighs eighty pounds. They commenced carrying it in 
the morning and worked all day until ten o 'clock at night, and 
only got three bits for all of that hard labor. Since the British 
came in possession of the island they emancipated the slaves. 
A gentleman told us — a resident of the island — before the 
slaves were free there were 30,000 white inhabitants in the 
city of Kingston, and now there are not more than two or 
three thousand. Since they are free they will not work, so 
that the plantations are nearly all abandoned. He said that 
there was wild coffee, just as good as any coffee in the world; 
they could pick and sell, but they will not do it. Some of them 
are educated, but the majority are poor, miserable creatures. 
Our negroes are gentlemen and ladies compared to these 
negroes. In the evening I rode out with Colonel Ward and 
Captain Fox. We visited the barracks and saw the darkies 
with the British uniform on — red jackets, white pants and 
black faces. They have very comfortable quarters. All of 
the buildings are of brick, fenced around with a high iron 
railing. While we were riding we passed a great many fences 
of cactus; they are the prettiest fences I ever saw, some of 
them ten feet high. Tell your mother she cannot imagine 
how beautiful the oleander is in its perfection, as it grows 
in this island; every variety of roses in bloom all the time. 
While we were riding we passed hundreds of fruit trees, all 
different kinds. The foliage here is perfectly beautiful. If 
it is as pretty and luxurious in the Sandwich Islands, I shall 
be perfectly satisfied. Some of the oranges are larger than 
the largest apples I ever saw; they are delicious here; and the 



314 

bananas are as long again here as they are in the States. 
They are pulled green. They have a fruit between the orange 
and the lemon, called lime; it makes fine lemonade. There 
seems to be no end to the different kinds of fruit. The mis- 
sionary's "wife wears the bloomer dress. When she went on 
shore the natives all got after her and wanted to know of her 
husband if she was his daughter. It afforded a great deal of 
amusement to the passengers to see them running to the boat 
and the natives after them, laughing and singing out, "Hur- 
rah for the Stars and Stripes!" All I regret is that some of 
our abolitionists cannot see these negroes. If Mrs. Stowe was 
here and could see what English philanthropy has done, she 
could write another book. There are a great many English 
families — very agreeable, indeed. They invited a great many 
of the ladies in to rest, as they passed along, and passed cake 
and wine and fruits of different kinds. The grapes are very 
fine here, but are very expensive. They are three times as 
large as our grapes and the seeds one-quarter as large. 

You will find some trouble to read this — the boat shakes 
so, and besides that, I am writing on my lap; so you must 
excuse so many blots. I shall expect an answer to this as 
soon as you get it. Do not neglect to write. You know I am 
agoing amongst strangers, and if they are pleasant it will be 
some time before I can feel at home. It seems a long time 
since I left you all, but I hope I shall return some time — 
Springfield will always be dear to me, as my little babe* is 
buried there. When I think of him, there is not one of you 
but passes through my mind at the same time. 

Give my love to Agnes. I would be glad to hear a good 
account of her, if she has proved herself worthy of it. Give 
my best love to all my friends, and when you write be sure 
and tell me all the news. It is so dark I can scarcely see. 
Give my best love to all your family — to your mother espe- 
cially. Be sure and write me if Agnes is still with your sister. 

R. Gregg. 



•Charles Gregg bcried in Oak Ridge cemetery, Spricgfield. 



315 



The Lincoln Funeral Train. 

Contributed by J. W. Becker. 

Each recurring year there is added interest in Lincoln 
stories and Lincoln history. The approaching centennial has 
intensified this interest, and no doubt in 1918 many stories 
about the great American hitherto unpublished will find their 
way into print. It occurred to the writer that a description 
of the Lincoln funeral train from Chicago to Springfield 
might be of historic value at this time. 

William S. Porter, a veteran of the Civil War, who enlisted 
when but a boy, resides at Jerseyville. After his honorable 
discharge from the service Mr. Porter became a brakeman 
on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, and in that capacity served 
as one of the special brakemen on the Lincoln funeral train. 

On Monday, February 12, 1917, Lincoln's birthday, Mr. 
Porter gave the writer the following interesting account of 
that memorable funeral procession. J. W. Becker. 

ACCOUNT OF TRIP FROM CHICAGO TO SPRINGFIELD OF TRAIN BEARING 
REMAINS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN, BY WILLIAM S. PORTER. 

"In the spring of 1864 I enlisted in the One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth Illinois Infantry (under the 100-day call), and 
was mustered out in the fall of the same year (1864). In a 
few days after I was mustered out I got employment on the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad as a brakeman. It was a very 
dangerous occupation, and men to fill the positions were hard 
to get, as one had to be out on top of the train nearly all the 
time that it was in motion; no modern appliances being in 
vogue at that time, such as air brakes, self-couplers and other 
safety devices that make railroading almost a pleasure in 
these days. Right here let me mention the fact that at that 
time George M. Pullman, who, with his brother, were work- 
ing in the car building department of the Chicago & Alton 
shops at Bloomington, Illinois, one as general foreman, the 



316 

other as assistant, were formulating and working on plans 
to build and equip the first sleeping and parlor car that was 
ever made — the birth of the system which is now almost uni- 
versal throughout the world wherever railroads are operated. 

0. Vaughan, who was assistant superintendent of the 
Chicago & Alton at chat time, with headquarters at Bloom- 
ington, summoned about a dozen or more brakemen to report 
at his office for instructions on special service. The instruc- 
tions were to get ready and go to Chicago and come out on 
Lincoln's funeral train, which was to leave Washington, D. 
C, on April 21, 1865, arriving in Chicago May 1, the body 
lying in state at the court house until 6 o'clock p. m. May 2, 
when the train left Chicago for Springfield, Illinois, the ter- 
minus of the trip. 

J. C. McMullen, assistant superintendent of the Chicago 
division (afterwards general manager of the entire Chicago 
& Alton system), had charge of the train, but George Hewitt, 
an old passenger man, was assigned the position of con- 
ductor, from whom the brakemen received their orders direct. 
T can only recall the names of four or five of my associates 
as brakemen on that memorable train, and I do not know 
whatever became of them, except Isaac Evans, who was killed 
in a round house in East St. Louis during a cyclone which 
demolished that city in 1871. The other names that I can 
recall at this time are Peter Dunbar, Theo. Bellows, Kobert 
Barr and Patrick Nevins. As I have not been in the railroad 
business for about twenty-five years, I have completely lost 
track of all of them. 

As I remember the funeral train, it consisted of one bag- 
gage car, several ordinary coaches and the catafalque car, 
which was the second car from the rear end of the train. The 
cars were of the type used at that period and belonged to 
the Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania Central Eailroads, 
and came through as a solid train from Washington to 
Springfield. The catafalque car, carrying the corpse of the 
President, was especially arranged for that purpose. The 
seats were removed and in the center of the car a structure 
was built in the shape of a pyramid. Upon the top of this 
pyramid, which had a railing surrounding it, the casket was 
placed. By this arrangement, those wishing to view the re- 
mains would come up to the foot of the casket in couples 



317 

and then separate and pass by in single file on either side 
and go out of the car in the same order. The next and last 
car in the train was occupied by members of the family of 
the President and the higher officials of the government, both 
civil and military, principally among whom I recall Edwin 
M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and Major General Ulysses 
S. Grant. 

A crack New York city regiment of soldiers (their title or 
name forgotten) escorted the body and performed guard duty 
over the entire trip. The guards on duty were placed in this 
manner: Four guards were posted in each car, two at each 
end. The moment the train stopped the guards came out of 
the car and took the positions assigned to them at the foot 
of the car steps on both sides of the train. No one was 
allowed to board the train without a permit. When the signal 
to proceed was given the engineer gave two short blasts on 
the whistle, then the guards would mount the steps and stand 
there until the train got under way, then go inside and sit 
down. 

The head officials of the Chicago & Alton railroad took 
extra precautions for the safety of the train over their line. 
All the bridges (mostly wooden at that time) were guarded 
against fire or otherwise by a watchman, who carried red and 
white signals for both day and night. The switch rails at all 
the obscure sidings were securely spiked down, etc., and all 
the regular trains were ordered to take the siding one hour 
before the scheduled time of the funeral train and remain 
there until it passed by. 

Two locomotives were assigned to pull the train from 
Chicago to its final destination, Springfield, Illinois; one to 
draw the train proper and the other to act as a "pilot," run- 
ning about four or five minutes ahead of the second section 
or main train between the principal stations, also assisting 
the other engine on all steep grades by being coupled to- 
gether. 

The two locomotives selected for this honor were No. 40 
and No. 57. Both engines were of the same type and size 
06 by 22-inch cylinder), built by the Walter McQueen loco- 
motive works at Schenectady, New York. They were "wood 
burners," with an old fashioned balloon smoke-stack, Kussia 



318 

iron jackets, brass dome, brass sand box, brass bell frame, 
six-inch brass bands encircling the boiler about four feet 
apart for its entire length, brass hand railings along the run- 
ning boards on both sides of the engine, and all highly 
polished. 

Engine No. 40, with Henry ("Hank") Russell in charge 
as engineer, was decorated from the " cowcatcher " to the 
rear draw-bar with flags intertwined with crepe and bunting 
and other symbols of mourning. On the front of the engine 
and directly under the headlight was placed a crayon por- 
trait bust of Mr. Lincoln in a circular frame, or wreath of 
flowers, about five feet in diameter. 

Engine No. 57, with James ("Jim") Cotton at the throttle, 
was decorated in about the same manner as the "pilot" 
engine. 

On the evening of May 2 the two locomotives and train 
were backed into the Union Station, ready to take the road 
on their way to Springfield, Illinois, the final destination. The 
funeral cortege left the court house in Chicago about 6 o 'clock 
p. m. and came west on Madison Street. The hearse was 
drawn by eight large, coal black stallions. Each horse was 
accompanied by a groom, who walked alongside with his 
hand on the bridle bit. The grooms were all negroes, large 
and fine looking, and were all uniformed alike. They made 
an impressive appearance. 

The train left Chicago about 7:30 or 8 o'clock p. m. and 
proceeded on its journey. At all the larger places, like Joliet, 
Wilmington, Bloomington and Lincoln, there were large 
crowds of people congregated — stern, grim visaged men, tear 
bedimmed women and children — all silent, but with an anx- 
ious, expectant look, as of some impending disaster. It was 
that way all along the line. There were throngs of people 
at all the smaller towns, also at the country road crossings 
could be seen a group of people waiting to see the arrival and 
passage of this train, the remembrance of which was to be- 
come an epoch in their lives. 

The train arrived in Springfield about noon the next day. 
May 3. A great concourse of people were gathered together 
in that city on this sad occasion. When the "pilot" engine 



319 

arrived on the outskirts of the city it stopped and awaited 
the arrival of the second section, then coupled in with it and 
proceeded to enter the city. It took over two hours to go 
about a mile and a half. It was certainly the people's 
funeral." 



320 



Letter from Louis German, Who Served as Bodyguard at 
Funeral of Abraham Lincoln. 

Gardner, Illinois, July 19, 1916. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary Illinois State His- 
torical Society, Springfield, Illinois. 

Mrs. "Weber: Replying to yours of the 17th, will say, I 
had the honor, while it was the saddest hour of my life, to 
be detailed to act as bodyguard over the remains of the body 
of President Lincoln, and then with two platoons of my com- 
pany to march at reverse arms to Oak Ridge on the hottest 
day the people of Springfield said they had ever witnessed. 
Lieutenant Colonel Reid, of my regiment, was the other 
officer detailed. He stood at the head of the casket at the 
right and I stood at the left. Lieutenant Colonel Reid and 
his wife (residents of Waukegan, Illinois) lost, their lives in 
the Iroquois Theater fire years ago. Captain Julius Loveday 
of my company was provost marshal of the city on that day. 
My recollection is that General Joe Hooker, known as "Fight- 
ing Joe" Hooker, was in command. Governor Yates and his 
brilliant staff were in the procession. Bishop Simpson of 
the Methodist Church of New York delivered the last sad 
words at the mound where the remains were laid at rest. 

Yours very truly, 

Louis Germain, 

First Lieutenant, Company D, One Hundred and Forty-sixth 
Regiment, Illinois Volunteers. 






- 



\ / ^ ■ 1 



k 1 



-> 



V 



•■ i 



JESSE W. FELL. 



321 



Jesse W. Fell Memorial Gateway, State Normal University 

Campus. 



Not to many communities is it given to pass through a scene 
that paralleled that at Normal campus on Monday, June 5, 
1916. Not too frequently does a locality gather its individuals 
together just for the honor and the memory of one man. 
Usually it is events, crises, measures of great interest that 
call together crowds of the old and thinking people of two 
cities — not solely the reverence they bear to the life, charac- 
ter and achievements of one man. 

Not so on this occasion. 

There gathered early in the afternoon; more than 1,500 
people, coming into the campus at the Normal University with 
one name on their lips, one thought, to publicly dedicate a 
gateway that should stand as long as stone lasts, to be an 
inspiration to generations of students, and upon which there 
will live the name of Jesse W. Fell, "lover and planter of 
trees." 

The name of Jesse W. Fell has been associated with that of 
Normal and the Normal University as long as either of these 
two have existed. Both held places in the heart of Jesse W. 
Fell; for both he planned and worked, and whether it was his 
home town, the Normal he had brought into being, or whether 
it was the university and all the big plans that he had for it, 
either had full measure of his love. And so, his name has 
been associated with the town and the school as a part of it. 
Little more than a year ago, a plan was born, through which 
it was to be possible to show in some way appreciation, and 
to show it in a way that he would have enjoyed and which 
should go on with the work of combining into one, the town 
and school as he himself had planned. 

The Woman's Improvement League of Normal, of which 
Mrs. J). C. Smith is president, launched the plan that was here 
shown in its completeness. This association, aided by other 
friends of Mr. Fell, spent time and thought before the achieve- 



322 

ment was reached. That it should be a gateway connecting 
the town and the school — eminently what he would have liked ; 
that it should be plain, noble in design, thought out by artists, 
executed in the best way — was the material end of the plans. 

Just southwest of the gate had been erected a platform, 
which was banked with flowers. About it was a semi-circle 
of seats, and all that had been provided were needed when 
the hour came. Upon the platform were seated the presiding 
officer and the speakers. 

The program had been arranged to include those men who 
knew Jesse W. Fell and that each speaker should tell what 
had come in his direct knowledge of the life of the beloved man. 

Colonel D. C. Smith of Normal was presiding officer and 
music was furnished by the Choral Club of the university. 

The program included : 

President David Fehnley of the Normal University— "The 
Debt the Normal University Owes to Jesse W. Fell." 

President Edmund J. James of the University of Illinois. 

President John W. Cook of the Northern Illinois Normal 
School at DeKalb — "Personal Keminiscences." 

Captain J. H. Burnham — "Jesse W. Fell, the Philanthro- 
pist of Mighty Vision." 

Generous extracts from these addresses are included in this 
article. 

President David Felmley was the first speaker. He began 
by tracing the many interests and strong enthusiasms of Mr. 
Fell, and then passed to the man as a lover of nature and its 
meanings. Of this he said : 

"In his boyhood Mr. Fell had as a teacher Joshua Hoopes, 
a famous schoolmaster of Chester County, Pennsylvania, one 
of the best botanists of his day. Jesse Fell was more than a 
pupil. He became a companion of his master, and under him 
developed a lifelong interest in trees and flowers. It was iD 
the early forties that Mr. Fell began to manifest his passion 
for tree planting. A year spent on the open prairie north- 
east of Bloomington probably hastened the conviction that 
nothing was more necessary to the taming of the prairie than 
to plant it with trees. At first the black locust, with its rapid 
growth and durable wood, finely adapted for fencing, attracted 
his attention. When the borers attacked the young locust 
groves, he tried other trees in our prairie soils — hard and soft 



323 

maples, ash and box elder, American, and British elm, linden, 
catalpa, tulip tree, European larch and many evergreens were 
planted in great numbers by him. It is said that 13,000 trees 
had been planted by him along the streets of Normal and in 
the grounds about his residence when there were still hardly 
a dozen houses in the present town. He brought to Blooin- 
iugton, Mann, Overman, Phoenix and other men who made 
Bloomington one of the largest nursery centers in the country. 

"In 1S67 Mr. Fell was appointed the local member of the 
board of education, the position now held by Mr. Capen. He 
at once secured an appropriation of $3,500 from the legisla- 
ture for the proper planting of the campus, a project that had 
always been near his heart. William Saunders, the foremost 
landscape gardener of the day, had been brought on from 
Philadelphia eight years before to make a suitable plan. The 
planting was clone under Mr. Fell's personal management, 
many fine trees being transplanted from his own private 
grounds known as Fell Park. The original plantings in the 
campus included almost every species that would flourish in 
this soil and climate. After the losses incident to storm and 
sleet, the ravages of borers and to the removal of trees to 
make way for new buildings, we still had in 1901, 940 trees of 
forty-one species. The great storm of June 10, 1902, destroyed 
many of these, but later plantings have more than replaced 
the losses in numbers and variety. 

"In summing up the services of Jesse W. Fell to the Normal 
University, we do not forget that the best part of it has not 
yet been told. In viewing this memorial that his friends have 
erected, we are not unmindful that its highest values are not 
those of the mason or of the brass founder, nor are they to 
be found in the taste and skill of the architect who planned 
the work, or of the artists who have designed the bronzes. 
They are to be found in the character of the man whose name 
this memorial bears and whose services it commemorates. 

"But Jesse Fell was not merely great in the excellence of 
his character, in his honesty, his unselfishness, his kind 
heartedness, his patriotism, as abstract qualities; he was pre- 
eminently a man of action. We honor him for what he did, 
both for the kind of enterprises he undertook and the spirit 
in which he wrought. Mr. Fell had faith in the future. He 
saw the great city of Bloomington in the straggling, unkempt 



324 

country village of eighty years ago; he saw in Normal the 
seat of a great educational institution; he saw in Illinois a 
real empire state, great in its natural resources, greater still 
in intellectual and moral worth, and he shaped his life in 
accordance with these visions. Some men called him vision- 
ary. Like all other seers, he merely lived in advance of his 
generation. His only mistakes seemed to have been in under- 
estimating the amount of time needed for the realization of 
his hopes. 

"The greatest indebtedness of the Normal University to 
Jesse Fell is the example of his life, his character and his 
worth. It is difficult to summarize in a few words the charac- 
ter of Jesse W. Fell. I have read the estimates placed upon 
him by more than a score of his contemporaries, the men who 
knew him well and were abundantly able to set forth their 
estimate of his character. They all testify to his superlative 
worth as a man and as a citizen. Yet it seems that no two 
have viewed his life from the same angle, nor have caught 
the same radiant light from the soul within. His most con- 
spicuous quality seems to have been his energy. While other 
men thought and planned and talked, Jesse Fell brought to 
pass. He possessed a geniusi for accomplishment, tireless 
energy, undaunted courage, and a persistence that was rarely 
unsuccessful. He was a born leader, skillful to plan, to organ- 
ize, to enlist aid and sympathy, to convince and persuade, to 
subdue opposition, to kindle in others the flame of his own 
enthusiasm. He was a born advocate, skillful yet fair to his 
opponents, more anxious to persuade them than to overwhelm 
them. 

"Others who knew him personally will speak at length of 
his personal characteristics. For me, it is enough to say in 
closing that this memorial has been erected in order that we 
may show to our children and to our children's children the 
type of man that we delight to honor, the citizen of whom we 
are justly proud." 

PRESIDENT JAMES ' ADDRESS. 

President Edmund J. James of the University of Illinois 
was not able to be present, but he prepared and sent a paper 
in which there were many references to incidents that might 
have passed by others. The paper was read by Prof. C. Wool- 



325 

bert of the University of Illinois. It was in part as follows : 

"Fellow Citizens: It was a little over fifty-three years ago 
that I first saw Jesse W. Fell. It was on occasion of a visit 
of my parents to the Illinois State Normal University who, in 
looking for a place to buy a farm and settle down perma- 
nently, as they expressed it, were especially concerned about 
the schools of the neighborhood. They had examined one or 
two farms north of Normal and were making a special visit 
to the Normal school to see whether the educational facilities 
offered there seemed to meet their desires as to the opportuni- 
ties for their children. I was tagging as a lad eight years 
old after my mother as she went into the primary room, then 
conducted by Miss Hammond, who afterwards became the 
wife of ,W. L. Pillsbury. As we came out on the porch on the 
south side of the Normal University building, Dr. Edwards, 
who was kindly showing us about, stretched his arm out in a 
sweeping way toward the south campus and said : ' The trees 
you see here have all been planted by the Honorable Jesse 
W. Fell. And there he is now, planting still others,' he said 
as he pointed toward a man superintending the planting of 
certain shrubs or small trees. 'He is sometimes called,' Dr. 
Edwards remarked to my mother, 'Jesse, the tree planter.' 

"My parents purchased a farm immediately north of 
Normal, where for ten years I lived, and from which for six 
years I trudged back and forth to school. Mr. Fell was a 
favorite of mine, as he was of all the children, so far as I 
know. He was kind to us and let us play without disturbance 
wherever he was working, provided we did not interfere too 
much with the progress of the work, and sometimes, I think, 
even when we did. I remember my mother's saying once that 
Mr. Fell was a real public benefactor, and I wondered what 
that was, and asked her what she meant. 'A public bene- 
factor,' she said, 'is a man who is doing things for the benefit 
of other people all the while, and especially for the benefit of 
the community in which he is living.' 

"I think there could be few better descriptions of Mr. Fell 
and his work than this. 

"I should like to emphasize on this occasion the service 
which this community is rendering to itself by this formal 
recognition of the great work which Mr. Fell did for it and 



326 

for the successive generations which will make up this com- 
munity in all the years to come. 

"Now, the process of civilization is not by any means an 
easy one, and every higher civilization is brought forth in 
pain and tears, and the human race tends steadily to fall 
behind unless efforts are continually put forth which involve 
blood and sweat. Histoiy has shown that in nearly^ every 
country and in nearly every time this work of standing, in 
season and out of season, for the forces which make for the 
uplift of the community, this standing for the right against 
the wrong, for the light against the darkness, for freedom 
against slavery, for justice over against injustice, for equal 
opportunity for all over against monopoly and slavery, has 
been the privilege and the burden of comparatively few mem- 
bers of the community — those men whom we call leaders, those 
men to whose call to advance we respond, those on whose 
leadership we recognize and follow. 

"Jesse AV. Fell was one of these men, and this community, 
thanks to his leadership and men like him, thanks to the orig- 
inal constitution of the community, made up of many different 
elements from many different parts of the country, has moved 
forward steadily to an ever completer life as one of these 
fundamental cells of national existence. 

"I am greatly pleased to see that this community recognizes 
the great significance of an event like this — namely, the erec- 
tion of a memorial in honor of the men who have done things 
worth while in the community, especially in honor of the men 
who saw the best things that were possible to the community 
and stirred up and spurred it on to realize these best things. 
It was not merely the work Mr. Fell did himself directly in 
planting these trees, in urging the improvement of the schools, 
in bringing one after another of the public agencies into more 
efficient action, but it was his work in stimulating other people 
to emulate his example. And one of the evidences that you 
have done this is not only to be seen in the external evidences 
which we can see around us in improved schools, in paved 
streets, in improved water supply, and in enlarged and im- 
proved churches, in adequate drainage, etc., etc., but one sees 
it also in this willingness to acknowledge an indebtedness to 
the men who are wise enough to lead such enterprises. 



327 

"I have often said to members of the Illinois Legislature 
when presenting to it the claims for the support of the insti- 
tution which I have the honor to represent here today, that 
the people of Illinois have vested for the time being in them 
the trusteeship for determining the level upon which the com- 
munity shall move. 

"In other words, the member of a legislature, the member 
of a city council, the member of a board of trustees, should 
be a projector. He should have visions, and those should be 
visions of the higher life of the community and the higher 
level upon which the community may walk, and the funda- 
mental purpose of his trusteeship is that he shall help the 
community up to those higher levels and hold it steadily and 
true to its higher levels. This was the work as Mr. Fell con- 
ceived it, and to which he gave unsparing industry and abso- 
lute devotion, and because you recognize that end, because 
you recognize, even though unconsciously, in large part, that 
somehow or other this is your interest projected in this large 
way to this seer and prophet, you are willing to honor him 
by this beautiful memorial. He cares nothing about it, of 
course. His family in a few years will care nothing about it. 
It will not be long until everyone will have passed away who 
ever saw Mr. Fell, or who ever saw anybody who ever saw 
him, or spoke to him, and the personal element will disappear 
as the years go on, but this monument will ever stand here 
to remind the boys and girls of this community, as they play 
about its foundations— the men and women who pass by — 
that here was a man who deserved well of his community ; and 
they will be led by the existence of this monument to ask what 
he did and w r hy and how, and the story will ever again be told 
to bring new inspiration and new life into each succeeding 
generation. 

"Monuments of this sort are erected not to flatter living 
men, but to call the attention of the boys and girls of each 
successive generation to the things that are most worth while 
in the lives of the members of their own community; to the 
things that men will be most grateful for ; to the things upon 
which the community will lay the most weight; to the things 
that men will think about after one has passed out. 

"Monuments of this sort help us to teach in a concrete and 
direct way to our children what are the really worth while 



328 

things in the development of a community and a nation, and 
so I have always been in favor of seeing them erected in honor 
of men who have done really great and useful things. It is 
an honor to Mr. Fell that the people of this generation ; that 
you, standing about here, few of whom knew him personally, 
few of whom could really have had any conception of the 
largeness of the man's mind and activities, erect this monu- 
ment to him. It is a much more significant, much more hope- 
ful, and to my mind much more useful service which this 
memorial will do by virtue of the fact that it is an honor to 
the community which has raised it, for you honor yourselves 
far more than you honor him in the events of this day. 

"From the contemplation of this gateway, let the little boy 
and girl learn the humble lesson of picking up the papers and 
other rubbish which are flying over the streets, which they 
perhaps have themselves thrown there. Let the citizen living 
in a bumble cottage with a few square feet about it realize that 
as he keeps that lot, as he improves that lot, he is doing a duty 
by his community and by his fellowmen that will help raise 
the standard of life in the community as a whole. Let every 
man of influence and power and wealth and resources in the 
community recognize that it is a part of his business to work 
to improve these conditions under which the life of this com- 
munity must be carried on; that it is a part of his business 
to see that the schools are improved, that the churches are 
supported, that the public institutions of all kinds are made 
as efficient for their purpose as they can possibly be made. 
Let the member of the city council have borne in upon him 
the conviction that a public office is a public trust, and that 
the man who violates in any way the interest of the community 
for any purpose whatever, whether it is in violation of the 
law or not, is a scoundrel, is an unworthy citizen, one who 
ought not to walk in the shadow or come into the same street 
where a monument has been erected to such a man as Jesse 
W. Fell. With such a spirit, with such a life, we may be sure 
that this primal cell of our great republic can give an example 
in its local health which all other similar cells of the nation 
might follow." 

President John W. Cook of the Northern Illinois Normal 
School spoke at length on matters which he had known and 



329 

seen during his personal observations of Jesse W. Fell. He 
said, in part: 

''Memorial structures are the efforts of a grateful people 
to celebrate in imperishable material the virtues of those who 
have wrought well for their kind. They are an endeavor to 
keep active and beneficent in the lives of men those wholesome 
and regenerating principles that were the springs of action 
of the characters in whose honor and whose memory they are 
erected. 

"We are met here today to give meaning to this graceful 
entrance to these beautiful grounds. If the words we shall 
say could, by some art of the magician, be an open book for 
the passerby, its significance would be for the aspiring and 
sensitive mind an evangel, for we are to tell the story of a 
man whose supreme ambition was to promote justice through- 
out the land. He sought the freedom of the slave from the 
cruel tyranny that gave the lie to our fundamental political 
principle. He championed the cause of freedom and tolera- 
tion in religious belief. He defended the sacred privilege of 
freedom of speech when the cause that he regarded as the 
noblest in the annals of mankind was attacked. He fought 
the battle for the care of the orphan of the man who had given 
his life for his country. He built about the community of his 
love the high wall of protection against the tempting devil of 
drink. He fostered with liberal hand the institutions that 
make for the rule of reason in the world. He fought with 
relentless energy corruption in high places and in all places. 
He sought no public recognition and aspired to no place of 
honor. He was content to fight for the good cause in his own 
way and with no ulterior end to subserve. Such a character is 
rare enough to merit especial recognition and to have dedi- 
cated to his memory a perpetual reminder of his virtues. 

"And first of all, I wish to say that I know of no place more 
fitting for his memorial than here. Beside this ever flowing 
and inspiring spring of life, where youth is breaking the seals 
of futurity and forecasting high destiny and striving for its 
ample realization, let an indestructible reminder of his career 
defy the ruthless hand of time. As the years shall come and 
go and the long processions of the young shall pass through 
this noble gateway, let them receive a new and perpetual bap- 
tism of that generous spirit which is aptly characterized by 



330 

his immortal friend— 'With malice toward none, with charity 
for all' And let there be a fitting volume writ in simple phrase 
that shall tell of him and of his gracious life, and on each re- 
curring birthday of the institution that he did so much to 
found and foster, let his name be spoken so those who go out 
to help to make the new and better commonwealth shall keep 
his spirit in the transforming energy of their lives. 

"You would like to know about his personal appearance. 
He was of medium height, spare of figure, and with a face full 
of intelligence and light. You have become familiar with it 
as it is portrayed by his picture, that hangs in the reception 
room of the main building. He was the most industrious of 
men and Judge Davis declared him to be the most energetic 
man that he had ever known. With this estimate I am in entire 
agreement. Even in his walk there was a slight inclination 
forward, as if he could not keep his body apace with the plans 
which his busy brain was ever organizing. He it was who 
carried out the original plans for the decoration of the cam- 
pus. It was a treeless plain before he began his work upon 
it. There could not have been found in all its area a riding 
whip for a horseman. He prepared for it by circling the root 
of the superb evergreens with which his home place was 
crowded, and when the clump of solidly attached earth was 
ready for removal he personally superintended the transfer 
of these great trees to the already prepared field. He had 
zealously cultivated it in the preceding year, so that every- 
thing was in readiness. At this task he worked with more 
physical energy than any of his helpers. I never heard of one 
of the transplanted trees that disappointed him. In conse- 
quence, the campus was transformed in a single year from a 
bare prairie to a place of beauty. 

"Indeed, so intense was his physical activity that he found 
it difficult in his more advanced life to induce his body to take 
the requisite amount of sustenance to keep the fires burning 
hot enough for his demands, and I recall a conversation in 
which he related his annoyance that the machinery, upon 
which he had been accustomed to rely with such complete con- 
fidence, would not steam in harmony with his expectations. 
And this physical energy was but the concomitant of his men- 
tal energy. He was afire with enthusiasm. He subordinated 
all of his fine endowment to the leadership of his splendid will. 



331 * ~ 

And all who came within the range of his influence caught the 
contagious inspiration. Was he a visionary? It never seemed 
so to me, for his large plans, with few exceptions, rounded to 
noble consummation. I am quite convinced that the one dis- 
appointment of his life was the failure of the plan to secure 
at Normal the location of the University of Illinois. It has 
always been my understanding that the otter of this county 
far surpassed that of any other. What it was that defeated 
his undertaking I have never learned. I well remember that 
historic contest and the alternating hopes and fears that filled 
the minds of our people. 

"Mr. Fell is aptly described by the familiar phrase, 'a gen- 
tleman of the old school.' By this is meant that he was char- 
acterized by a courtliness of manner quite unusual in these 
less chivalrous days. He was a careful observer of the canons 
of etiquette and emplo}-ed them in his relations to others with 
strict impartiality. Politeness has been defined as 'the cere- 
monial form in which we celebrate the equality of all men in 
the substance of their humanity.' To be a human being was 
to win his respect and to receive the homage he conceived to 
be due a human being. I have seen him rise in a crowded 
street car and offer his seat to a poor negro woman, with the 
irresistible grace that was his wont. That she was a woman 
was enough to win his recognition as entitled to the conven- 
tional courtesies of polite society. And with him they were 
far from being formal ceremonies, for there was always shin- 
ing through them the knightly spirit of the true cavalier. His 
kindness of heart was always evident, and he was scrupulously 
careful lest he should inflict pain when dealing with the 
humblest. 

"As a writer he was unusually engaging. He had the art 
of speech when his pen was in his hand. When I knew him 
he shrank from public addresses, but earlier in his life he was 
a rapid, terse and forceful speaker. His letters best illus- 
trated his gracefulness of expression. 

"One cannot but linger fondly over these memories, and 
before turning to other aspects of his rich and varied life I 
must be permitted to quote briefly from his loving friend of 
many years, former President Richard Edwards. In the ad- 
dress which Dr. Edwards delivered at the funeral in Normal 
Hall, he said: 'Let me begin by saying that Mr. Fell was an 



332 

honest man. He had so many other high qualities that we are 
in danger of not observing this. * * * He who has been 
through the intensest activities of life, through those scenes 
where selfishness, duplicity, corruption are most apt to have 
full sway, and who has come out of it all with a maiden sen- 
sitiveness to anything like unfairness or dishonesty, deserves 
our esteem. * * * He kept his hand clean and his heart 
pure. He committed no false or foul act. He entertained no 
debasing or unworthy thought. So sensitive was Mr. Fell to 
this principle of rigid honesty that I have known him to insist 
upon making good pecuniary losses sustained by his friends 
through the dishonesty of other men, because he had been the 
means of making the parties acquainted with each other." 

"To this testimony of Dr. Edwards I may add that any 
indiscretion on the part of men in public life made hot his 
indignation. He would have none of them henceforth. There 
are men still living in Bloomington who were members of a 
political convention held there on a day almost fifty years ago, 
in which instructions were sought for the county delegation 
to assist in the renomination of a public official. I may add 
that I was the candidate's cordial supporter, as I was during 
his long subsequent official career. Mr. Fell, however, be- 
lieved that he had broken faith with some of his friends and 
opposed him with such vigor that he succeeded in securing the 
adjournment of the convention after a scene that defies de- 
scription. His opposition defeated the desired renomination 
and resulted in the temporary retirement of the candidate 
from public life. Prominent in that historic struggle were a 
few men whose names are household words in this community. 
Their number was small, but under the rallying enthusiasm 
of Mr. Fell their effectiveness was irresistible. 

"In further view of this aspect of Mr. Fell's character, Hon. 
James S. Ewing, at the memorial meeting of the Bloomington 
Bar Association, in an exquisite tribute to his memory, said: 
'It is a good thing to have known one man whose life was 
without spot or blemish; against whose honor no man ever 
spoke; who had no skeleton in his closet; whose life was as 
open as the day, and whose death comes to a whole community 
as a personal sorrow.' 

"Similarly, Hon. Joseph W. Fifer: 'Jesse Fell was one of 
the moral heroes. He was the product of our free American in- 



333 

.stitutions, and I am proud that he was an American citizen. 
11 lis pure, manly and unselfish life will help to teach the world 
the only true basis of a lasting thing, which consists in doing 
good and the making of others happy.' 

"And now that I have tried in these brief minutes to tell 
you something of his personality, you will anticipate his 
family that had been identified with the Society of Friends 
from its origin about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
That he would ally himself with the anti-slavery party was 
thus a foregone conclusion. Like men of his kind, he was an 
ardent admirer of Henry Clay, with whom he became person- 
ally acquainted and whose name he perpetuated in his own 
family by conferring it upon his only son. 

"Although bitterly opposed to slavery, Mr. Fell had not 
identified himself actively with the Abolition party. 

"And now I am going to make a claim for Mr. Fell that I 
have not thus far come upon. I cannot resist the conviction 
that there originated with him an idea that made him an his-, 
toric character and thus identified him personally and poten- 
tially with tremendous events that were world wide in their 
consequences. 

"Here are some simple statements whose correctness is 
amply verified by Hon. Owen T. Reeves, Hon. Adlai E. Steven- 
son and Hon. James S. Ewing. 

"On September 12, 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas came 
to Bloomington to make a public address. He stopped at the 
old National Hotel, at the corner of Front and Main streets. 
Lawrence Weldon, then engaged at the practice of law at 
Clinton, came up to hear the speech and went with Mr. Ewing 
and Mr. Stevenson to call upon the Senator. Shortly after, 
Mr. Lincoln, who had probably come up from Springfield for 
the same purpose, came in to pay his respects to the honored 
jSfaest. After a brief conversation Mr. Lincoln withdrew. 
Shortly after, Mr. Fell entered the room and was cordially 
erected by Judge Douglas, for they were old acquaintances. 
The tide of conversation ran along in the usual way for a 
time, but Mr. Fell had an especial purpose to subserve. He 
therefore said to the judge that there was much feeling over 
the question of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and that many of 
Mr. Lincoln's friends would be greatly pleased to hear a joint 



discussion between himself and Air. Lincoln on these new and 
vital questions that were so vitally interesting the people. 

"Judge Douglas seemed much annoyed, and after hesitat- 
ing a moment, said: 'No, I won't do it. I come to Chicago. 
I am met by an old- line Abolitionist. I come to the cen- 
ter of the State and am met by an old-line Whig. I go_ to 
the south end of the State and am met by an administration 
Democrat. I can't hold the Abolitionists responsible for what 
the Whig says; I can't hold the Whigs responsible for what 
the Abolitionists say, and I can't hold either responsible for 
what the Democrats* say. It looks like " dogging" a man over 
the State. This is my meeting. The people came here to hear 
me and I want to talk to them.' Mr. Fell said: 'Well, judge, 
perhaps you may be right; perhaps some other time it may be 
arranged. ' And so it was that Mr. Fell did not carry his point 
for that meeting. 

"But Mr. Fell did not give up the idea of the joint discus- 
sion. It was his pertinacious following of the scheme that 
gave to the country that memorable series of illuminating 
addresses, unsurpassed in all the annals of debate, in which 
the supreme question, the question of fate, in the forum of a 
nation, was held up to the reason and the consciences of men. 

"Who doubts for a moment the effect of those debates upon 
the destiny of Abraham Lincoln? 

"I cannot resist the conclusion that this remarkable train 
of sequences logically followed Mr. Fell's resolute purpose, 
as foreshadowed in the brief incident that I have related. 

"But again. After the first debate at Ottawa, Lincoln came 
to Bloomington for a conference with friends from all parts 
of the State. Judge Reeves is responsible for the statement 
that Mr. Fell was present at that conference, as we should 
fully expect. At the Ottawa meeting Judge Douglas had pro- 
pounded to Mr. Lincoln a number of questions to be answered 
at Freeport. Mr. Lincoln told his friends that he should give 
an answer to those questions, and he also told them that he 
proposed to propound certain questions to Judge Douglas at 
that meeting. Among them was this one: 'Can the people of 
a territory, in any legal way, against the consent of any citi- 
zen of the United States, exclude slavery from a territory 
prior to its admission as a state?' 



335 

"The members of the conference saw clearly that if Judge 
Douglas should answer this question in the affirmative he 
would certainly be elected to the Senate, for there were many 
Republicans favorably disposed to him because of his attitude 
toward the administration. It was believed that he would so 
answer. Lincoln saw that although such an answer would 
close his hope for the coveted senatorship, the South would 
never nominate so uncertain a candidate in 1860. In conse- 
quence the conference therefore protested against the sub- 
mission of such an interrogative and voted against it with a 
single exception. That exception, I need not say, was Mr. 
Fell. Did his stand in the premises account in any way for 
Lincoln's reply to the conference: 'Judge Douglas may in- 
deed defeat me for the Senate, but he will at the same time 
defeat himself for the Presidency in 1860, and that is a far 
greater issue.' 

"Prophetic words! They were verified to the letter. Did 
Jesse Fell's support of Lincoln's plan fall into the casual 
series again? Who can answer? 

"Did this modest man ever allow himself to trace the con- 
clusions of the successive syllogisms to the final conclusion? 
Dr. Edwards besought him to write a frank and free autobiog- 
raphy and he really began it, but his modesty soon got the 
better of his resolution and he gave it up, declaring that he 
could not bring himself to the task. If he had only been will- 
ing to write a book of "Recollections" what revelations we 
might have had! 

"I said, a few minutes ago, that he championed the cause 
of freedom and toleration in religious matters. This he did 
especially in the part he took in the organization of what 
was long known as the Free Congregational Church of Bloom- 
ington. 

"Which of two of the major differences that formerly drove 
sharp lines of social cleavage among men arouses the bitterer 
controversies, religion or politics? We of the present know 
little of the implacableness of the hostility which formerly 
existed between men who were in separate political camps and 
who affirmed belief in separate religious creeds. 

''Imagine, then, the introduction into the institutional life 
of Bloomington of an organization that seemed to be indiffer- 
ent to a body of doctrine that was regarded by the great 



336 

majority of men and women in the west as indispensable to 
give validity to any rightful claim to the name religious. Such 
a phenomenon appeared in July, 1859. I have not time now 
to trace its history. Of course* the Fells, Jesse and Kersey, 
were there. Let it suffice to say that an organization was 
effected and that Charles G. Ames, predestined to a notable 
career, was called to conduct the Sabbath services of the Free 
Congregational Society. 

"Of course, Mr. Ames would speak his mind on the slavery 
question. He did so, and some of his parish were so offended 
that they withdrew. But Mr. Ames was incapable of bitter- 
ness. While he preferred that they should stay, he could not 
deprive himself of freedom of speech to retain them, for free- 
dom was the principle upon which the society was founded. 

"Before his nomination Mr. Lincoln dined with Mr. Ames. 
The "Irrepressible Conflict" was thoroughly discussed, Mr. 
Ames taking very advanced grounds. Upon leaving, Mr. Lin- 
coln said: 'I am as strong an anti-slavery man as you are, but 
I recognize some practical difficulties in dealing with it that 
you do not seem to see.' 

"I am deeply conscious of the need of brevity, but I must 
be permitted to relate a single additional incident in this con- 
nection. One of the successors of Mr. Ames was Mr. Ellis, 
whose pastoral relations were very abruptly discontinued. He 
was a strong Abolitionist, and was so extreme as to have been 
one of those who volunteered to attempt to rescue John Brown 
from his Virginia captors. On April 23, 1865, when the coun- 
try was speechless with grief over the tragic ending of the 
life of the great President, Mr. Ellis preached a sermon in 
Phoenix Hall in which he took occasion to criticise Mr. Lincoln 
in severe terms. 

"It is easy to imagine the effect upon the Bloomington 
audience of such an address, and especially at such a time. In 
the hall were many of Mr. Lincoln's personal friends, men 
who were bound to him not alone by political ties, but also 
by the bonds of warm affection. Here and there were soldiers 
recently from the front, whose veneration for the murdered 
chief magistrate was greater than for any other character in 
American annals. Here was Mr. Jesse Fell, the man to whom 
in 1860 Mr. Lincoln had addressed his autobiography, and one 
can possibly imagine how his heart must have been wrung by 



337 

80 ruthless and so utterly foolish a violation of the canons 
of the most ordinary common sense. The speaker was hissed 
and hooted, and escaped by the back stairs to a drug store near 
by, from which he was rescued by Mrs. William Lewis, a 
resident of Bloomington, and taken to her home. On the suc- 
ceeding Monday the address was published in full and may 
be found, as may Mr. Ames' funeral sermon, in the files of 
The Pantagraph. As opportunity was thus offered to read 
exactly what Mr. Ellis has said. 

"But nothing could induce Mr. Fell to do violence to his 
principle of free speech and a free pulpit. At the next meet- 
ing of the society he offered a series of resolutions denounc- 
ing the interferences with the speaker's explicit right to be 
heard, however unpalatable his utterances might be. This 
single illustration of his fidelity, under the most trying cir- 
cumstances, to a principle which he regarded as a fundamental 
necessity in a free country, lifted him in my esteem to the 
serene heights of supreme manhood. 

"No time remains to give other illustrations of those quali- 
ties which mark him off so distinctly and so superbly. Yonder 
on the hill is the home of those wards of the State who, or- 
phaned by their fathers' devotion to the country, were de- 
prived of that parental care which is the due of every child 
of our common humanity. It is there because of his philan- 
thropy and patriotic zeal. Here rises the noble buildings of 
an institution to which thousands of grateful hearts turn with 
the most tender emotions. He wrought the deed, far more 
than any one else, that brought it here. We walk between 
these double rows of trees that he planted. One day he told 
me why he was impelled to adopt this particular plan. It was 
because he had happened to be in old Germantown, Pennsyl- 
vania, in the heat of a summer day. As he walked beneath 
the over-arching branches that met above his head, he deter- 
mined to go to his new home and imitate the thoughtfulness 
of an unknown benefactor. 

"That I knew him, and had at least some modest share in 
his regard, has been one of the greatest gratifications of my 
life. Among my treasures is a memento which he ordered sent 
to me as he lay upon his couch of pain from which he realized 
he should never aiise. Thank God for all of His heroes. They 
lift the world to the arching sky and leave an open door be- 



338. 

tween the earth and the heavens. He was one of that great 
company and lived his life of simple devotion here in our own 
little community. Great souls need no hilltops for their homes 
in order that they may be singled out as the benefactors of 
mankind. 

''His memory is a precious treasure, and as the new genera- 
tions come and go this memorial structure will retell the in- 
estimable worth of this simple, unostentatious man." 

Captain J. H. Burnham spoke briefly, because of the late- 
ness of the hour. He touched upon incidents of Mr. Fell's 
life which the other speakers had passed. 

Captain Burnham 's subject was, ''A Philanthropist of 
Mighty Vision." "Jesse W. Fell was a lover of mankind and 
a man of mighty vision. He loved his family and was never 
happier than when in their midst, planning and working for 
their future welfare. He wisely planned for the benefit of his 
adopted town, for the County of McLean, for the State of 
Illinois, for the nation, for the freedom of the slaves, and 
always labored for the good of all mankind. 

"As early as 1834, when for two years he had lived in 
Bloomington as its first lawyer, he spent nearly a whole ses- 
sion of the Illinois Legislature at Vandalia, and, almost un- 
aided, prevented the western tier of townships from being 
sliced off from McLean County in the interest of a new 
county seat. His clear vision told him that only thus could 
the new town of Bloomington retain its prestige and the new 
County of McLean preserve its grand outline, and the service 
he then performed has never yet been sufficiently appreciated. 

"In 1845, when the State of Illinois was in imminent danger 
of repudiating its enormous bonded indebtedness, and was 
about to be driven into hopeless bankruptcy by incompetent 
leaders, Mr. Fell published an open letter to the Senate and 
House of Representatives, boldly advocating the imposition 
of taxes, and he eloquently urged the policy of re-establishing 
the State's financial credit upon a sound and reliable basis. 
The plan which he recommended was followed in the main. 
His vision told him that this State's magnificent agricultural 
domain could only thus be put in the way of its subsequent 
wonderful development. 

"In the various periods of railroad building in 1838 to 1881, 
he was always a vigorous leader. He was either a projector 



339 

or a railroad official in every scheme for a north and south 
or east and west railroad in this vicinity. He secured a large 
portion of the right of way for the Chicago & Alton railroad 
from Biooniington to Joliet, and was the chief agent in the 
donation of the machine shop site in 1853, and thus secured 
for Biooniington the immense advantages which have fol- 
lowed, and which will no doubt permanently continue. 

"While we are considering some of these, almost marvelous 
achievements of this great man, we may reflect that no doubt 
Ills active and vigorous mind contemplated a project which 
was never carried out to a successful issue. His vision was so 
broad and his mind dwelt so intensely on benefiting his fellow 
men that we can well conceive that he must often have felt the 
want of practical co-operation in some of his most heartfelt 
projects. 

"Mr. Fell once told me that at a very early day, when 
wearily riding on horseback along the line of the present Illi- 
nois Central railroad in company with General Gridley, they 
discussed the possible luxurious improvements likely to be 
enjoyed by future travelers along the iron rails which they 
hoped would follow their route. How pleasant must have been 
his reflection in after life when all, and more than all, that his 
prophetic vision had predicted actually came to pass in the 
lifetime of this earnest and brilliant railroad advocate. 

''The present generation needs to be told, on this and other 
appropriate occasions, of Mr. Fell's almost superhuman exer- 
tions in behalf of all suggestions and plans for the advance- 
ment of the religious, educational, moral, agricultural and 
community development of his neighborhood, the county, the 
state, the nation and the whole world in which he lived, but 
this paper can touch only a few of his characteristic efforts 
in the directions indicated. 

/'The man who planned our Normal campus, who planted 
with bis own hands many of its grandly spreading trees upon 
a broad and almost desolate prairie, and who planted thou- 
sands of others in the streets of Normal — twelve thousand of 
them before Normal was anything but North Biooniington— 
110 doubt had a vision of what their noble grandeur would be 
in fifty or sixty years, and perhaps believed that some of them 
would survive for centuries, and in their final enormous 
growth in this rich soil would carry forward to future observ- 



340 

ers some remembrance of their origin. But the same man, in 
giving names of trees to no less than thirteen of the streets 
of Normal, perhaps never realized in his own modest mind 
that he was thus preserving for all time a most beautiful and 
touching reminder of his affectionate love for the town he had 
founded. Normal is truly indebted to the charming visions 
which must have occupied the founder's thoughts during this 
labor of love for coming generations. 

"In the early part of 1867, when the grand effort was being 
made in this county to secure the location of the Industrial 
University, which is now the Illinois State University at 
Champaign, Mr. Fell's efforts were little short of miraculous. 
Very few of us realized the actual possibilities of the univer- 
sity idea, but from the success which had then already been 
exhibited at the Michigan State University at Ann Arbor, it 
is evident that Mr. Fell had in mind almost a complete vision 
of what is now to be seen at Urbana and Champaign. Had 
that institution been located here and had it been properly 
fostered, what a boom Normal real estate would have secured ! 
That it would have been fostered here was proved by the fact 
that notwithstanding Mr. Fell's bitter disappointment which 
it took years to heal, he nobly seconded the effort made in 
1870 to induce the State constitutional convention, then in ses- 
sion, to provide in the new instrument, for very liberal perma- 
nent assistance to be given to the great institution. Mr. Fell 
grandly and magnanimously took the lead in this effort. 

"We ought to give a brief notice of Mr. Fell's efforts to 
have this State adopt the Maine liquor law at the June elec- 
tion in 1855, and we must not forget the remarkable steps he 
took in 1867, to perpetually prevent the sale of liquor in this 
town of Normal. 

",We shall also find that there has been running through 
all of Mr. Fell's life efforts a never-ending thread of elevated 
thought and action in behalf of great public questions. He 
never forgot the poor and needy, and by his wise advice and 
counsel he placed many a poor man in the way of future com- 
fort and competence. Some of these were ex-slaves, for whom 
he had a peculiar sympathy. From the very first he was 
active in his opposition to slavery, and gave most effective 
aid to the great cause of freedom through his wonderful as- 
sistance in bringing Abraham Lincoln's abilities to the notice 



341 

of the people, both before and after 1858. Ke was enthusiastic 
in advocating Lincoln's nomination and election to the presi- 
dency. It is the candid opinion of good judges that no single 
individual in the United States performed more important 
services, everything considered, in bringing about the election 
of him who has proved to be the nation's idol. 

"The statements embodied in imperishable bronze upon the 
tablet dedicated here today are most admirably calculated to 
impress and inform future generations as to the most import- 
ant characteristics of this great man— this noble-hearted phil- 
anthropist — although it will be almost impossible for those 
who never had the good fortune of his personal acquaintance 
to realize the grandeur and great modesty of his character. 
It appears proper to add that such was the simplicity of the 
man that we may well believe he never anticipated he would 
be deemed worthy of such public remembrance as has been 
manifested today, or had any idea of its possible occurrence." 

Mrs. D. C. Smith, as president of the Woman's Improve- 
ment League, presented the gateway to Prof. 0. L. Manches- 
ter, as mayor of the town of Normal. She said : 

"As president of the Woman's Improvement League of 
Normal, the pleasing task is mine to present to the town of 
Normal, through you, its mayor, the stone gateway just 
erected, at the east entrance to this campus in memory of 
Jesse W. Fell. 

"It is a tribute of love from his many friends, far and near, 
who admired him while he was with them and who now honor 
his memory. 

"The bronze medallion portrait upon one of the main posts 
is a gift from the grandchildren, and is dedicated by them 
with affection to the grandfather whom they knew and loved. 

"The League is exceedingly pleased to know that the tow r n 
has authorized you to present this gateway for perpetual 
preservation to the Illinois State Normal University, thus 
linking together the university and the town in further mem- 
ory of him who was the friend and lover of both. 

"The members of the League feel a sense of pride, pardon- 
able, I trust, in the fact that they have been permitted to bear 
some humble part in the erection of this memorial gateway 
and they cherish the hope that in the years to come, many who 
look upon it and pause to study the portrait and read the 



342 

inscription it bears, may be inspired with Jesse W. Fell's 
rare public spirit and be moved to walk in his ways." 

The closing addresses were given briefly by Prof. 0. L. 
Manchester, for the town of Normal, and by Mr. Charles L. 
Capen, who accepted the gateway on behalf of the school and 
spoke feelingly of the occasion. 

Mr. Capen had known Jesse Fell. He spoke of him in words 
of reverence; retraced, in some brief measure, the words of 
other speakers and added his own thoughts as a final word to 
what had already been said. Mr. Capen has the interests of 
the Normal University much at heart, and in his appreciation 
of the memorial gateway there was the feeling that its value 
was great as an inspiration to the younger generations who 
would pass through it, look at the bas relief, and read the 
words that touch the deepest chord in the life of the honored 
man. 

The handsome decorations were presented by A. M. Augus- 
tine, and he was assisted in placing them by John E. Dodge, 
Dudley Lufkin and Thomas Billings. 

The American flag used on the platform was the property 
of the Sons of Veterans' Camp of Normal. The new Illinois 
flag was also used. It was presented to Hon. Lewis G. Ste- 
venson by Mrs. George A. Lawrence of Galesburg, and by him 
loaned for the occasion. 

The gateway was designed by O. C. Simonds of Chicago, 
and the artist has been very successful in creating a design 
that while simple is most impressive. 

The bas relief of Jesse W. Fell occupies the front side of the 
column at the right of the gateway. This sculptured brass 
was made by Theodore Spicer Simson of New York. He also 
produced the tablet which will occupy a corresponding posi- 
tion on the column on the left side of the gateway. On this 
tablet are inscribed the words : 



343 

To the Founder of Normal, 

Jesse W. Fell, 

Friend of Education, 

Lover and Planter of Trees, 

Philanthropist of Mighty Vision, 

This Gate is Dedicated by 

The "Woman's Improvement League 

and His Many Friends. 

The lanterns which surmount the center pillars are striking 
parts of the whole. They are massive bronze lanterns of un- 
usual design and were made by the Victor S. Pearlman Com- 
pany of Chicago, and they harmonize with the entire design 
for the gateway. 



344 



Celebration of the Seventieth Anniversary of the Founding 
of Bishop Mill Colony, 



On September 23, 1916, at Bishop Hill, Kenry County, Illi- 
nois, was held a home-coming and reunion in commemoration 
of the seventieth anniversary of the founding of the famous 
Swedish communistic colony, called Bishop Hill. Some of the 
colony buildings are in an excellent state of preservation and 
are in use. 

Here one could see the old church just as it was in days 
when services were held there under the guidance of Eric 
Jansen,* the founder of the colony. The old seats pre just as 
good now as they were the day they were built. They are all 
of real black walnut and were made to stand the wear of 
years. The altar and all of the properties of the church are 
there intact. For this festive occasion the relics, all that 
could be gathered for the day, had been crowded into the 
upper floor of the church building and were viewed with much 
interest. The paintings of the early settlers, all done by the 
late Olaf Krans, were re-arranged for the occasion, and his 
interpretations of the early life and character of those who 
made Bishop Hill famous were of peculiar interest on this, 
the seventieth anniversary. 

Some of the old colony buildings were thrown open for the 
day and the one main building, wherein lived over 100 families 
at one time, found many admirers. 

The old Steeple building and the clock, made years and 
years ago in Sweden, and which is still running, were of more 
than passing interest to those gathered there for the day. 

At 10:30 Jacobson's orchestra played a selection, and then 
the Rev. A. G. Peterson of Bishop Hill offered prayer. A 
song by the chorus, and then P. J. Stoneberg, who is the chief 
historian of the colony, gave the address of welcome. Mr. 
Stoneberg said, in part: 

''Seventy years have passed since founding of the Bishop 
Hill colony. It was in July, 1846, that Eric Jansen, together 

*Eric Jansen, borr December 19. 1808, in Bishopskulla Parrish, Upland, 
Sweden; died May 13, 1850. He was shot by John Root. 



345 

with his family and a few others, arrived at Victoria. It was 
in the following August that two land purchases were made 
at Red Oak Grove, in Henry County, while in September the 
land was bought upon which the community was located. The 
colony was named Bishop's Hill in honor of the parish where 
Kric Jansen was born. But afterwards the 's' was omitted 
from the name. During its eventful existence the Bishop Hill 
colony formed an important part in the development of west- 
ern Illinois. A half century and more has passed since the 
dissolution of the colony. The men and women who were in 
their prime at that time have nearly all passed away from 
the scenes of their labors and are resting peacefully beneath 
the sod. 

"When the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the 
colony was celebrated twenty years ago, there was still a con- 
siderable number left of the early pioneers. Since then the 
majority have passed away." 

Captain Eric Johnson, who is the son of the founder of the 
colony, and who is now residing in Clearwater, California, 
responded to the address of welcome. Mr. Johnson had come 
from his California home for the day. 

President John Root acted as master of ceremonies of 
the day. 

For several hours people were given another chance to visit 
the old buildings. Several people who are well informed on 
the points of interest at Bishop Hill were there to give a little 
assistance to the onlooker, and a complete explanation of 
everything was made these people. 

The old park in Bishop Hill, itself a point of interest, be- 
cause of use it was put to in the early days. The old trees, 
some of them planted by the original colonists, formed a very 
pretty background for the setting where the services were to 
be held. The modern speaker's stand in the center of the 
park is about the only adornment the park has that shows the 
work of the present generation. The old settlers' monument 
standing in the park brings to mind all of the deeds of valor 
of the former residents of Bishop Hill. No more fitting place 
could have been selected for the holding of the exercises than 
the park, surrounded as it is by all of the old buildings. 



346 

The afternoon session began at 2 :00 o'clock. The orchestra 
gave a selection and then the reports of the various commit- 
tees were read. P. J. Stoneberg read the necrology record 
of the colony. 

The main address of the afternoon, which was to have been 
given by Attorney C. A. Trimble of Princeton, had to be elim- 
inated because of the sickness of the speaker. Hon. Henry 
S. Henchen, cashier of the State Bank of Chicago, spoke. Mr. 
Henchen is the grandson of a very close friend of the founder 
of the colony. 

Captain Eric Johnson appeared on the afternoon program 
and gave a short discourse, telling of his early recollections 
of the colony and colony life ; of the things that had prompted 
the break with the mother country and which led to the found- 
ing of Bishop Hill. Captain Johnson's address was very 
interesting. 

ADDRESS OF HON. HENRY S. HENSCHEN. 

"We are gathered here today as representatives of the 
second and third generations, to lay a wreath of tribute on 
the graves of the first born here, as the connecting links be- 
tween an ardous past and, let us hope, an honorable future; 
here, as Americans by birth to honor the memory of our par- 
ents, Americans by choice; here, to learn for ourselves and to 
teach our children the history and traditions of our fathers; 
here, to remind each other of that little country, with its 
mighty history, of which our fathers knew so much and our 
children so little; here, to acknowledge that blood is thicker 
than water, and that whatever our circumstances or prospects 
may be today, we are in spirit and flesh the sons and daughters 
of the Olsons and the Jansens of a generation ago. 

"To sketch the history and character of the Bishop Hill 
colony is not the task allotted to me. Eric Jansen was one 
of those unique, rugged prophets, such as John Knox, John 
Wesley, D. L. Moody. William Booth and Billy Sunday, of 
whom the unregenerate shall ever stand in need. To the 
world, a misguided fanatic; to his followers, a God-given 
prophet. He founded the denomination at 36; became at 33 
the pioneer of an immigration from Sweden which has cost 
the mother country millions of her sons and daughters; and 
died at the age of 42, having left his mark on two continents. 



347 

Those who knew him best were willing to stake their lives, 
their fortunes and their homes on their faith that he was in 
the right. Who are we, to say that he was wrong? 

"He was a leader, and here where lie led his followers, we 
have assembled seventy years later to commemorate him and 
them. 

"When we were assembled here twenty years ago at the 
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Bishop Hill, some of 
the pioneers in this movement were still here, among whom 
was that patriarch and fellow leader and preceptor of Eric 
Jansen — Jonas Olson, then 94 years of age. If he is here 
today, it is in spirit alone. 

"To me it is a source of great pride and satisfaction to 
have the privilege of meeting and listening to the honored 
son of an honored father. Himself a part of the history of 
this colony almost from its inception, Captain Eric Johnson, 
patriot, publicist and public servant. He grew up an Ameri- 
can boy, and our hearts beat more quickly when we remember 
that when the call to arms came he answered the call of his 
adopted country. During his long and varied career he, son 
of a patriot, has in public and private life reflected credit 
upon our nationality. It was my privilege to introduce today 
to Captain Eric Johnson a great-grandson of a man who was 
a friend and defender of Captain Johnson's father. 

'"When, six or eight years before the time Eric Jansen left 
Sweden, he was persecuted, imprisoned and suffered for right- 
eousness' sake, one man was to him a tower of strength, a 
shield and defender. This man was a judge in Upsula, later 
a member of Parliament, and he early realized the injustice 
and inhumanity of the laws surviving from the Middle Ages, 
which made it a crime to worship God in public gatherings 
not under the auspices of the Established Church of Sweden. 

"Against these laws Eric Jansen and his followers became 
chronic offenders, and this justice-loving judge became their 
counsel, advocate and mediator in courts before the King's 
Cabinet, and even before the King himself. He offered peti- 
tions in Parliament at the risk of losing his friends and posi- 
tion; he defended the popular 'lasare' and later in Parlia- 
ment voted for a measure giving the Swedes freedom of re- 
ligious worship. 



348 

"When, in 1846 Eric Jansen's followers decided to seek a 
country where they might worship according to the dictates 
of their own conscience, the authorities, desirous of blocking 
their move, refused them the necessary passes to leave the 
country. In their dilemma they again turned to this same 
judge, who in their behalf petitioned Svea Hofratt to man- 
damus local authorities to grant passes. This was done and 
the journey to America was made possible. 

"Forty years ago in this village Jacob Jacobson said to 
the son of this judge: 'When all others deserted us your 
father came to our defense.' 

"Although a friend, not a follower of Eric Jansen, he was 
asked one day, 'Do you believe in me!' and the answer came, 
'I believe you are a good man.' 

"The great-grandson of that judge of Upsula is today a 
boy of 11 years of age and he is in this audience. I introduced 
him today to Captain Eric Johnson, and I am very proud of 
him, because his name is Henschen. 

"Other pioneers who were here twenty years ago and who 
gave splendid addresses are the Hon. J. W. Olson, whose 
scholarly address I have read time after time and will never 
forget. I understand that he is not able to be here today and 
has been a patient sufferer for years, but I hope that I may 
have the pleasure of seeing him before I go back and to shake 
the hand of that scholarly gentleman. 

"The literature of this colony is being, enriched by the 
writings of such men as J. W. Olson, Eric Johnson, M. A. 
Mikkelsen, E. W. Olson, Charles Nordhoff and your own his- 
torian, P. J. Stoneberg. These are conscientious historians 
of events in which, in the case of several, their fathers have 
been chief figures. To us and to future generations their 
literature is of increasing value. 

"Some time ago President Andreen of Augustana College 
at Rock Island visited King Oscar, and King Oscar said to 
Professor Andreen: 'Is it not sad that so many thousands 
and hundreds of thousands have left their native lands to go 
to America V And said Dr. Andreen: 'Is it not wonderful 
God should have chosen so many of our race to go out and 
possess these new lands and to make them their own, and to 
extend to the ends of the earth our language, our ideas, our 
history, our traditions, our faith. Is it not wonderful that so 



349 

inany of our people have been chosen for this great task and 
good fortune?' King Oscar looked far away, and answered: 
'Ah, yes, I see; I see.' " 

THE ADDRESS IN PART OF CONGRESSMAN B. J. KING. 

"As I stand on this historic spot, my heart goes out in grati- 
tude to those who have so graciously permitted me to be 
present on this great day, and the past achievements of those 
sturdy yeomen who left the homes of their native land, braved 
the hardships of voyage and by their own efforts made the 
history of Bishop Hill, rise before me in strong array. 

"Bishop Hill is the cradle from which sprang that mighty 
impetus of Swedish immigration into the west and northwest 
to its great development and to the benefit of our entire com- 
mon country. True, the original purpose of building a New 
Jerusalem, which would spread its force and control through- 
out the civilized world, failed of realization ■ nevertheless 
their efforts succeeded in a field of endeavor never dreamed 
of by them. 

"Emigrants from nearly every province in Sweden settled 
at Bishop Hill, and their letters home to their friends and 
relatives, describing the advantages of America blazed the 
way for that long line of emigrants who now living, including 
their descendants, number in the United States to 1,334,239 
souls. How inviting would be an incursion into their accom- 
plishments, but time forbids, and I hesitate to enter those 
fields which ought to be reserved for my illustrious friend, 
Judge Trimble, the speaker of the day. 

"Somewhere back of the conception of Bishop Hill colony 
was the man with the idea, and back of him was the one who 
prepared conditions of fertility where the idea might grow. 
John the Baptist was such a. man. John Ericson's inventions 
prepared the ground work for Edison the Wizard of Menlo 
Park. I have but a moment to address you, and in my allotted 
time I wish to speak of the man who cleared the underbrush 
and prepared the way for that great preacher, leader and 
genius, Eric Jansen, leaving to the others the merited praise 
of the virtues of Jansen. Without disparagement of the great 
services rendered the colony by Stoneberg, Jacobson. Nor- 
berg, Bergland, Swanson and many others, I plead permission 
to pay a humble tribute to one who was the Alpha and Omega 



350 

of the colony, and whose life runs through its history like a 
strong' cord— Jonas Olson, a typical Swedish-American of a 
type whose influence for good has made a most lasting impres- 
sion not only upon the younger Swedish-Americans, but upon 
the entire nation as well. 

"Helsingland, the home of so many of the colonists, with 
its iron, timber and flax ; its landscape dotted with red painted 
cottages, surrounded by beautiful patches of flowers, was the 
native province of Jonas Olson. He was born on the 18th day 
of September, 1802, the son of peasants. History states that 
his father was a drunkard, and that one day when the young 
Jonas, who was desirous of learning to read, write and cipher, 
was using his writing materials, this father grabbed them from 
him, saying as he destroyed them, that such things were not 
for peasants ' sons. At 15 he was compelled to shift for him- 
self. He became a farm laborer and a fisherman on the banks 
of the Gulf of Bothnia. He disposed of salmon on the Stock- 
holm market to advantage and became a well-to-do and re- 
spectable citizen of the parish. The year 1825 brought him 
to a turning point. Intemperance prevailed among the peas- 
antry. The clergy even had become lax. The pastor always 
danced the first round with the bride, drank as deeply as his 
parishioners and transformed the tithes of grain into liquor 
by means of his own still. Up to that time it had not dawned 
upon Jonas Olson there was something far better in life. At 
a dance on a winter eve in 1825 liquor was passed around in 
sacreligious mockery of the Lord's Supper. It made a deep 
impression upon Olson. He became converted and resolved 
to lead a new life. And so, like Simon Peter, the fisherman 
of old, he dropped his nets and became a follower of his Lord. 
He studied the Great Book and all the devotional literature 
assiduously. He bought books and visited the libraries in 
Stockholm and became a well educated man. At Stockholm 
he met Kosenius, the representative of Hellian Pietism, and 
also George Scott, the founder of Methodism in Sweden. They 
found in each other warm and sympathetic friends. Jonas, 
over the greatest of opposition, first began to organize tem- 
perance societies in his own and neighboring parishes, but 
later with the aid of the Crown he met with great success. 
Not only did he engage in temperance work, but immediately 
upon his conversion began to preach in the conventicles of the 



351 

Devotionalists, who were then just beginning to appear in 
Helsingland. After the loss of his wife, about a year and a 
half after his marriage, he threw himself with additional vim 
into the church work, and he is the man to whom it is due 
that Devotionalism was carried to every quarter of Helsing- 
land. The Devotionalists were a pious people who were dis- 
pleased at the absence of real piety in the Established Church. 
They did not seek to overthrow the church, but to purify it 
from within. They were called Devotionalists because they 
assembled in private houses to hold devotional meetings and 
because they read their Bibles and books of devotion assidu- 
ously in their homes. Devotionalism produced no great na- 
tional leader after whom it might be named. It spread under 
Jonas Olson and other local leaders. Its stronghold was Norr- 
land, one of the great political divisions of Sweden, of which 
Helsingland was a subdivision. Under its influence a radical 
change in the condition of the people took place and they be- 
gan to read and to take up habits of industry and sobriety. 

"For seventeen years Jonas Olson was the leading lay 
member among the Devotionalists in Helsingland, whose mem- 
bership consisted largely of peasants and independent arti- 
sans. He enjoyed the respect and confidence of the com- 
munity, representing them in a public capacity as juror to 
the district court. During this time Jonas Olson and his 
Devotionalists assembled in their conventicles and read their 
Bibles and books of devotion unmolested and enjoyed the con- 
fidence of the Established Church. 

"The ground was now prepared for the seed. The minds 
of the people were attuned to the idea. One night a flour mer- 
chant asked for lodging at the home of Jonas Olson. It was 
quickly granted. The stranger was Eric Jansen. His devout- 
ness inspired even the devout Olson. He brought Jansen to 
the conventicles and introduced him, and by reason of the 
high standing of Olson he met with instant success. Jansen 
was powerful and eloquent. "With his advent into Helsing- 
land Jansenism began. The conditions were favorable to the 
reception of his doctrines. He advanced the idea that too 
much attention was given to devotional literature and not 
enough to the Bible. His preaching was forceful and of the 
John Wesley type, and the results of his revivals rivaled those 
of Moody and Sundav of more modern times. Persecution 



352 

began. His followers were mobbed and their meetings dis- 
turbed. When their conventicles were prohibited they assem- 
bled in the woods. They praised the God who permitted them 
to be persecuted. Finally, the followers burned the books of 
devotion in the market place, the news of which soon spread 
throughout the kingdom. You are familiar with the arrest 
of Jansen, his escape and flight to America, eventually reach- 
ing the town of Victoria,. Illinois. 

"Jonas Olson remained at home. He had work to do there. 
He was heavily fined for participating in the burning of the 
books and was summoned before the House of Bishops to 
answer for his religious opinions. Naturally, as did the 
Pilgrim fathers, the Jansenists, under persecution, turned to 
America as a place where they could worship God as they 
pleased. 

"Bishop Hill having been selected for a colony, Jonas 
Olson, along with Andreas Bergland and Olof Stoneberg, were 
appointed to conduct the immigration. The communistic plan 
of ownership having been decided upon, Jonas, having the 
courage of his convictions, put his property into the common 
fund for the benefit of all. So did they all, the sums ranging 
from 25,000 crowns downward. 

"When the time for departure arrived Jonas and his asso- 
ciates had gathered together 1,100 willing souls, who for their 
religion's sake were willing to embark for an unknown land. 
As they were about to leave their passports were withheld, 
until Jonas Olson made a personal plea to King Oscar I, who 
released them. 

"They left their native shores at different times and in 
different ships. Some were lost at sea. Others starved to 
death. Others died of cholera. Across the sea to New York, 
by Erie canal and great lakes to Chicago, and mostly on foot 
to Bishop Hill from Chicago, was the trip they made. 

"Jonas Olson arrived safely with his party on October 28, 
1846, where two log cabins and four tents invited them to 
enter for the winter. He was then 41 years of age and had 
already accomplished what most men only succeed in doing 
in a whole lifetime. Did he stop! Not Jonas Olson. He im- 
mediately proceeded to live another lifetime of fifty years 
more in work and honest endeavor. 



"He saw the birth of the colony. He saw it in the busy 
hum of its prosperous days. He viewed with sadness its de- 
cline, its decay, its death and its final obliteration. 

"On more than one occasion in Sweden had his judgment 
and ability in handling men been of service to the Jansenists, 
and these same characteristics were brought into play on a 
larger scale during his life in America, and as a resident of 
Bishop Hill. He must have been a man of splendid physique. 
One can almost see him now, coming down the street, pro- 
ceeding here and there attending to the duties as one of those 
upon whom the responsibility of providing for others rested. 
On July 22, 1S49, cholera broke out in the colony and raged 
until the middle of September, carrying away 143 persons in 
the prime of life. The horrors of it all have never been re- 
lated, yet one must know that rugged and heroic character 
of .Jonas Olson placed him in the thick of the disaster, where 
day and night he nursed the sick, prayed for the dying and 
buried the dead. His influence with the colony must have been 
great, and it is not related that this confidence was ever mis- 
placed. Under the advice and counsel of this great old patri- 
arch, Bishop Hill shown as a bright example to other immi- 
grants as to what could be done in America, not only along 
material and religious lines, but in love of their adopted 
country and her institutions. It was not long before a teacher 
of English was at work at Bishop Hill. The laws of the land 
were always obeyed with respect and veneration. Patriotism 
in its full sense imbued their hearts, and when the great con- 
vict of '61 came on and the nation's life was in danger, these 
faithful people — these Devotionalists — these pilgrims to 
whom liberty was a vital issue, rose as a man, followed the 
Stars and Stripes and spilled their blood and died upon the 
Southern fields, that free institutions should not perish from 
the earth. And it is due to these colonists to say that their 
example has had a tremendous influence upon every Scan- 
dinavian who has ever come to America, translating him at 
once into a strong, patriotic citizen of the American republic 
and who will fight the world in her behalf. 

"Had it not been for the early devotional work of Jonas 
Olson in his native land, the brilliant efforts of Jansen to 
arouse the people must have failed and with its failure immi- 
gration to America from Sweden would have been postponed 



354 

for many years, and the aid of the Swedish- American in work- 
ing our national destiny. So for this reason in awarding 
the benefactors of the nation, the distributor of laurels must 
not overlook the brow of Jonas Olson, the typical Swedish- 
American of early Bishop Hill. 

"There are many foundation stones in the colony, but none 
supported a greater weight of its structures than did this man. 
He was faithful to his trust. He accepted no thirty pieces of 
silver. His dependability was certain and continuous. If an 
Indian assassin was hired to kill the leaders, he must not over- 
look Jonas at the head of the list of proposed victims. If a 
colonist is kidnapped, Jonas heads the party of rescue. If 
gold is necessary to replenish the coffers, Jonas Olson braves 
the dangers of the overland trip to California at the head of 
the expedition. When the leader of the colony lies stiff 
and stark in death, it is Jonas Olson who rushes back to take 
charge of the affairs of the colony. He it is who is 
among the leading spirits on the board of trustees after 
incorporation. 

"In his later days he continued his preaching in the old 
colony church — feeble in limb, dim of eyesight; his congrega- 
tion dwindled to a handful, he went on with his work. No 
doubt the enthusiasm of his early devotional work in the con- 
venticles of his own Helsingland was upon him and he saw 
before him the vast audience which greeted his youthful work. 
And even this small congregation under his kind guidance 
one by one lay them down in the community graveyard, where 
peace reigns and the true community of good prevails. He saw 
nearly all pass to the beyond. He saw dissolution approaching. 
The edifices crumbled about his ears, yet Jonas Olson, like 
the Roman centurion of Pompeii, when the hot ashes of the 
eruption fell about him, awaited his orders of release which 
never came, stuck to his post until the end. 

"His body lies in yonder cemetery, but it is pleasant to 
think that perchance his great soul with its fine strength of 
devotionalism, adventure and service, with his old friend, Eric 
Jansen, and in joyful company with Stoneberg, Jacobson, 
Norberg, Bergland, Swanson and the rest, is engaged in that 
Greater Colony to which all mortals, one by one and in their 
turn, must emigrate." 



355 

RELICS AT THE COLONY CHURCH. 

The relics on exhibition at the Colony Church were numer- 
ous and interesting'. Among the things to be seen were : 
Swedish Bible printed in 1618, Swedish Bible printed in 1737; 
various manuscripts, including parts of a scriptural outline, 
dated 1845, possibly written by Eric Jansen; autobiography 
of Eric Jansen; message from E. Jansen to his friends after 
the death of his first wife in the cholera at Eock Island; let- 
ters from E. Jansen, in 1850, in handwriting of Mrs. Pollock 
Johnson; letter to A. Bergland, 1850; autobiography of E. 
Jansen; letters written by J. Olson; contract between the 
captain of a vessel and a party of Jansenites, 1350; certificate 
with accompanying passport 5 Jansen 's hymn book, original 
edition, 1846; revised edition, 1857; Jansen 's catechism, 1846; 
English-Swedish dictionary, 1846; Lutheran prayer book, 
1840; Swedish geometry, 1784; manuscript, Jansenistic tract; 
pedigree herd books, 1861 ; old Swedish watch ; old American 
watch; spectacles; Swedish snuff box and brass comb; candle 
stick and snuffers; pepper-box revolver with case, tac. ; Swe- 
dish hand loom and shuttle for weaving garters ; Swedisli bal- 
ances with weights, dated 1834 ; pitchers of willow ware, used 
in the colony; plate used in the colony; oldj cups; candle 
moulds ; candle sticks ; money chest ; sewing cabinet ; towel 
and table cloth, made in the colony; skirt made of cloth woven 
in the colony; painting of the last house in Sweden (Lingo 
garden, Dalarne), where E. Jansen stopped on his way to 
America; part of bed curtain from room in which he slept; 
cloth on his bed in the same room; centerpiece painting from 
ceiling of this room; old Swedish kerchief; brass-lined ruler 
used in the building of the Colony Church; ox-pins : ox-horn 
tips made in the colony; two ox-yokes; horn from first ox 
dehorned in Weller township ; Swedish hand-bag, embroidered 
with steel beads; seal more than 100 years old; framed list of 
the twenty-one men and one woman who came to the colony 
in February, 1847 ; two marriage pictures, dated 1842 and 
1850, respectively; Swedish plate money, 1721 and other dates 
and other coins; colony paper money; fractional currency, 
lunch basket, colony made; market basket, made in Sweden; 
copper kettle, 200 years old; colony-made fork, grain and flax 
forks ; primitive hemp machine ; hand mangle, 1798 : shoe last ; 



356 

coffee mills ; laundry paddle ; school slate ; Swedish rolling 
pin, 1774; old flax knife; fire tong; axe used in 1846; bullet 
mould; plane; bread roller, 1774; potato masher; two cheese 
moulds ; reel ; two colony spinning wheels : one Swedish spin- 
ning wheel; cooper's tools; two cradles; saws, chest, 1837; 
rope bedstead ; quilting frame ; camping device ; rope making 
machine; device for carrying water; flail; coffee roasters; 
hair rope ; branding iron ; copper dipper ; milk pail ; lard oil 
lamp; lanterns; pulley; meat cutter; Swedish hymn book, 
1836; copper frying pan; Psalmodica cow bell, 1789; copper 
coffee pot; mangle; large copper kettles; cow bell, 1789; lunch 
box, 1820; army canteen; rifle used in Civil War; pole for 
suspending hard tack; plows; cultivators; trunk, 1784; prize 
silk flag, won by Company D, Fifty-seventh Illinois Regiment 
in Civil War ; clock from Sweden, used as model in making of 
clock in Steeple building; shears; broom made in colony; 
broom corn scraper (outside of church); Indian spade; Swe- 
dish "pumpa," a very large bottle. 

The principal exhibitors were J. A. Bergren, P. J. Stone- 
berg and Dr. A. F. Benson. 

An interesting person present was Mrs. Christina Helstrom, 
aged 93, who was the only surviving member of the original 
colonists that came September 23, 1846. 

The presence of three young ladies, dressed in ancient 
Swedish costume, also attracted considerable attention, with 
their bright colored aprons and white caps. One of them, Miss 
Evelyn Swanson, aged 18, the daughter of the postmaster, was 
a particularly interesting character. Being a natural blonde 
and dressed in a complete outfit that was brought over some 
years ago by her grandmother, the makeup was typically 
Swedish in every way. The grandmother, Mrs. Mary (Mal- 
grem) Olson, who was also present, was the first child born 
in the colony. The date of her birth was December 27, 1846. 









EDITORIAL 



r 

359 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Sprinefield, Illinois. 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of 
the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar — Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 



Vol. IX October, 1916. No. 3. 



THE STATE CENTENNIAL. 

The plans for the approaching Stale Centennial are being 
carried on with vigor by the Centennial Commission. 

Mr. Wallace Eice of Chicago, a noted poet and writer, has 
presented to the Commission a design for a Centennial 
banner. This must not be confused with the State flag, 
authorized by the Forty-ninth General Assembly, an account 
of which appeared in the July, 1916, number of the Journal. 
The Centennial banner has been designed especially for adver- 
tising the Centennial celebration, and can be used in many 
ways in which it would not be proper to use the Illinois 
State flag. 

The Centennial banner can be made in bunting or other 
cheaper material, for which the design of the State flag is 
not suitable. 

POSTER COXTEST. 

The Centennial Commission has sent out notices asking for 
designs for a poster illustrating the history of the one hun- 
dred years of State progress. Prizes are offered for the best 
five posters submitted. The committee to award the prizes 
in the contest is to be composed of members of the State Art 
Commission and of the Centennial Commission. The contest 
will close April 15, 1917. 



360 

The work on the Centennial Memorial publication series is 
progressing well. Prof. C. W. Alvord of the University of 
Illinois is in general charge of the work. Prof. E. B. Greene 
is the chairman of the Publication Committee of the Centen- 
nial Commission. 

General plans for the celebration are well under way. 

Before many months the Commission will begin the publica- 
tion of a bulletin or news letter, which will be issued monthly 
or semi-monthly until the close of the centennial year. 

The State Board of Agriculture will co-operate with the 
Centennial Commission, and it is expected that there will be 
in connection with the State Fair of 1918 an exposition, which 
will show the history of agriculture, manufacturing and de- 
velopment along other lines of the State during the past one 
hundred years. 



•EEUNION AND PICNIC OF SANGAMON COUNTY OLD 

SETTLERS' ASSOCIATION, HELD AT CHATHAM 

AUGUST 9, 1916. 

Sangamon County's Old "Snow Birds," a remnant spared 
in the ceaseless toll of years, gathered with the county's old 
settlers in Chatham Park for the annual picnic of the Old 
Settlers' Association. Americanism was the principal topic 
of the day. 

The ranks of the veterans of the deep snow of 1830 are 
gradually thinning and only four were on the grounds. They 
were: Mrs. Martha Coons, aged 84 years, of Springfield;. 
Mrs. Eliza Hatten, aged 81 years, of Chatham; William 
("Uncle Bill") Carson, aged 86 years, of Loami, and Jere- 
miah King, aged 86 years, of Chatham. 

As early as the coming of dawn Chatham residents were 
on the grounds, putting the finishing touches to their work 
of preparation. A huge speaker's stand was erected in the 
southeast corner of Chatham Park and was beautifully dec- 
orated with American flags. 

"Americanism" was the keynote of the addresses. 

The speakers of the day were the Hon. Ben. F. Caldwell of 
Chatham; secretary of the Settlers' Association, I. E. Diller ; 
Bishop Osborne of Spring-field, United States District Attor- 



361 

uey E. C. Knotts of Carlinville, Attorney John Barber of 
Springfield, Captain Hayden of Springfield, A. L. Converse 
of Springfield and E. C. Woodbury of Carlinville. 

Many of the settlers brought their dinners with them and 
ate their lunches under the shade trees of Chatham Park. 
Others took advantage of the dinner which was being served 
by the Ladies' Aid Society of the Chatham Methodist Church. 

At the speakers' stand lives were being lived over again. 
Aged veterans of the county recalled their youth. All lis- 
tened attentively to the speakers, all cheered at references to 
the United States of America as the mightiest of all nations 
and stood with bowed heads as strains of the national anthem 
pealed out over the audience. 

It was a great day for Chatham as well as for the old set- 
tlers. The settlers were well pleased with the entertainment 
that had been afforded them, and the Hon. Ben F. Caldwell, 
on behalf of the town of Chatham, received many compliments 
from the officials of the Old Settlers ' Association and from the 
old settlers themselves. 

The expression of praise from I. R. Diller, the secretary of 
the Old Settlers' Association, was: "May God spare our 
long lived lives in order that we may enjoy another old set- 
tlers' picnic in Chatham. The picnic today will be remem- 
bered by the old settlers as one of the best in the history of 
the association." 

Mr. Diller spoke of the speakers ' stand, which was erected 
by the residents of Chatham. He declared it was the best 
that he had ever stood on in the history of the annual picnic. 

The Eev. Mr. Harney of Auburn was unable to take his 
place on the program. In his stead the Eight Beverend Bishop 
Osborne of Springfield, Captain William H. Hayden of 
Springfield, Colonel W. T. Baker of Bolivia and A. L. Con- 
verse of Springfield spoke. 

Captain Hayden was the first speaker. 

_" Although I am the oldest man on the ground," said Cap- 
tain Hayden, "I am not the oldest settler." 

Captain Hayden said he was 91 and had long been a resi- 
dent of Sangamon County. He spoke very briefly and con- 
cluded his remarks with: "I am more than thankful that I 
have had my stay in Sangamon County." 



362 

Following Captain Hayclen, Colonel W. T. Baker of Bolivia, 
Illinois, spoke. "How do you all do?" asked Colonel Baker, 
and the crowd, catching the hearty spirit of his 81 years, 
laughed with hiin. "I am no candidate," continued the 
colonel. I am no Democrat or Republican. I claim only to 
be an American citizen. My grandfathers fought in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and I think our family may fairly claim to be 
true Americans. 

"I remember Springfield," continued Colonel Baker, laps- 
ing into the reminiscences that the crowd seemed so to enjoy, 
"when it was not very like the Springfield of today. I re- 
member distinctly seeing teams and wagons stuck in the mud 
around the public square. The mud holes were the most 
prominent feature of the landscape then. 

"I was 5 years old the year of the big snows. We moved 
when they were waist deep. When the snow and ice went out 
in the spring the Sangamon river rose as it has never risen 
since. I used to know an old tree on its bank that for a long 
time bore a ring, high up on its trunk, that was cut in by the 
floating ice. 

"I have seen the whole of the United States. I have twice 
ridden a mule to California, and there isn't twenty miles of 
habitable territory between here and the coast that I haven't 
slept on. During the time I was attached to the civil service 
during the Civil War I was in every State in the Union, and 
Illinois is the greatest of them all. 

"Illinois has only one trouble. It is a State of extremes. If 
we could properly adjust the climate, so that it was neither 
too hot nor too cold, nor too wet nor too dry, I would want 
to go on living here forever. 

"Abraham Lincoln," continued Colonel Baker, "was one 
of the men that helped to make Illinois great. First, he was 
one of the men who split her rails and hewed her logs. I often 
ate at Lincoln's house, he being a great chum of my father." 

Bishop Osborne of Springfield was next introduced. 

"While I am not an old settler of Sangamon County," said 
Bishop Osborne, "I believe that forty years in America have 
entitled me to call myself a well settled American. Over sixty 
years ago I made up my mind to come to America, and by the 
grace of God here I am. 



363 

"I like to think of those who were not "born in America, but 
helped make the country great. The original settlers of Illi- 
nois had to come from somewhere else, and while we are here 
to honor the old settlers, let us honor all those who have been 
Americans in America and are Americans today. I feel safe 
in saying that there are no hyphens among the old settlers of 
Sangamon County. 

"Everyone must be an American all through. I don't like 
these societies with Americans linked with something else. It 
is sufficient in America to belong to the one great society of 
the American nation. 

"Give your lives and your whole hearts to the country that 
has taken you in," urged the bishop. "I am an old settler 
in America first, and after that a resident of Sangamon 
County, but America first. 

"Let the old go and be heart and soul before man and God 
a good American citizen," concluded the bishop. 

A. L. Converse of Springfield was the last speaker of the. 
day. The subject of Mr. Converse's talk was "The New 
Things of the World." 

"You gray-haired veterans do not realize the magic things 
that have been going on right under your noses in the past 
few years," Mr. Converse said. "First, it was the telegraph, 
then the telephone, and now they telegraph without any wires 
at all," declared Mr. Converse. 

Mr. Converse urged the old settlers "to think more of the 
future and to follow the advice of Bishop Osborne and not 
look too much in the past." 

Edward C. Knotts of Carlinville, United States District 
Attorney, delivered the first address of the afternoon, speak- 
ing on the subject, "Politics." 

"I come before you," said Mr. Knotts, "not as United 
States District Attorney, but as a Sangamon County boy. And 
I intend to speak on the subject 'Politics' not from the par- 
tisan point of view. I shall leave the politicians out of my 
address. I will not even mention the eighteen candidates for 
coroner in this county. 

"I shall speak on politics as they have contributed to the 
greatness in Sangamon County and the State of Illinois," he 
continued. "The exploitation of the land and resources of 
Illinois, great as the achievement was, comes to its fullest 



364 

glory as an accessory process to the development of a broad 
and great government that evolved in Ilii»ois, with Sangamon 
County as its center. 

"The political problems of the pioneer, 1 ' said Mr. Knotts, 
"were much the same as those we contend with today. The 
recent activity of muck rakers has iwd many people to believe 
that corruption and misgovernment were modern problems. 
Bather, they are the most ancient problems of government. 
The old settlers fought as much as we must fight today. The 
fights in the early days of Illinois were as earnest and fierce 
as the old boys could make them. Ajid out of their political 
activities came the present government, which is honest and 
right, for the pioneers in forming our political institutions, 
built broadly and built well." 

Mr. Knotts then narrated incidents of the early history of 
Illinois, illustrating the problems of the pioneers. One of 
these, which pleased the crowd immensely, was the tale of 
William P. Foster, one of the judges of the first Supreme 
Court of Illinois. 

William P. Foster, it seems, had been a resident of Illinois 
but three months when the Legislature appointed him one of 
the four judges of the first Supreme Court. By the next 
fall Foster had skipped the country, taking the court fees 
with him. 

"But the men of those days were not discouraged by a 
single failure," said Mr. Knotts, "but of the incident and 
the disappearance of Foster they modeled the present 
Supreme Court, making it not an appointive body, to be 
elected or removed by the Legislature, but a body elected by 
the people of the State." 

Another story, which pleased the crowd, was that of the 
Shawneetown bank. After the failure of the Shawneetown 
bank, a State institution, the co mmi ttee appointed to investi- 
gate reported that they had found nothing in the bank but 
plenty of good liquor and sugar to sweeten it with. 

"But the pioneer was not dismayed," said Air. Knotts, "he 
was used to learning from his mistakes. He knew that he had 
to combat the efforts of dishonest people from many States 
and counties who flocked to Illinois in the early days. But he 
overcame them and to his efforts we owe our present govern- 
ment." 



365 

"There is no reason to be alarmed, nor to be soured by our 
present difficulties," continued Mr. Knotts. "Our govern- 
ment in the larger sense is better than ever before. The shame- 
ful things are the exceptions. But out of these we will work 
our salvation, by profiting by our mistakes. The solution is 
not in attacking our form of government, but seeking the 
remedy for existing evils. As the pioneer did, we must face 
our problems calmly and dispassionately. If the old settlers 
had grown discontented over the Shawneetown bank and the 
disappearance of Foster, our political government would have 
ceased. 

"The government in general," said Mr. Knotts, "reflects 
the attitude of the people. It is pretty much as they wish it 
to be. Reform can never come from the top, and it will never 
get far by such a method. It must come from the people up. 
People must look upon the bright side of things and remedy 
evils. This is the true philosophy for Illinois government and 
for American government. 

"The little lapses we note in our Legislatures and officials 
are really nothing more than a bad cold in the tenure of our 
lives. They are soon overlooked and forgotten, but the good- 
ness and greatness of our government goes on undisturbed. 

"We have in Europe today a concrete example to prove 
that the American form of government is the best, strongest 
and most perfect form of government on the earth." 

This remark occasioned a round of applause from the 
crowd, and a moment later Mr. Knotts was again heartily 
cheered when he said: "The government of the people, for 
the people and by the people, as Lincoln said, is the true phil- 
osophy of government. The people have the power in their 
hands. It is a struggle, and we will not enjoy good govern- 
ment unless the people work for it and work for it all the 
time." 

In the latter part of his speech Mr. Knotts paused to con- 
gratulate the people of Sangamon County, the old settlers 
and the town of Chatham for their hospitality and the ability 
with which they accommodated the visitors. 

"I am a boy of Sugar Creek, of Sangamon County," said 
Mr. Knotts. "I have been away a long time, longer than I 
wished to be, but Sangamon County and Sugar Creek and 
Chatham will always hold a place in my heart. In my boy- 



366 

hood Chatham was to me a wonder town; its doctors and 
grocers were miracle men. And I thank God that part of the 
glory of this community and of Sangamon County has re- 
mained with me through life. 

"Because of the fact that I retain such glorious memories 
of this county, I almost hesitate to come back to it, lest some 
of the glamour be lost. Sugar Creek was rightly named. It 
reflects the sweetness of the people that have lived around 
it and the atmosphere in which they live." 

FORMER CONGRESSMAN B. F. CALDWELL. 

Hon. Ben F. Caldwell, former Congressman, addressed the 
old settlers. He paid a tribute to John G-. Hammer, aged 96 
years, and the only survivor of the Mexican War today in 
Sangamon County. Mr. Hammer resides in Loami township 
and was unable to be in attendance at the settlers' picnic. The 
topic of Mr. Caldwell's address was "America." 

The veterans of the county clapped when Mr. Caldwell made 
the above remarks, but in a moment a hush fell over the large 
audience of "snow birds," some of whom "with their blood 
had cemented the South and the North in '65," bowed their 
heads as if ashamed of the actions of some of the aliens in 
America today. 

Mr. Caldwell denounced acts of violence against the United 
States government and declared that "when a man took an 
oath of allegiance to America he should stand by it until his 
dying day." . . 

"Some of you, perhaps," said Mr. Caldwell, "do not know 
that in Sangamon County there resides a man who fought for 
the honor of the American nation in the Mexican War. Only 
a few weeks ago my wife and myself had the honor to visit 
him. No, it was more than a visit, for we went there to pay 
homage to that remnant of the grand old army that fought 
on the Bio Grande. 

"John G. Hammer is his name, and he resides in the town 
of Loami. He fought in the regiment of that famous colonel, 
Colonel E. D. Baker, who met his death during the Civil War 
at Balls Bluffs. 

"You older bucks — you veterans of the Civil War, who with 
your blood cemented the States of the North and the South- 
remember that battle, don't you?" Mr. Caldwell said, turning 



367 

to a few Civil War veterans who were sitting on the speakers' 
platform. 

"Sure we do," an old settler and veteran responded. 

"Mr. Hammer is not only a survivor of the Mexican War, 
but he is also one of the oldest Odd Fellows in the State of 
Illinois. He has been a member of that organization for the 
past seventy-five years," he said. 

Mr. Caldwell also paid a tribute to the State of Illinois. "If 
New York and Pennsylvania don't watch out," he said, ^Illi- 
nois will soon rank as the first State in the Union and Chicago 
will be the largest city in the United States." 

"Y\ 7 hen I look at that national emblem," Mr. Caldwell said, 
pointing to a large American flag which was hanging in front 
of the speakers' stand, "I imagine I see there one star larger 
than the others. This one star represents the great and glo- 
rious State of Illinois." 

Mr. Caldwell paid a tribute to John Lochridge, a veteran 
of the Revolutionary War who is buried in the Chatham 
cemetery. 

"He is dead— he has crossed" the great divide," Mr. Cald- 
well said. "But his memory will always live with us." 

Mr. Caldwell concluded his address with the remarks that it 
wasn't the political party that a man belonged to, but it is his 
loyalty to the American nation that makes the biggest im- 
pression. 

"I thank God, not because I am a Democrat — though I am 
proud of it — but because I am an American citizen and an 
old settler." 

ADDRESS OF MR. JOHN BARBER. 

Attorney John Barber of Springfield told an audience at 
the old settlers' picnic that "if the United States of America 
is to maintain its place as the most powerful nation in the 
world after the European war, it must start now to study the 
cost of high living, and not the high cost of living." Cheers 
and applause greeted Attorney Barber's remarks as he re- 
lated incidents of the past — those incidents that "made you 
old settlers sturdy and hale and pushed the United States of 
America to the fore, until today it ranks with the mightiest 
nations of the world." 



368 

"The son of today is not the son of yesterday," Mr. Barber 
said, "and I solemnly warn you old settlers, you veterans of 
an almost forgotten past, that the time has come when the 
change for the better must be made. Give your boys some 
of the hardships you yourself suffered. Give them something 
to do, some little task, even if it is only carrying a pile of 
bricks back and forward across the yard each day. 

"The son of today gets up in a steam-heated room, puts 
one foot on a soft rug beside the bed, pulls on one sock, and 
then dozes away for a half hour or so. 

"Is that what you did?" he queried. "No. That was not 
so in your case. I will tell you what you did. You got out 
of a bed with the temperature ranging around zero in your 
room. The cover near your head was covered with frost. 
On went one sock, then the other. It was a horse race to see 
which one would get down to the kitchen stove first. No, you 
didn't have to be called a dozen times before you responded. 

"When you got down to the kitchen stove, maybe there 
was a fire and maybe there was not. Probably you had to 
build it. Then you reached for your boot. You found that it 
was not thawed out yet. But that did not matter. The boot 
went on your foot just the same. Then it was out to the barn 
and milk eight or nine cows, chop a little wood and feed the 
horses. By that time you were ready for breakfast. Why, 
do you old settlers know that you did more work before break- 
fast than the average son of today does all day? Well, you 
did, and when you came to that breakfast table you did not 
complain because the oat meal wasn't cooked right, nor you 
did not say, 'I never did like meat with fat on it.' No, 
you did not say, 'Aw, ma, what did you want to cook that 
for? You know I never like that. ' I'll tell you what you did. 
You sat down and ate what was there. Then you went to a 
saw mill or a feed mill and put in a day's hard work. 

"I'll tell you, old settlers, it is the cost of high living that 
you want to beware of. Did you ever stop to figure what 
the high Jiving is costing the United States, or what it might 
cost when we are called upon to stand the test? It might cost 
it its honor and its dignity; it might cost it the shame of 
defeat. 



369 



"Make your sons work!" exclaimed the speaker. "Make 
them do something, so that they may be useful to the land in 
which they live. ' ' 

THE ROLL. 



Old settlers of Sangamon 
picnic and their ages: 

J. S. Smith 73 

J. F. Miller 85 

W. B. Shepherd 76 

T. C. Smith 68 

P. J. Herman 83 

L. B. Herman 85 

L. W. Brawner 73 

S. W. Constant 73 

G. W. Constant 73 

A. P. Bice.... 73 

John Churchill 80 

W. S. Carpenter 82 

J. M. Garland 81 

Louis Zumbrook 76 

N. A. Nicholls 61 

Isaac Diller 62 

Mrs. E. B. Dyer 78 

Mrs. Hattie Lanford 64 

Mrs. Sarah E. Decker 67 

Mrs. Mary E. Young 68 

Mrs. William Decker 76 

L. H. Zumbrook 76 

Mrs. J. Stone 78 

J. W. Carson 79 

Mrs. Edgar Megalia 67 

Mrs. Amanda Good 70 

Mrs. E. B. Dyer 78 

Mrs. Bell Fain 61 

Mrs. W. W. Hughes 53 

Mrs. J. Drandal 54 

Mrs. W.E.King 54 

Mrs. Charles Klor 65 

Mrs. S. G. Wade 76 

Mrs. Amanda Davidson. . . 84 

Mrs. Jacob Leonard 70 



County present at the annual 

Mrs. Elizabeth Anderson. 87 

Mrs. Stella Park 69 

Mrs. John Graham 88 

John Drendel 60 

KM. William 55 

John Good 80 

J. B. Richardson 63 

C. C. Greenwood 69 

Jacob Young 72 

HP. A. Ingles 80 

Theodore D. Reed 78 

Enos Devault 76 

J. M. Cantrall 75 

Thomas M. Earnest 79 

D. W. Lawlay 84 

R, E. Strode 80 

Dr. S. C. Hewitt 81 

T. A. Drennan 66 

Gordon Smith 62 

Morgan B. Pettus 82 

R, C. Smith 83 

E. K Vicars 82 

John F. Fagan 72 

N. W. Crowder 83 

W. P. Carson 86 

Daniel Keller 84 

W. S. Bumgardner 67 

Jacob Daubert 72 

Sanford Withrow 77 

Mrs. Sanford Withrow ... 75 

J. P. Alexander 79 

J. E. Hurley 62 

John Evoy 70 

J. W. Lupton 67 

Jacob Staley 62 



370 



J. M. Coley 78 

J. E. Dodd 78 

A. L. Converse 74 

W. W. Hooper 69 

Ben F. Caldwell 68 

Will 0. Converse 70 

Hezekiah Can* 80 

G.D.Boyd 77 

A. C. Colean 68 

H. S. Magill, Sr 86 

Charles Post 81 

N. V. Taylor 74 

R. M. Coe 6.1 

Irvin Barker 70 

J.A.Foster 62 

I. W. Foster 63 

James M. Evans 64 

J. S. Menkle 66 

James B. Mill 71 

B. F. Drennan 72 

I. N. Eansom 71 

John Grant 71 

A. T. Gunnett 66 

Anson Fair 83 

Captain J. B. Inman 68 

J. F. Gard 74 

J. H. Abell 76 

J. W. Whitcomb 74 

Mrs. G. B. Boyd 68 

A, D. Young 80 

Mrs. Delia Young 77 

L. T. Drake...." 65 

Jacob Yockum 77 

Mrs. Susan Yockum 70 

E. T. Jones 75 

W. T. Bean 72 

T. M. Perkins 68 

B. M. Foster 68 



W. N. Fowler 63 

L. M. Howard 6-8 

Charles Dodd 68 

C. C. White 67 

W. H. Pattern 66 

J. B. Summers 72 

Mrs. J. B. Summers 71 

J. W. Black 65 

Philip Bupp 82 

Mrs. E. B. Smith 83 

James H. Maxwell 67 

S. E. Prather 66 

Mrs. Angie McElf resh ... 75 

J. D. Sample 60 

George E. Jones 77 

J. W. Greenwood 82 

A. J. Gardner. 60 

G. W. Matthews 61 

John McMarth 75 

B. F. Drennan 72 

William O'Connell 83 

Joseph Crystal 67 

A. A. Sidles 65 

G. L. Clayton 65 

James W. Watkins 73 

D. F. Lomelino 70 

E. F. Lyons 67 

J. C. Drennan 74 

C. F. Jeffreys 67 

J. T. Borple 78 

John Canham 63 

J. S. Kirk 73 

N. E. Kenney 68 

Jeremiah King 86 

Thomas McMurray 70 

T. M. Stevenson /. 75 

Conrad Sharp 83 



37i 

CENTENNIAL OF THE FOUNDING OF FORT ARM- 
STRONG CELEBRATED BY THE PEOPLE OF 
ROCK ISLAND, MOLINE AND DAVENPORT. 

The people of the tri-cities held a celebration lasting a 
week — June 18-25 — of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of Fort Armstrong on the island of Rock Island, in 
which the various associations of the cities — patriotic, fra- 
ternal, commercial and educational — took part. 

As is their custom on such patriotic occasions, the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution took an active part. 

A report by Mrs. Annette Gayer Kimball, the chairman of 
a joint committee of the chapters from the three cities, as to 
the part taken by the D. A. R., is hereby given: 

As organizing regent of Fort Armstrong Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, and being chosen to repre- 
sent the chapters of the tri-cities, viz.: Mary Little Deere 
Chapter of Moline, Fort Armstrong Chapter of Rock Island 
and Hannah Caldwell Chapter of Davenport, I am honored 
today by the invitation to participate in dedicating this block 
house, the original of which was built here one hundred years 
ago. One of the ideals for which the society of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution stands is to mark and pre- 
serve historic spots. 

The corporeal existence of Fort Armstrong has long since 
passed into decay, but the patriotism which inspired it is 
immortal. Its erection was prompted by the duty of our gov- 
ernment to protect its people, and inspired by their sacrifice 
and daring the government was impelled to offer the shield 
of its protection to those hardy pioneers who had dedicated 
their lives to the holding of this western empire. 

Strategy dictated that the maximum protection would be 
given by choosing a site for a fort that commanded not only 
the north and south water highway, made famous by the 
voyages of the early French explorers, but also the east and 
west path of pressing civilization, that was soon to force a 
crossing of the Mississippi River. For centuries past, from 
remotest Asia, there had constantly been a movement of the 
races toward the setting sun. Like a glacier, in its relentless 
but momentarily imperceptible movement, it had crushed 
everything in its path. The scouts of this dauntless army of 



372 

civilization had already arrived at the crossing of the great 
waterway, indicating the point where governmental protec- 
tion was most imperative. 

At this crossing nature had planted an island differing from 
other islands of the great river, in that it had a rock forma- 
tion and an elevation high above the river's floods. 

The prophetic vision of our government foresaw on this 
island the natural crossing of the lines of travel, realized 
afterwards in the first bridge to span the Mississippi. It also 
foresaw on this island, in the more distant future, a site for 
its greatest arsenal, to furnish the means of defense for an 
entire nation. Such was the vision of a century. 

The then imperative need was fulfilled by the erection on 
this rocky headland of Fort Armstrong. 

Dominating the great river, and protecting its crossing, it 
stood a monument to our government's solicitous care for its 
pioneers. 

Like a veritable Mecca, it drew to this locality the hardy 
settlers, intent on claiming this wilderness for civilization, 
intent on finding here an heritage for their children. 

If you would see the results of their patriotism, of their 
privations, of their fortitude, of their intelligence, look 
around you. The great States of Illinois and Iowa added to 
the constellation of the Union are their monuments. 

From my childhood's home on the bank of the river could 
be seen this rocky point, crowned by the frowning block 
houses of Fort Armstrong, a living witness of the protecting 
inspiration of our government, while under its palisades, 
unseen to our view, were the numerous tombstones, testifying 
to the devotion and sacrifice of its garrison. 

But it is fitting that some material symbol of such loyalty 
should be erected, and with this impulse Fort Armstrong 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, built yonder 
stone monument, with bronze tablets suitably inscribed, as a 
tribute to the pioneers and the garrison which gave them 
protection. 

And now on this centennial anniversary of the founding of 
Fort Armstrong we, the descendants of those hardy men and 
women, are dedicating a reproduction of the fort's most pic- 
turesque block house as a tribute to our country for its foster- 



373 

ing care; as a tribute to the devoted garrison, and as a tribute 
to the pioneers and their descendants. 

Monuments such as our feeble hands have erected are but 
shadows that daily pass away. The patriotism of a united 
and devoted people is like the dazzling sun, blazing for 
eternity. 



PRIZES FOR HISTORICAL ESSAYS ON DEKALB 
COUNTY HISTORY. 

The circular which is here printed was issued some months 
ago and the prizes have been awarded. 

A gentleman interested in DeKalb County offers prizes for 
original essays upon topics relating to the history of the 
county. The design is to obtain authentic record of the vari- 
ous phases of the history of the county before the opportunity 
for obtaining the information disappears forever. It is hoped 
to obtain the verified recollections of old settlers, accounts of 
historic occasions, descriptions of historic buildings and sites 
and the events connected therewith, accounts of ''first" 
things, the stories of the founding and growth of churches and 
schools, etc., etc. It is the purpose to confine the essays to 
the history previous to 1865. 

In order to interest the coming generation in the history 
of their surroundings, these prizes are open to the competition 
only of the pupils of the high schools and of the eighth grade 
of the elementary schools of the county. 

The plan of the competition is as follows : The county will 
be divided into three divisions— (1) the Northern, including 
the towns of Franklin, Kingston, Genoa, South Grove, May- 
field and Sycamore; (2) the Central, including the towns of 
Malta, DeKalb, Cortland, Milan, Afton and Pierce; (3) the 
Southern, including the towns of Shabbona, Clinton, Squaw 
Grove, Paw Paw, Victor, Somonauk and Sandwich. 

In each of the divisions there will be three groups of com- 
petitors — (1) third and fourth year high school pupils; (2) 
first and second year high school pupils: (3) eighth grade 
pupils. 

For the competitors in each group in each division there will 
be three prizes — for the best essay, $15.00; for the second in 
merit, $8.00 ; for the third in merit, $5.00. An additional prize 



374 

of $10.00 will be given to the one in each group who is deemed 
the best essayist of that group in the county. 

In the first group of competitors the essays should not be 
less than three thousand words in length ; in the second group, 
not less than two thousand two hundred fifty words; in the 
third group, not less than fifteen hundred words. 

In estimating the merit of essays, general appearance of 
manuscript, quality of style, and historic worth will be taken 
into consideration. 

The illustration of the essays by original photographs of 
individuals, sites and objects is desirable, but these photo- 
graphs will not be considered in estimating merit, unless in 
exceptional cases they become a necessary part of the histori- 
cal evidence submitted. 

The essays to be submitted for competition should be in the 
hands of the county superintendent of schools by May 1, 1916. 

The committee reserves the right to publish any or all of 
the winning essays. The committee also reserves the right 
to reject any or all essays if they are not considered suffi- 
ciently meritorious. 

Correspondence concerning the competition will receive the 
prompt attention of the committee. Committee : 

W. W. COULTAS, 

County Superintendent of Schools, 
Sycamore, Illinois. 
Edward C. Page, 

Professor of History, N. I. S. N. S., 
DeKalb, Illinois. 

Seventeen essays were submitted in competition. None was 
entered from the high schools of the central division. A num- 
ber of the essays were highly commendable in mode of pre- 
sentation and in subject matter. Some, of course, were more 
or less deficient in one respect or another, but were never- 
theless worthy efforts. Only three were judged below the 
standard of what ought to be expected. A fourth one was of 
a quality to deserve a prize, but it was entirely too brief to be 
considered. 

Upon the whole the contest was a satisfactory one. It is 
expected the prize offer will be renewed. If so, there ought 
to be several times seventeen essays submitted. 



375 

The award of the judges in the present contest follows: 

Upper high school, southern division— Harold Dean Clark, 
senior in Hinckley high school, first prize; Clarence Lash, 
senior in Hinckley high school, second prize. 

Lower high school, northern division— Irene Carlson, soph- 
omore in Sycamore high school, first prize; Violet Strawn, 
sophomore in Kirkland high school, second prize. 

Lower high school, southern division — No one was adjudged 
worthy of first prize. Two were of so nearly equal merit that 
both were deemed worthy of second place and the prize was 
divided between them. Blanche Shrader, freshman in Shab- 
bona high school, and Gilbert Gates, freshman in Shabbona 
high school, second prize; Elliott Thompson, freshman in 
Shabbona high school, third prize. 

Eighth grade, northern division — Amy B. Story, Parke 
school, Sycamore town, first prize; Thomas Adee, Gibson 
school, South Grove town, second prize '• Ida Gitlitz, Sycamore 
public school, third prize. 

Eighth grade, central division — Ethel Lanegran, Colton- 
ville school, DeKalb town, first prize; Clarence Groves, Col- 
tonville school, DeKalb town, second prize. 

Eighth grade, southern division — No one was adjudged 
worthy of first or second prizes. Edwin Cunz, Suydam school, 
Victor town, third prize. 

For the best essayist in the county in each group, the addi- 
tional prizes of $10.00 were awarded as follows : Upper high 
school, Harold Dean Clark, senior in Hinckley high school; 
lower high school, Irene Carlson, sophomore in Sycamore 
high school; eighth grade, Amy B. Story, Park school, Syca- 
more town. 



OGLE COUNTY SOLDIERS' MONUMENT DEDICATED 
SEPTEMBER 4, 1916. 

One of the finest soldiers' memorials in the United States 
was dedicated at Oregon, Illinois, on Monday, September 4, 
1916. The monument is in memory of the soldiers of Ogle 
County. In Ogle County lie buried soldiers of five wars. 



376 

The project was initiated five years ago, when Lorado 
Taft, the Chicago sculptor, suggested the desirability of per- 
petuating in bronze and marble the patriotic devotion of Ogle 
County's veterans. The county board at once appropriated 
the money for labor and materials and the work was begun. 

Mr. Taft not only suggested the memorial, but made a gift 
to the county of his talent in designing, modeling and super- 
intending the entire work. 

Thus the Rock River valley is again indebted to the genius 
and community spirit of the Chicago artist colony, which has 
made its summer home at Oregon for seventeen years. For 
five years thousands of residents and travelers have enjoyed 
Mr. Taft's first gift to the Rock River valley — Black Hawk, 
one of the notable statues of the world. 

The Ogle County soldiers' memorial is of the exedra type, 
introduced in this country in 1881 by St. Gaudens in his 
Admiral Farragut, Madison Square, New York. French's 
memorial to Richard M. Hunt, the architect, on the border of 
Central Park in New York, a monument notable for its happy 
union of sculpture and architecture, is along the same general 
plan as this work of Mr. Taft's. 

The exedra is of white marble, 30 by 14 by 12 feet, with four 
steps cut in the base in front. On the left is an heroic figure 
of an infantryman, one of the boys in blue, looking north, 
longingly, toward home ; on the right, the figure of a cavalry- 
man, his face turned toward the south, with a challenge. 

In the center, in outstanding bronze, is the figure of a 
woman representing the republic. She holds in either hand 
a wreath of laurel, symbolic of the triumph of the Union sol- 
diers. Bronze tablets attached to the front and rear of the 
exedra contain the names of Ogle County's veterans, more 
than 3,000 in number. 

The sculptor started with the names of the veterans as his 
central idea, then conceived the figure personifying the re- 
public in the center, rising above and honoring the names, and 
a soldier on either side, guarding them. This idea is empha- 
sized in the bronze band, just below the top of the exedra in 
front, on which are the words : 

"Ogle County Honors Her Sons." 



- :• 



■- 



377 



On a similar band in the rear is the inscription : 
"To Her Brave Defenders Eternal Gratitude." 
As is usual in his work, Mr. Taft has avoided realism, pre- 
ferring an idealistic treatment throughout. 

Mr. Taft has employed in this monument his favorite mate- 
rial, marble from the quarries at Tate, Georgia. This marble 
was used by him in the Columbus memorial at Washington 
and in the Trotter memorial fountain at Bloomington, Illinois. 
He hopes to make use of it also in the Fountain of Time on 
the Midway. 



378 



GIFTS OF BOOKS, LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS TO THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

The Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society and the Trustees of 
the Illinois State Historical Library acknowledge these gifts and thank the 
donors for them: 

American Jewish Historical Society Publication No. 24. Baltimore, Md. 
1916. 169 pp. 8 vo. Gift of the American Jewish Historical Society, New 
York City. 

Black, George N. Collection of books from library of the late Hon. George 
N. Black. Gift of Mr. John W. Black and Mrs. George F. Stericker, Spring- 
field, 111., the son and daughter of Mr. Black. 

Canada. Aunuaire De L'Universite Laval Cout L'annee Academique. 
1916-1917, No. 60. Quebec, 1916. 284 pp. and 55 pp. 8 vo. Imp. L'Action 
Sociale Limitee. Gift of Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Year Book for 1916. 203 
pp. 8 vo. Washington, D. C, 1916. Press of Byron S. Adams. Gift of 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Cleveland Public Library. Forty-seventh annual report of the Cleveland 
Public Library for the year 1915. 125 pp. 8 vo. Cleveland, Ohio, 1916. The 
Lezins Printing Co. Gift of the Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Colorado College Publications. General Series 88. The Value of Poetry 
in the Schools. 8 vo. Colorado Springs, Colo., 1916. Gift of Colorado Col- 
lege, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Daughters of the American Revolution, Geneseo, 111., Chapter No. 465. 
Year Book, 1916-1917. Gift of Mrs. W. H. Hosford, Secy., Geneseo, 111. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Illinois D. A. R. Twentieth 
Annual State Conference, Ottawa, 111., March 29-30, 1916. Gift of Mrs. George 
A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 111. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Mary Little Deere Chapter, 
D. A. R., Moline, 111., 1915-1916, 1916-1917. Gift of Mrs. J. U. Barnard, Secy., 
Moline, 111. 

Dictionaries. School Dictionary, being a compendium of the latest and 
most improved dictionaries. By Saml. Johnson, Jr. 198 pp. New Haven, 
1779. Edward O'Brien, printer. Gift of John Crocker Foote, Belvidere, 111. 

Genealogy. Ryerson Genealogy, by Albert Winslow Ryerson. 433 pp. 8 vo. 
Chicago, 1916. Privately printed. Gift of Edward L. Ryerson, Newberry 
Library, Chicago, 111. 

Georgia Historical Society. Annals for the year ending February 6, 1916, 
including report of the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. Savannah, 
Ga., 191G. The Morning News. 67 pp. S vc. Gift of the Georgia Historical 
Society, Savannah, Ga. 

Griggsville, 111. Twenty-sixth annual announcement of the Griggsville 
Public Schools, 1916. Gift of James A. Farrand, Griggsville, 111. 

Hague Court Reports. Edited with an introduction by James Brown Scott. 
New York, 1916. Oxford Univ. Press. 664 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Carnegie Endow- 
ment for International Peace, Washington, D. C. 

Illinois. Eighty-six Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, thirtieth re- 
union, 1916. Gift of E. C. Silliman, Chenoa, 111. 



379 

Illinois. Masonic Veteran Association. Proceedings of the thirtieth an- 
nual assembly. Chicago, 1915. Press of P. P. Pettibone & Co. 110 pp. 8 vo. 
Gift of John W. Hill, Secy., 928 N. LaSalle St., Chicago. 

Illinois State Flag. Photograph of Illinois first State Flag, authoi ized b/ 
Senate Bill 446. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawreaca, Galesburg, 111. 

Illinois State Water Survey No. 13- Urb&na, Ki., 1916. Uniy. of Illinois, 
Pubs. 261 pp. 8 vo. Gift of the publishers. 

Letters. Original letter, Alexander H. Stenhens, dated Crawfordsville, 
Ind., Dec. 24, 1860, to William EpJer, Omaha, Neb., Territory. Gift of Mr. 
William Epler, Lake Charles, La. 

Indiana. Historic Pageant, of St. Joseph County, Ind., Oct. 3-5, 1916, 
Springbrook Park, South Bend, Ind. 1916. 44 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Henry B. 
Roney, 1021 Leland Ave., Chicago. 

Indiana. Historical Pageant, the Glorious Gateway of the West, Indiana's 
Centennial Celebration, Ft. Wayne, Ind., .Tune. 1916. 70 pp. 8 vo. Gift of 
Rev. Royal W. Ennis, Hillsboro, ill. 

Long, G. Frank. Collection of books and pictures. Gift of G. Frank Long, 
Springfield, 111. 

Michigan State Library. The American Flag in prose, poetry and song. 
Second edition, Lansing, Mich., 1916. 70 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Michigan State 
Library, Lansing, Mich. 

Maine Historical Society Collections. Documentary history of the State 
of Maine, containing the Baxter manuscripts. Vols. XXI, XIV, and 491 pp. 
8 vo. Portland, Me., 1916. Gift of Maine Hist. Society, Portland, Me. 

Maine Historical Society Collections. Documentary history of the State. 
Vol. XXII. Containing the Baxter manuscripts. XII and 482 pp. 8 vo. Port- 
land, Me., 1916. Fred L. Tower Co. Gift of Maine Hist. Society, Portland, Me. 

Mill Boy (newspaper), 1844. Pub. Hamilton, N. Y. One copy. Gift of 
John Crocker Foote, Belvidere, 111. 

Minnesota History Bulletin. Vol. 1, No. 7, August, 1916. 8 vo. St. Paul, 
Minn., 1916. Pub. Minn. Hist. Society. Gift of the society. 

Moline, 111. History of the Moline Fire Department. Gift of compiler, 
William A. Meese, Moline, 111. 

National Park Portfolio. Issued by Department of Interior. Gift of David 
E. Shanahan, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

New Hampshire Historical Society Manual. 61 pp. 8 vo. Gift of the pub- 
lishers, New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N. H. 

New York Historical Society Collections, 1916. Minute Book of a Board 
of General Officers of the British Army in New York, 1781. 283 pp. 8 vo. 
New York, 1916. Printed for the Society. Gift of the New York Historical 
Society. 

New York Historical Collections. Vol. I, Mnster Rolls, 1775-1783; Vol. II, 
Muster Rolls, 1775-1783. Pub. by the N. Y. Hist. Society, 1916. Gift of the 
Society. 

Railways. List of references on valuation of railways. Typewritten 
manuscripts. Gift of Bureau of Railway Economics, Washington, D. C. 

Reynolds, John. Sketch of John Reynolds by Joseph Wallace. Manu- 
script. 35 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago, 111. 

St. Francis Academy, Joliet, 111. Catalog of the Academy. 1916-1917. 
Gift of St. Francis Academy. 

St. Louis Public Library. Annual Report, 1915-1916. 136 pp. 8 vo. Gift 
of St. Louis Public Libary. 

Snvder, Dr. J. F. Gift of three boxes historical material. 

South Dakota Historical Collections. Vol. VIII, 1916. Pierre, S. D. State 
Pub. Co. 596 pp. 8 vo. Gift of Department of History, State of South Dakota, 
Pierre, S. D. 



380 

Stock. Early Maturing Market Toppers. "S. M. Standard Calves." 113 
pp. Gift of David E. Shanahan, Chicago, 111. 

Sunday, Billy. A Trip to Billy Sunday. Poem by Frank Loren Davis. 
Rowland & Ives, Pubs. Gift of the author. 

Sword carried by Captain William B. Seymour, Forty-fiftli Illinois In- 
fantry, in the Civil War. This sword is deposited in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library by Dr. W. T. Moffet of Blue Mound, 111. 

Trinity College Historical Society, Durham, N. C. Publications, 12 volumes. 
Gift of the Society. 

Waukarusa. Booklet arranged by John S. Hall. 32 pp. 8 vo. Rockford, 
111. Oscar F. Wilson Printing Co. Gift of Henry Mackay, Mt. Carroll, III. 

Webster, Daniel. Souvenir program, unveiling of statue of Daniel Webster. 
16 pp. 8 vo. Gift of John A. Callahan, A. M. Highlands Grammar School, 
Holyoke, Mass. 



NECROLOGY 



383 



M 



C. M. PARKER. 

September 17, I860— August 24, 1916. 

(Taken largely from a Biographical Sketch by Henry L. 

Fowkes.) 

Charles M. Parker, editor of the School News and Practical 
Educator, died at his home in Taylorville, Illinois, August 
24, 1916, after an illness of many weeks. 

Mr. Parker was one of the best known educators of Illinois 
and the Central West, his educational periodical, The School 
News, having subscribers in every state in the Union, and he 
published more than a million copies of his "Penny Classics" 
and "Picture Studies." 

Charles M. Parker was born September 17, 1860, near 
Wilkesboro, Wilkes County, North Carolina. His father, 
Samuel Parker, was a soldier in the Confederate army, and 
died as the result of the hardships of army service. The 
mother of C. M. Parker being thus left a widow and without 
other resources than her own efforts, later married John K. 
Lundy, and in 1867 Mr. Lundy with his family came to Chris- 
tian County, Illinois. 

The family had been but a few years in Illinois when the 
father and mother died, within two days of one another, of 
pneumonia. C. M. Parker was thus left an orphan with a 
family of five young brothers and sisters to care for. He at 
once went to work on a farm, attending the district school 
whenever the opportunity presented itself. He studied every 
moment of time that he could command, and when he was 
eighteen years of age he obtained a teacher's certificate. From 
that time on until his untimely death he gave his time, his 
services and his enthusiasm to the cause of educating the 
young. He taught in the rural schools of Christian and 
Macon Counties and in the city schools of Taylorville until 
1888, except during six months which he spent in Westfield 
College, at Westfield, Illinois. 



; 



384 

While teaching in Macon County he came under the influ- 
ence of John Trainer, then county superintendent of schools 
of Macon County, and who was at that time perfecting his 
plan for supervising and grading rural schools. This plan 
has been generally adopted and has changed to a large extent 
the method of teaching. Mr. Parker's life was largely influ- 
enced by this association with John Trainer. From this plan 
of study has grown the ''State Course of Study," one edition 
of which was issued by the State Department of Education, 
but which for the past twenty-five years has been issued by 
Mr. Parker, as the agent of the State Teachers' Association. 

In 1887, while yet connected with the public schools of Tay- 
lorville, Mr. Parker founded the School News. On July 11, 
1909, the School News printing plant was destroyed by fire. 
Mr. Parker fortunately saved the plates of his publications, 
which were stored in a fireproof vault. He at once began the 
erection of a modern fireproof building. This has been com- 
pleted and equipped with modern machinery and is the home 
of the School News. 

Mr. Parker was a born teacher and he was much in demand 
as an instructor at teachers' institutes, to explain the plan 
and use of the course of study. In this work lie visited most 
of the counties of Illinois and many counties of Indiana and 
Pennsylvania. By visiting such large numbers of them he 
was able to observe the good qualities and the defects of vari- 
ous schools and to utilize the good and to devise plans to 
overcome the faults which he saw. As the influence of the 
School News grew, Mr. Parker constantly made improvements 
in it, and of late years he employed scientific specialists to 
write articles on subjects for which they were peculiarly 
qualified. 

Mr. Parker was a citizen of the most progressive type. He 
did all he could to advance his home city and took an active 
part in all public enterprises. He was active also in church 
and Sunday school work. 

In 1883 he married Miss Leonora L. Wright. He leaves 
besides his widow, two sons and two daughters. 

Mr. Parker was for several years a member of the Illinois 
State Historical Society and was much interested in its work, 
especially in the quarterly Journal. 



385 

In every relation in life Mr. Parker earnestly did his part. 
He was modest and unassuming, but his methods were direct 
and forceful. He was very energetic and was possessed of 
untiring industry. His life was given to the cause of 
education. 

On August 25, 1916, the Teachers' Institute of Christian 
County, in memorial session, adopted resolutions upon Mr. 
Parker's death, the words of which express the feeling of the 
many teachers and pupils throughout the length and breadth 
of the land at his passing away, and are, in fact, indicative of 
the sentiment of all who knew Mr. Parker, and describe his 
leading characteristics as a teacher and a citizen. The resolu- 
tions are, in part, as follows: 

"We, the teachers of Christian County in institute assem- 
bled, do hereby express our sincerest sorrow and regret for 
the death of Mr. C. M. Parker, who has been a faithful leader 
among us for so many years. We have learned to love him, 
to rely upon his judgment and to trust to his advice through 
the many trials and troubles that come upon us in our school 
life. 

"We deeply deplore the sad loss that not only this com- 
munity, but the State and nation at large, has sustained. We 
wish to express our heartfelt sympathy in this moment for 
his family, and our devotion to his memory as one of the lead- 
ing educators of our time." 



386 



MRS. R. FLORENCE DENTON DUGAN. 
1851—1916. 

Miss R. Florence Denton was born in Canton Illinois, June 
29, 1851, and departed this life at the home of her daughter in 
Springfield, Illinois, September 22, 1916, at 1:20 a. m., of 
paralysis. 

When a small child her jjarents moved to Wataga, Illinois, 
where she received her education in the public schools. When 
16 years of age she engaged in school teaching, which profes- 
sion she followed for five years. She had charge of the public 
school at Middletown, Illinois, where, on the 6th day of 
October, she met the Rev. J. Jay Dugan. It was his twenty- 
fourth birthday, and the day of his first appearance as pastor 
of the Middletown circuit of the Illinois conference of the 
M. E. Church. Having work in common, these two young- 
people were together much of the time, and they soon agreed 
to unite and work together the balance of their lives. So, on 
the 15th of February, 1873, they were united in marriage by 
the Rev. M. M. Davidson of the Illinois conference. The 
ceremony was solemnized in the M. E. Church of Middle- 
town, in the presence of the community. 

More than forty-two beautiful years of unfailing love and 
devotion to her home and church has proven that Mr. Dugan 
made no mistake when he chose Miss Denton to be his life 
partner in the work of the ministry of Jesus Christ. 

She was especially gifted as a teacher and instructor of 
youth. It was her delight to form classes of children and 
youth and teach them in the fundamental teachings of Chris- 
tianity. In different places she served as superintendent of 
the Sunday School with great efficiency and acceptability. 

She was a great help to her husband in the work of the 
Gospel ministry, frequently leading the song service during 
a revival campaign, and working among the congregation and 
conducting many and many a penitent to the altar of prayer. 
She believed in the teaching and experience of Christian love 
and exemplified it in her life. 



387 

She was a devoted wife and mother. Sue loved her home 
and family. However humble, her home was her palace. She 
was the mother of four children. They are: Dr. W. J. Dugan, 
Paris, Illinois; Dr. J. C. Dugan, Dexter, Missouri; Dr. K. D. 
Dugan, Illiopolis, Illinois, and Mrs, PearJe D. Crenshaw, 
Springfield, Illinois. She taught them in the doctrines and 
faith of Christianity. It was her highest hope and constant 
prayer that they live true, godly lives. Her prayers and 
efforts have not been in vain. There are also five grand- 
children, two of whom she bad the care of for the pasi eight 
years. Besides these, she leaves an only sister, Afrs. Mary 
E. Hamilton, of Galesburg, Illinois, and her much bereaved 
husband, J. Jay Dugan, a retired minister of the M.. E. 
Church. She was loved and respected by all who knew her. 

She had been in failing health the past few years. The 
beautiful, erect form began to fade and decline. In June, 
1915, she was stricken with paraiysis, and from then on 
fought a losing battle till the end came. The funeral was 
simple and brief, conducted by the Rev. W. A. Smith, of the 
Illinois conference, assisted by Rev. T. N. Ewing, her pastor, 
and Rev. A. B. Peck, pastor of Laurel M. E. Church of 
Springfield. 

Interment was in Pleasant Plains (Illinois) cemetery. Her 
body lies beneath the sod, near the foot of the western slope 
of this beautiful burying ground, awaiting the call to the first 
resurrection. 

She gave her whole life to the cause of humanity. She now 
rests from her labors, and her works do follow her. Peace 
to her ashes and undying memory to her beautiful christian 
character of sacrifice, devotion and love. Let Nature be kind 
to this place — the last resting place of my beloved. 

May the shining of the sun be soft and bright ; 
May the winter's blast be of few days and light. 
ye rains, pat lightly this most holy mound, 
And ye winds, sough your sweetest o'er this ground. 






388 



HORACE WHITE. 
(Reprinted from the New York Evening Post.) 

It is with a sort of proud sorrow that the Evening Post 
records the death of its former editor, Horace White. The 
mournful thought that we shall not look upon Irs face again 
cannot displace the abiding satisfaction which all who knew 
him must take in his full years of life and work. To those in 
this office who marked his comings and goings through a long 
period of service, the breavement means, first of all, the loss 
of the truest of friends. For above all else it was Mr. White's 
character that set him apart from other men. He abounded 
in those little acts of kindness and of love which make a man's 
memory fragrant among his associates. His sympathy was 
as constant as the appeals made to it, and he had a heart 
open as day. He nothing common did or mean. In his 
largely moulded nature, small motives never found a place. 
The firm texture of his simple goodness gave way under no 
strain. He was a man, everybody felt, to trust and tie to. 
Not incapable of scorn and wrath, when base deeds and evil 
men had to be confronted, his predominant traits were all 
benevolent. No gentler, sweeter soul ever rounded out a 
more benignant life. 

Horace White was American from the feet up and the head 
down. His early contacts were with the free spirit of the 
West. In his young manhood he had the great good fortune 
to be thrown much with Abraham Lincoln. From him Mr. 
White absorbed political virtue that never left him. He had 
unbounded faith in democracy and the future of the republic. 
But this was on condition that both of them sailed true to 
their chart. 

A man of varied scholarship and wide reading, Mr. White 
gave most attention to finance and economics. Here he was 
a master. Having acquired a firm grasp of the fundamental 
truths, he applied them with a large sagacity to every current 
problem. He never got lost in the forest of details. Not for 
him the wire-drawn speculation, or the novelties of reasoning, 



389 

only to be expressed in mathematical symbols. Rugged good 
sense and downright argument were his sufficient stock in 
trade. And as was said of him years ago by an eminent 
banker, it seemed to be Mr. White's function to sit as a school- 
master and corrrect the ill-conditioned and unruly boys of 
finance who turned up in public from time to time. No one 
surpassed him in shooting at this kind of folly as it flew. As 
it has been written of another: "The specialty of his mind 
was a strong simplicity; he took a plain, obvious view of 
every subject which came before him. Ingenuities, refine- 
ments and specious fallacies might be suggested around him 
in any number or in any variety, but his mind -was complica- 
tion-proof. He went steadily through each new ambiguity, 
each new distinction, as it presented itself." After years of 
such work, Mr. White came to have a reputation unrivalled 
for massive and trustworthy judgment in matters financial. 
You might be puzzled, but if you went to Horace White with 
your doubt, you got a straight and clear answer. 

His was a most kindly nature, but he was a just man. Acts 
of cruelty made his benevolent face grow stem; and breach 
of faith, on the part of individuals or a nation, brought flam- 
ing words from him. Yet this attitude of his was in a way 
impersonal. It was not chiefly his own sense of outrage and 
condemnation to which he gave utterance; but you felt that 
somehow through him the accumulated judgments of all who 
had gone before him, the verdicts of history itself, were find- 
ing a voice. When a friend recently expressed concern for 
his physical ailments, he said with fine bravado: "This is no 
time for a man to die. I want to live to see this war ended, 
and ended right." His wish, alas, was not granted; yet to 
the last he was steadfast in the unconquerable belief that, 
when the end of the war did come, it would be seen that ' ' He 
who worketh high and wise" had not left off doing justice on 
the great sinners of earth. 

Mr. White at the time of his death was editor-emeritus 
and vice-president of the New York Evening Post Company, 
and long one of the foremost journalists and economists and 
financial authorities in the United States, died Saturday, 
September 17, 1916, at his residence, 18 West Sixty-ninth 
Street, New York City, after a somewhat prolonged illness. 
Mr. White, who was in his eighty-third year, retired from 



S90 

active newspaper service in ]903. Few men in the history of 
American journalism have enjoyed as wide a friendship with 
public men, or been as universally esteemed, not only for 
scholarship and abilitv 7 , but for singular modesty and unsel- 
fish public service. His public career covered the dramatic 
period of "Bleeding Kansas," the Civil War, and the Recon- 
struction period, besides which he helped to make history in 
all the stirring political campaigns that marked the close of 
the nineteenth century. Notably effective was his part in the 
campaign of 1896, in which his reply to "Coin's Financial 
School ' ' was circulated by many thousands of copies through- 
out the country. 

Horace White was born at Colebrook, New Hampshire, 
August 10, 1834. His father, Dr. Horace White, born at 
Bethlehem, New Hampshire, in 1810, married Eliza M. Moore 
of Bedford, New Hampshire, and moved to Beloit, Wisconsin, 
three years after the birth of their son. The young man 
entered Beloit College in 1819 and was graduated in 1853. 
From college he went at once into newspaper work, and in 
1854 he was city editor of the Chicago Evening Journal. 

"This was the day of small things in journalism," wrote 
Mr. White in an "Autobiographical Sketch," dated 1897. 
"The duties of the city editor included reporting police court, 
fires, markets, theatrical matters, and public meetings; also 
looking over part of the exchange papers, setting type in any 
sudden emergency, and assisting in folding and addressing 
newspapers for the mail whenever help was needed in that 
department. The pay was five dollars per week, and was 
often in arrears. 

"I remained in the service of the Journal about one year, 
and Avas then appointed Chicago agent of the New York 
Associated Press. The duties of my new position were to 
receive and distribute to the Chicago newspapers the tele- 
graphic news of the New York Associated Press, to supply 
western news by telegraph to the latter organization, and to 
keep the accounts of money received and paid out for this 
news service. 

"In the following year, 1856, I resigned this position to 
become assistant secretary of the National Kansas Commit- 
tee, whose headquarters were in Chicago. Most of the detail 
work of the committee fell to me, consisting of receiving and 






391 

forwarding arms, ammunition and all kinds of supplies to the 
Free State settlers of Kansas (among them two sons of John 
Brown), and also the outfitting of parties of new settlers who 
went through Iowa and Nebraska to the scene of conflict. 

"In 1S57 I went to Kansas with the intention of settling 
there, but on my return to Chicago to make the necessary 
dispositions, I was offered a position on the Chicago Tribune 
by Dr. C. H. Ray, who was then its chief editor. This offer 
was the best that had ever been made to me in that line, and 
I decided to accept it, and abandon my intention of settling 
in Kansas. This new connection brought me into close rela- 
tions with Abraham Lincoln, whom I had first met in Spring- 
field, Illinois, in the autumn of 1854." 

His friendship with Lincoln was one of the treasures Mr. 
White held dearest. He reported all the renowned joint de- 
bates between Lincoln and Douglas, and between times trav- 
eled thousands of miles with the "rail-splitter," often side by 
side. From this intimacy he drew a wealth of personal anec- 
dote and incident that in his later years he delighted to spread 
before his friends. 

"I had never even heard his name before," wrote Mr. 
White in 1906 of his first meeting with Lincoln, when he was 
sent by his paper to Springfield, Illinois, to report the future 
President's speech against the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise. "At first glance, his appearance was not attractive. 
He was tall, bony, angular, and destitute of all the graces ex- 
cept a winning cast of countenance with which he greeted all 
comers; but that counted for much. Kindliness and honesty 
beamed from his eyes and from every wrinkle on his face. 

"It was a warmish day in early October, and Mr. Lincoln 
was in his shirt sleeves when he stepped on the platform. 
I observed that, although awkward, he was not in the least 
embarrassed. He began in a slow and hesitating manner, but 
without any mistakes of language, dates or facts. It was evi- 
dent that he had mastered his subject, that he knew what he 
was going to say, and that he knew he was right. 

"Gradually he warmed up with his subject, his angularity 
disappeared, and he passed into that attitude of unconscious 
majesty that is so conspicuous in Saint-Gaudens's statue at 
the entrance of Lincoln Park, in Chicago. Progressing with 
his theme, his words began to come faster and his face to 



392 

light up with the rays of genius and his arms and body to 
move in unison with his thoughts. 

" Sometimes his manner was very impassioned, and he 
seemed transfigured with his subject. Perspiration would 
stream from his face, and each particular hair would stand 
on end. Then the inspiration that possessed him took pos- 
session of his hearers also. His speaking went to the heart 
because it came from the heart. I have heard celebrated ora- 
tors who could start thunders of applause without changing 
any man's opinion. Mr. Lincoln's eloquence was of the 
higher type which produced conviction in others because of 
the conviction of the speaker himself." 

Of a still more interesting experience Mr. White wrote as 
follows in Herndon and Weik 's Life of Lincoln : 

"It was my good fortune to accompany Mr. Lincoln during 
his political campaign against Senator Douglas, in 1858, not 
only at the joint debates, but also at most of the smaller meet- 
ings, where his competitor was not present. We traveled to- 
gether many thousands of miles. I was in the employ of the 
Chicago Tribune, then called the Press and Tribune. Sena- 
tor Douglas had entered upon his campaign with two short- 
hand reporters, James B. Sheridan and Henry Binmore, 
whose duty it was to 'write it up' in the columns of the Chi- 
cago Times. The necessity of counteracting or matching that 
force became apparent very soon, and I was chosen to write 
up Mr. Lincoln's campaign. 

"I was not a shorthand reporter. The verbatim reporting 
for the Chicago Tribune in the joint debates was done by 
Mr. Robert E. Hitt, late Assistant Secretary of State, and 
the present Representative in Congress from the Sixth dis- 
trict of Illinois. Verbatim reporting was a new feature in 
journalism in Chicago, and Mr. Hitt was the pioneer thereof. 
The publication of Senator Douglas' opening speech in that 
campaign, delivered on the evening of July 9, by the Tribune 
the next morning, was a feat hitherto unexampled in the 
West, and most mortifying to the Democratic newspaper, the 
Times, and to Sheridan and Binmore, who, after taking down 
the speech as carefully as Mr. Hitt had done, had gone to bed, 
intending to write it out next day, as was then customary. 

"The next stage brought us to Ottawa, the first joint de- 
bate, August 21. Here the crowd was enormous. The weather 



393 

had been very dry and the town was shrouded in dust, raised 
by the moving populace. Crowds were pouring 1 into town 
from sunrise till noon, in all sorts of conveyances, teams, rail- 
road trains, canal boats, cavalcades and processions on foot, 
with banners and inscriptions, stirring up such clouds of dust 
that it was hard to make out what was underneath them. The 
town was covered with bunting, and bands of music were 
tooting around every corner, drowned now and then by the 
roar of cannon. Mr. Lincoln came by railroad, and Mr. Doug- 
las by carriage, from LaSaile. A train of seventeen passen- 
ger cars from Chicago attested the interest felt in that city 
in the first meeting of the champions. Two great processions 
escorted them to the platform in the public square. But ihe 
eagerness to hear the speaking was so great that the crowd 
had taken possession of the square and the platform, and had 
climbed on the wooden awning overhead, to such an extent 
that the speakers and the committees and reporters could not 
get to their places. Half an hour was consumed in a rough- 
and-tumble skirmish to make way for them, and, when finally 
this was accomplished, a section of the awning gave way with 
its load of men and boys, and came down on the heads 
of the Douglas committee of reception. But, fortunately, no- 
body was hurt. 

"At the conclusion of the Ottawa debate, a circumstance 
occurred which, Mr. Lincoln said to me afterwards, was ex- 
tremely mortifying to him. Half a dozen Eepublicans, roused 
to a high pitch of enthusiasm for their leader, seized him as 
he came down from the platform, hoisted him upon their 
shoulders, and marched off with him, singing the 'Star 
Spangled Banner' or 'Hail Columbia,' until they reached the 
place where he was to spend the night. What use Douglas 
made of this incident is known to readers of the joint debates. 
He said a few days later, at Joliet, that Lincoln was so used 
up in the discussion that his knees trembled, and he had to be 
carried from the platform, and he caused this to be printed 
in the newspapers of his own party. Mr. Lincoln called him 
to account for this fable at Jonesboro. 

"The Ottawa debate gave great satisfaction to our side. 
Mr. Lincoln, we thought, had the better of the argument, and 
we all came away encouraged. But the Douglas men were 
encouraged also. In his concluding half hour Douglas spoke 



394 

with great rapidity and animation, and yet with perfect dis- 
tinctness, and his supporters cheered him wildly." 

In 1861 the Chicago Tribune sent Mr. White to Washing- 
ton, where he acted both as its correspondent and as clerk 
of the Senate Military Affairs Committee. Early in 1864 he, 
together with Adams Sherman Hill, later the distinguished 
professor of English in Harvard University, and Henry Vil- 
lard, who subsequently completed the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, formed the first news agency to compete with the Asso- 
ciated Press. Mr. White and Mr. Hill managed the service 
in Washington, while Mr. Villard took the field with the Army 
of the Potomac. The Chicago Tribune, Springfield Repub- 
lican, Missouri Democrat, of St. Louis, the Rochester Demo- 
crat, the Boston Advertiser and the Cincinnati ' Commercial 
formed the syndicate. Mr. White's friendship with Mr. Vil- 
lard, begun during the Lincoln-Douglas debates in 1858, was 
destined profoundly to affect his career. 

Returning to Chicago in 1865 as editor-in-chief of the Chi- 
cago Tribune, Mr. White conducted that journal with marked 
ability until 1874, when ill health forced him to retire and to 
spend a year in Europe, where Mr. Villard was then sojourn- 
ing. In 1877 he joined the latter, who was then receiver of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, in that enterprise, and subse- 
quently became treasurer of the Oregon Railway and Navi- 
gation Company, of which Mr. Villard was president. 

When, in 1881, Mr. Villard conceived the idea of buying 
the New York Evening Post, in order to establish a politically 
independent newspaper, devoted to high journalistic ideals 
and free from counting-room domination, he invited Horace 
White, Carl Schurz and Edwin L. Godkin to assume its man- 
agement. After a service of something over a year, General 
Schurz resigned as editor-in-chief. Mr. Godkin succeeded 
him, with Mr. White as head of the company. To insure 
editorial freedom, Mr. Villard divested himself of all stock 
control and vested the voting power in the hands of three 
trustees, of whom Mr. White was one. No editor could have 
had a more devoted first lieutenant than Mr. Godkin had in 
Mr. White, and when Mr. Godkin retired in 1899, Mr. White 
succeeded him, serving as editor-in-chief until January 1, 
. 1903, when he became editor emeritus at his own request. He 
never lost his interest in this journal. His highly valued 



395 

advice and suggestions were always at its command, while 
his pen ceased only recently to contribute to its columns — 
after thirty-five years of association. 

In November, 1901, the Evening Post celebrated its one 
hundredth anniversary, and on that occasion, at a luncheon 
given by a number of prominent citizens of New York, Mr. 
White had this to say about the function of an independent 
newspaper, such as the one of which he was then the editor : 

"You may ask what I mean by independent journalism. 
«£That phrase has more than one signification. It is sometimes 
used to signify mere neutrality between political parties. A 
newspaper of this kind aims to offend neither party, so that 
it may gain patronage from both. That is not independence. 
An independent journal must offend both parties, and all 
parties, or must hold itself ready to offend when they go 
wrong. A political party is composed of men who have joined 
together for various reasons and purposes — some to promote 
public interests, others to get office, others to get jobs and to 
plunder the taxpayers. 

"There is a tendency in political parties to fall under the 
control of the office seekers and the jobbers and robbers, be- 
cause they give all their time to party management. Such a 
condition may exist while the mass of the party is as upright 
as the twelve apostles. Indeed, the masses of all political 
parties are upright. They are the public, and they seek the 
public welfare. Most commonly, however, they believe that 
their own party cannot go wrong, or at any rate, cannot go 
so wrong as the other party certainly will, if it comes into 
power. This is party spirit. It has existed in all ages and 
in all countries, and has by no means been restricted to the 
uneducated classes. Even Dr. Johnson, in defining the word 
Whig in his dictionary, said that 'the devil was the first 
Whig.' 

"Now, it is the duty of an independent journal to tell the 
public what the party leaders are doing, both when they are 
doing well and when they are doing ill, and to point out the 
consequences of their acts. * * * An independent journal, 
if it is true to its calling, will offend all political parties by 
turn — will offend them more or less — but it will find compen- 
sation in the existence of a growing body of independent citi- 
zens, both men and women. Independent citizenship may 



396 

exist without an independent press, but without that daily 
stimulus its growth will be slow, and its existence pre- 
carious." 

Mr. White's specialty was political economy, and he was 
an expert writer on the money question and on banking. He 
used his forceful pen to combat all financial delusions, notably 
the greenback movement and the tree silver movement. The 
effectiveness of his writings was due largely to the clearness 
and simplicity of his style, and to a remarkable facility in 
homely illustration which made his point clear even to the 
most uninformed reader. 

At the luncheon already mentioned, Joseph C. Hendrix, a 
representative banker, bore testimony to Mr. White's accom- 
plishments in these words: 

"There has never been such turbulent economic thinking 
in the course of the world's history as that which we have 
known in the past two generations. We have seen a whole 
nation — a free, independent, vigorous, self-assertive people 
— attacking an economic question, and with the bravery and 
audacity with which the American people take up great ques- 
tions. First, the question of the greenbacks; then in all its 
collateral issues the depreciated silver dollar; then interna- 
tional bimetallism, and various suggestions of ratios, until 
finally the victory was won in behalf of the gold standard, 
bringing us into relation with all of the civilization of the 
earth; and throughout all these days we had the patient 
schoolmaster, who, without harangue, without any attempted 
eloquence, sat upon his editorial tripod, and attacked one 
fallacy after another, as it made its appearance in public 
debate and public discussion, and saw the full effulgence of 
the victory, and did not once say, 'Throw a rose at me.' 

"It has been my fortune, ladies and gentlemen, to know of 
the value of this gentleman's work, and to be able to measure 
it. It is my privilege and my honor to be able here, in behalf 
not only of the bankers of New York, but in behalf of the 
bankers of the United States, to testify (turning to Mr. 
Yv T hite) to your splendid services in the final establishment 
of the gold standard in this country." 

In 1908 Governor Hughes appointed Mr. White chairman 
of the Wall Street Investigating Commission, called the Com- 
mittee on Speculation in Securities and Commodities. The 



397 

other members of the committee were Charles A. Schieren, 
David Leventritt, Clark Williams, John B. Clark, Willard 
V. King, Samuel H. Ordway, Edward D. Page and Charles 
Sprague Smith. By 1914 the Stock Exchange had adopted 
eight of the committee's twelve recommendations. 

The committee began its report with a consideration of the 
dangers of speculation, and pointed out how it was practically 
impossible to distinguish "what was virtually gambling from 
legitimate speculation." The gist of the committee's verdict 
on the Stock Exchange itself was that that institution was all 
right if it behaved itself. But if it behaved like a spoiled 
child any more, as it had in the past, the paternal State Avould 
have to step in and incorporate it. The report proceeded to 
handle the curb market without gloves, and recommended 
the abolition of the Metal Exchange and the Mercantile 
Exchange. Of price manipulation on the Stock Exchange, the 
report said: 

"While we have been unable to discover any remedy short 
of abolishing the Exchange itself, we are convinced that the 
Exchange can prevent the worst forms of this evil by exer- 
cising its influence and authority over the members to prevent 
them. When continued manipulation exists, it is patent to 
experienced observers. ' ' 

Mr. White's "Money and Banking, Illustrated by Ameri- 
can History," has long been a college text-book and a recog- 
nized authority on the subject. It has run into many editions. 
Mr. White was also a Greek scholar. He translated from the 
Greek Appian's "Roman History." He edited Bastiat's 
"Sophismes Economiques" and Luigi Cossa's "Scienza delle 
Finanze," and he was the author of the "Life of Lyman 
Trumbull." 

Among the organizations of which Mr. White was a mem- 
ber were the Century, University, Union League and Greek 
Clubs, and an honorary member of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society. His first wife died in 1873, and in 1875 he 
married Miss Amelia J. MacDougall, of Chicago, who died 
in 1885. Three daughters, Mrs. John Mead Howells and the 
Misses Elizabeth and Martha White, survive him. 

In January, 1908, Mr. White again visited Springfield, 
Illinois. On this occasion he delivered a masterly address 
before the Illinois State Historical Society, the title of which 



398 

was "Lincoln in 1854." Many noted students of the life of 
Mr. Lincoln have declared this address to be the clearest 
exposition of that period of his life, and the circumstances 
which resulted in the defeat of Mr. Lincoln and the election 
of Lyman Trumbull to the United States Senate, and of the 
significance and results of this occurrence. It is certain that 
it occupies a very high place in the voluminous literature re- 
lating to Abraham Lincoln and his times. This article was 
published in the transactions of the Society. At the annual 
meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society the same year 
(1908) Mr. White was elected an honorary member of the 
Society, and has been interested in its work and has written 
many friendly letters to the secretary, expressing interest 
and giving helpful advice. 

In October, 1908, Mr. White attended the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the joint debate between Mr. Lincoln and Judge 
Douglas. Mr. White made an address, giving his recollec- 
tions of the original debate, at which time he was present as 
a reporter. 

Mr. White's long and useful life, his steadfast and fearless 
course in every crisis, make him a shining example of that 
class of Americans who are an honor to his generation and 
his country. 



399 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 

AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to I860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., and Milo J, Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. ♦Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 15 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph.D. 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. ♦Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph.D. 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. ♦Alphabetical Catalog of the Bocks, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Title3 and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Spriugtield, 1900. 

Nob. G to 21. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901 to 1915. (Nos. 6 to 12 and 18 out of print.) 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1903. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord. CLVI and 6G3 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. 627 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1908. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Gover- 
nors' Letter-Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with Introduction and Notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1915. 



400 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New 
Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. S vo. Spring- 
field, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois Slate Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 

1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
38 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

•Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 

1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

•Circular Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1. November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie 
Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

•Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, 
to Vol. IX, No. 3, October, 1916. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and No. 1 of Vol. VIII. 



•Out of print. 



Vol. 9 



JANUARY, 1917 



No. 4 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois State 
Historical Society 






Published Quarterly by the 

Illinois State Historical Society 

Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at "Washington, D. C, as Second Class Matter under Act of 
Congress of July 16, 1894 



[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 



Schnepp & Barnes, State Printers 
Springfield, III. 

1917. ••-» 

P293— 3H 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Jessie Palmer Weber, Editor. 

Associate Editors: 
George W. Smith J. H. Burnham 

Andrew Russel William A. Meese 

Edward C. Page H. W. Clendenin 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



Honorary President 
Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President 
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President 
W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice President 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President 
Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer "Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. M eese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter : Belvidere 

Edward C. Page DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Coyler Albion 

James A. James Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I. Officers of the Society v 

II. An Appeal to the Historical Society and the Gen- 
eral Public xi 

III. Joseph J. Thompson. Penalties of Patriotism. . . 401 

TV. Edmund Janes James. Eev. Colin Dew James, A 

Pioneer Methodist Preacher of Early Illinois. . 450 

V. "William Epler. Some Beginnings in Central Cass 

County 470 

VI. Katherine Stahl. Early Women Preachers of Illi- 
nois 483 

VII. Walter Colyer. Times when Lincoln remembered 

Albion 489 

VEIL James C. Burns. The Old Kandolph House, Ma- 
comb, Illinois 499 

IX. L. A. Abbott. Poem honoring Lincoln's Birth- 
day 500 

X. George W. Brown. The Captivity of the Hall 

Girls 503 

XI. Eev. W. W. Harsha. Letter to John Dixon. April 

29, 1866 505 

XII. Editorial 509 

Inauguration of Governor Frank O. Lowden and 

other State officers of Illinois 511 

Lincoln Birthday Banquet 513 

Illinois Centennial Celebration 513 

Nebraska State Historical Society, Annual Meet- 
ing •. . . 514 



vm. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS— Concluded. 

XII— Concluded. 

Last witness in famous Lincoln case 515 

Gift of books, letters and manuscripts to Illinois 
State Historical Library and Society 516 

XIII. Necrology 523 

Arthur Van Dyke Pierson. By D. F. Trimmer 

and Anna Pierson 525 

Edwin S. Wells 531 

Clarence Sumner Paine 535 

Henry Mackay 536 

Edward T. Campbell 538 

Major Henry Clay Connelly 540 

George P. Davis 544 

Captain J. H. Burnham. By Charles L. Capen. 549 

XIV. Publications, Illinois State Historical Library and 

Society 553 



AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE 
GENERAL PUBLIC. 



HISTORICAL MATERIAL DESIRED BY THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

(.Members please read this Circular Letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American History, Biography and Genealogy, par- 
ticularly those relating to the "West; works on Indian Tribes, and American 
Archaeology and Ethnology; Reports of Societies and Institutions of every kind. 
Educational. Economic. Social. Political, Cooperative, Fraternal. Statistical, In- 
dustrial, Charitable: Scientilic Publcations of States or Societies; Books or 
Pamphlets relating to the Great Rebellion, and the wars with the Indians; pri- 
vately printed Works; Newspapers; Haps and Charts; Engravings; Photographs; 
Autographs; Coins; Antiquities; lOncyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Bibliographical 
Works. Especially do we desire 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or any part 
of it; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, whether pub- 
lished in Illinois or elsewhere; Materials for Illinois History; Old Letters. 
Journals. 

2. Manuscripts ; Narratives of the Pioneers of Illinois ; Original Papers on 
the- Early History and Settlement of the Territory; Adventures and Conflicts 
during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the late Rebellion; Biog- 
raphies of the Pioneers, prominent citizens and public men of every County, 
either living or deceased, together with their portraits and autographs; a sketch 
of the settlement of every Township, Village and Neighborhood in the State, 
with the nam's of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every subject con- 
nected with Illinois History. 

3. City Ordinances, proceedings of Mayor and Council; Reports of Commit- 
tees of Council; Pamphlets or Papers of any kind printed by authority of the 
City; Reports of Boards of Trade; Maps of cities and Plats of town sites or of 
additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of aV kinds ; Annual Reports of Societies ; Sermons and 
Addresses delivered in the State : Minutes of Church Conventions, Synods, or 
other Ecclesiastical Bodies of Illinois; Political Addresses; Railroad Reports; 
all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of Colleges and other Institutions of Learning ; 
Annual or other Reports of School Boards, School Superintendents, and .School 
Committees; Educational Pamphlets, Programs and Papers of every kind, no 
matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier Laws, Journals and Reports of our Territorial and 
State Legislatures: earlier Governors' Messages and Reports of State Officers; 
Reports of State Charitable and other State Institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois Newspapers and Magazines, especially complete volumes 
of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly requested to 
contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be carefully preserved 
and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of Counties or Townships, of any date ; Views and 
Engravings of bxiildings or historic places; Drawings or Photographs of scenery; 
Paintings; Portraits, etc., connected with Illinois History. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; Coins: Medals; Paintings; Portraits; Engrav- 
ings : Statuary : War Relics, Autograph Letters of distinguished persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian Tribes — their History, Characteristics, 
Religibn, etc.: Sketches of prominent Chiefs, Orators and Warriors, together with 
contributions of Indian Weapons, Costumes, Ornaments, Curiosities, and Imple- 
ments; also, Stone Axes, Spears, Arrow Heads, Pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can illustrate the 
history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or present condition. All 
will be of interest to succeeding generations. Contributions will be credited to 
the donors in the published reports of the Library and Society, and will be care- 
fully preserved in the State House as the property of the State, for the use and 
benefit of the people for all time. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



tfff- 



PENALTIES OF PATRIOTISM.* 

An Appreciation of the Life, Patriotism and Services of 

Francis Vigo, Pierre Gibault, George Rogers Clark 

and Arthur St. Clair, "The Founders of 

the Northwest." 

[By Joseph J. Thompson.] 

The writer of the accompanying paper undertook the 
preparation thereof under the conviction that the memory of 
the four men treated therein and their services to our coun- 
try, in justice demanded at this time, the eve of the Centennial 
Celebration, a plain statement of their great patriotism and 
the shameful neglect of their contemporaries and succeeding 
generations. 

In the course of the paper, the story of the conquest of 
the Northwest is told much as it has been written since Clark's 
papers have been known. The writer is convinced, however, 
that the story is quite incomplete in that form. Study and 
investigation compel this conviction. The true story of the 
Conquest, the writer is convinced, may be summed up as 
follows : 

The inhabitants of the Illinois country at all times chafed 
under the British rule acquired by the treaty of Quebec. 
They never gave Great Britain their allegiance and were 
eager for an opportunity to throw off British domination. 
They were not ignorant of the differences between the 
American colonies and Great Britain as has frequently been 
intimated. Many of the able men in the Illinois country 
traveled about a great deal and there can be no question but 
that Pierre Gibault was much more widely informed than 
Clark or any other western man. He was in communication 



*A paper read before the Springfield Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, Springfield. Illinois, November 16 ,1916. 



402 

continuously Avith Quebec, traveled frequently between Kas- 
kaskia, Vincennes and all the other posts. It would be a 
gross reflection upon his intelligence to assume that he was 
not well informed about the Revolutionary AVar, and he was 
certainly not the only man having such information in Kas- 
kaskia before Clark's conquest. Prior to that time Brady 
had lead a force out of Kaskaskia and captured the British 
post, at St. Joseph, and undoubtedly a number of the young 
men had journeyed eastward to engage in the Revolutionary 
"War with the American forces. 

Relative to the taking over of Kaskaskia, therefore, the 
facts seem to be that when George Rogers Clark sent his spies, 
Ben Linn and Samuel Moore to Kaskaskia, they became 
acquainted with Daniel Murray and his associates and formed 
a plan of cooperation. Murray and his coworkers were 
advised of Clark's intended march upon Kaskaskia and got 
everything in readiness for it. Father Gibault was notified 
and relied upon to procure the submission of the French 
inhabitants, and the plan was successfully executed.' 

Once Clark was in possession, the money problem became 
pressing, and was to an extent solved by Father Gibault 
inducing his intimate friend Francis Vigo to back the govern- 
ment. Vigo opened a business house, virtually a bank in 
Kaskaskia, established friendly relations between Clark and 
the Spanish commandant, and thus the new regime was 
inaugurated. 

Knowing the conditions fully, Father Gibault understood 
that Vincennes and the other posts and settlements in the 
immediate territory should be reduced to possession, and he 
and his people provided Clark the means of so doing includ- 
ing the necessary funds, supplies and additional men. 

This state of facts is in the judgment of the writer 
established by satisfactory evidence now accessible and 
reflects even more credit upon two of the characters in the 
following paper, Gibault and Vigo, than the familiar accounts, 
but it is the judgment of the writer that at the lowest estimate 
placed by any publicist upon the four men herein treated, 
they stand at the head of the roll of honor whereon may be 
recorded the names of the distinguished men of the empire 
of the Northwest. 



403 

It is not inappropriate that a paper such as I have been 
asked to prepare should have a text, even though it be not a 
scriptural one. I have, therefore, chosen an utterance of 
Bishop Porteus as expressive of a patriotic sentiment: 

"He who undertakes an occupation of great toil and 
danger for the purpose of serving, defending and protecting 
his country is a most valuable and respectable member of 
society; and if he conducts himself with valor, fidelity and 
humanity and amidst the horrors of war, cultivates the gentle 
manners of peace and the virtues of a devout and holy life, 
he most amply deserves and will assuredly receive the 
esteem, the admiration and the applause of his grateful 
country, and what is of still greater importance, the approba- 
tion of his God." 

It is the purpose of this paper to apply this sentiment to 
the lives of four men, the founders of this great common- 
wealth; namely, Francis Vigo, who financed the embryo 
empire; Pierre Gibault, who created its patriotism; George 
Rogers Clark, who effected its conquest; and Arthur St. 
Clair, who established order within its confines. 

Empires do not arise by mere accident and are not 
builded without the exercise of wisdom. Resources, .pure 
motives, courage and sagacity — all are necessary to the firm 
establishment of a state and those qualities must be happily 
combined in such an undertaking. 

The four men whose names I have mentioned typify these 
qualities, and they must, in justice, be conceded the chief 
forces in the establishment of the Northwest territory. 



404 



viao. 

To George Rogers Clark is due the honor of conceiving 
the plan for the conquest of the Northwest, but to Colonel 
Francis Vigo must be given the credit of making the conquest 
possible. 

Upon no page of history vail be found the name of a man 
whose actions parallel those of Vigo. Consider the situation. 
Vigo was a native of Sardinia and unquestionably a man of 
singular capacity. When we first become interested in him, 
we find him a subject of Spain, carrying on his business under 
Spanish-American dominion at St. Louis, in partnership with 
the Spanish commandant. 1 

He is thoroughly conversant with world affairs. He 
has watched and studied the course of events, has noted the 
varying fortunes of the French and English in the old world 
wars, understands the feelings of the American pioneers, sym- 
pathizes in their aspirations for freedom and is already at 
heart an American of Americans. 

He hears of Clark's success at Kaskaskia and Vincennes 
and feels the call to duty. Without a moment's hesitation 
and without a single suggestion, unless it be from above, he 
leaves the Spanish domain, forswears in effect his Spanish 
allegiance and presents himself and his fortune to Colonel 
Clark to serve the cause of liberty. 2 

An Italian by birth and Spanish by allegiance, he was 
under no obligation to espouse the American cause. Nay, 
more, Spain was then at peace with Great Britain and any 
interference on the pari: of her citizens was a breach of neu- 
trality and subjected an individual, especially of the high 
character and standing of Colonel Vigo, to all the contumely 
loss and vengeance which British power on this side of the 
Mississippi could inflict, but Colonel Vigo did not falter. With 
an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people. 



v • 







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r 



\ ■ ' ' . s \ *.■-?'■ ? ' ,r ' ■ > \' : .. '*t' 



i ' C v: : v: " \ '- <f'v>- 



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1 



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FRANCOIS VIGO. 
['Vcw a fainting in possession of the Vincenn.es Uni\<ersity.\ 



Born, in Sardinia, 1747. Died in Vinconnes, Ind., 1805. 
"Generous Sponsor of the Northwest." 



405 

struggling for their rights, he disregarded all personal con- 
sequences. 3 

It was highly fortunate for the country, even if otherwise 
for Colonel Vigo, that Clark had the acumen to recognize the 
character of man that had thus offered his services. Clark 
accepted them with gratitude and at once gave Vigo his confi- 
dence. 4 Following the occupation of Vincennes, there ensued 
a failure of communication between Helm, the commander 
there, and Clark. Xo news was received from Vincennes for 
several months and Clark was uncertain of the fate of Helm, 
and his small force. It was m this critical situation that Vigo 
rendered to Clark and the country his first great service. 
Journeying to Vincennes in the course of his business, he was 
taken prisoner by hostile Indians, plundered of everything he 
possessed and brought before Lieutenant Governor Hamilton, 
who as we know had by this time recaptured Vincennes and 
Was then in command of the fort. 

Being a Spanish subject and, accordingly, a non-combat- 
ant, Governor Hamilton, although strongly suspecting the 
motives of Vigo's visit, dared not confine him, but admitted 
him to his parole on condition that he report daily at the fort. 
This arrangement proved valuable to Vigo, as upon his fre- 
quent visits to the fort, he was enabled to ascertain the state 
of the garrison, the number of men, the position, means of 
defense, and in fact all matters necessary to make an accurate 
report of the situation. Vigo proved an embarrassing pris- 
oner to the English Governor. He was much beloved by the 
people of Vincennes who, headed by Father Gibault, besieged 
the Governor for his release, and finally threatened that unless 
released, they would refuse all supplies to the garrison. 5 

Under the circumstances, Governor Hamilton offered 
Vigo his freedom on condition that he sign an agreement "not 
to do any act during the war, injurious to the British in- 
terests." This, Vigo absolutely refused to do. Whereupon 
after further negotiations, Vigo was released upon signing 
an agreement "not to do anything injurious to the British 
interests on his way to St. Louis." 6 

Having thus gained his liberty and possessing complete 
knowledge of the British situation, Vigo pushed doAvn the 
"Wabash and Ohio and up the Mississippi to St. Louis. 7 



406 

It is recorded that Colonel Vigo religiously kept the 
letter of his agreement. On his way to St. Louis he did 
nothing injurious in the slightest degree to British interests, 
but his journey ended, he hastened to Kaskaskia and gave 
the information he had obtained to Colonel Clark and 
arranged the plan by means of which, and by means of 
which alone, 8 Clark was enabled to succeed, and did succeed 
in surprising Hamilton and making captives of him and his 
garrison. 

While the taking possession of Kaskaskia and Cahokia 
was important, the capture of Vincennes was of vastly 
greater importance. Throughout the Revolutionary "War, 
the British post at Detroit was considered a thorn in the 
side of the young country. It was the subject of many con- 
ferences and of great solicitude, but as viewed with refer- 
ence to subsequent results, it must appear that the conquest 
of Vincennes was more fruitful of results than could have 
been the taking of Detroit. It therefore seems entirely cor- 
rect to sa} r that the capture of Vincennes was one of the 
most important events of the Revolutionary War. Speak- 
ing of Clark's conquest, Judge Law in his history of Vin- 
cennes, says : 

"It was, as regards its ultimate effect, upon the Union 
decidedly the most brilliant and useful of any undertaking 
during the Revolutionary War. Clark, by that campaign, 
added a territory embracing three of the finest states in the 
Union to the Confederacy, to wit: Indiana, Illinois and 
Michigan; a territory which but for this very conquest, must 
now have been subject to British dominion, unless like 
Louisiana, it had since been acquired by purchase. For the 
only pretense of title which our commissioners in the negotia- 
tions which resulted in the treaty of peace in 1783 set up to 
this immense territory, was "the capture of it by Clark and 
the possession of it by the Americans at the'date of the con- 
ference, * * and the mind would be lost in the calcula- 
tion of dollars and cents, to say nothing of the other matters 
which constitute a state and which the government has gained 
from the conquest." 9 

Apostrophizing Vigo's worth, Law exclaims: 



407 

"Spirit of the illustrious dead, let others judge of this 
matter as they may. we who have lived to see the immense 
advantages of that conquest to our beloved country — so 
little known and so little appreciated when made— will do 
you justice, and we will also teach our children and our 
children's children who are to occupy our places when we 
arc gone, to read and remember, among the earliest lessons 
of the history of that portion of the country, which is to be 
also their abiding place — our own lovely valley — that its 
conquest and subsequent attachment to the Union, was as 
much owing to the councils and services of Vigo, as to the 
bravery and enterprise of Clark." ,0 

But the fate of a state is not determined by its conquest. 
(Mark and his "Long Knives" walked into Kaskaskia and 
took possession without firing a single shot or striking a 
single blow. Indeed, no obstacle was interposed and he 
settled down into full control as completely as though he 
had been selected by the unanimous vote of the people to rule 
them, lie had, however, the semblance at least of a gov- 
ernment to maintain an army, though a small one, to support, 
and as in every day so in that, it required money for such 
purposes. 

When the government of Virginia gave to Clark his 
commission to make a conquest of the territory northwest of 
the Ohio it authorized the issuance to him, of credits to the ex- 
tent of 1,200 pounds. The quality of the funds furnished Clark 
and the history of the financial transactions of Colonel 
Clark and Pollock are well known, and it is well known that 
it was a matter of extreme difficulty to induce the French 
inhabitants at Kaskaskia, after Clark's arrival there, to take 
the "continental paper" which Clark and his soldiers had 
brought with them. Patriotic though they might be, these 
paper promises looked anything but good to them, and 
Clark was utterly unable to induce the inhabitants to part 
with their goods in exchange for such paper. Again, Vigo 
came to the rescue and with almost unparalleled generosity 
guaranteed the redemption of the paper. Peltries and piastres 
were the currency known to these simple- and unsophisti- 
cated Frenchmen. They could neither 7-ead nor write and 
Colonel Vigo had great difficulty in explaining this new 



40S 

financial arrangement to them. "Their commandants never 
made money," was. the only reply to the Colonel's explana- 
tion of the policy of the ''old dominion" in these issues. 11 

Colonel Vigo had a trading establishment at Kaskaskia 
after Clark's arrival and patriotically redeemed this con- 
tinental currency; but despite all his efforts to maintain the 
credit of the government, continental dollars went from par 
to $20.00 of paper to $1.00 of silver. Nevertheless, Colonel 
Vigo persisted in his patriotic efforts to sustain the credit 
of the government he had espoused with the result that his 
entire private fortune and all that he was able to make in 
trade was sacrificed. 12 

After the close of the war, Vigo removed most of his 
interests to Vincennes and lived there during the remainder 
of his life. He v r as always patriotic and public spirited, 
acting as a representative of the government upon numerous 
occasions and participating in all movements for the public 
welfare. 13 

He sought by all legitimate means, the repayment of 
the money advanced to his country, and being unable to 
collect any part of wdiat was due, became financially embar- 
rassed, struggled along, hoping against hope, paying ruinous 
interest for loans secured to tide him over until his claims 
should be paid, but at last w r as crowded to the wall. 14 The 
most unpleasant thing we read in the life of the pioneer 
lawyer, John Bice Jones, is of the action prosecuted by him 
as attorney for the holder of a note against Francis Vigo, 
which finally caused his financial collapse. 15 

Between an endeavor to promote his business and the 
drain upon his resources made by his attempts to recover 
what the government owed him, Vigo was reduced to actual 
and apparently abject poverty. So poor w r as he that his 
funeral expenses remained unpaid for forty years after his 
death. 10 

He died without receiving a single dollar in return for 
all he had advanced to his government. His unheeded 
appeal to Congress in 1S34, when he was beyond 80 years of 
age, was most pitiful. 17 

Though doubts assailed him, and though he is said to 
have observed that the Lord seemed to have forgotten him, 



409 

the fire of his patriotism never burned out. By his will he 
directed that in case anything was ever recovered of his claim 
against the government, a portion should be set aside for the 
purchase of a bell for the courthouse of Vigo County. 18 

To be true to history it should be stated that this pro- 
vision of his will was carried out. Forty years after his 
death, legal heirs, bnt none of the blood of Francis Vigo 
recovered — won at last from the government a judgment for 
a part of the funds lost by Vigo, and for the want of which he 
lived a pauper's life and went to a pauper's grave. 19 



TSO'JTES 

FRAXCOIS VIGO — 1747-1S35. 
1 "Colonial History of Vmeermes." Law. p. 2S. 

Francis Vigo was born at Vor.dovi. Sardinia, (Western Italy) in 1747, served 
In the Spanish Army until about "25 years of age. Came to St. Louis in 1772 
and engaged in the fur t.wie irs partnership with the Spanish Commandant, Don 
Francisco DeLeyba. — Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, title "Vigo." 

"Friendly relations between Clark and DeLeyba, the Spanish Lieutenant- 
Governor at St. Louis, were begun immediately after the capture of Kaskaskia 
and became constantly more intimate through correspondence, through the influ- 
ence of Colonel Francis Vice, trusted associate of Clark and friend and business 
partner of DeLeyba. and through the visits of Clark at the home of the latter 
in St. Louis." James — Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. VIII, p. LXVII. 

'"Born a Sardinian, he early enlisted as a private in a Spanish regiment. 
and was sent to New Orleans. Procuring an honorable discharge, he engaged 
in the fur trade on the Arkansas, and after St. Louis was founded he removed 
to that part and became a prosperous trader on the Missouri. With a love of 
liberty that Spanish service could not efface, he went to Clark at Kaskaskia and 
made offer of his means and his influence to advance the cause of liberty." 
Moore— "The Northwest Under Three Flags," p. 231. 
3 Colonial History of Vincennes. p. 2S. 

"His sympathies already enlisted in favor of the colonies took active form 
on the appearance of Chirk at Kaskaskia. His time, influence, and whole fortune 
were staked with an open hand upon the issue. He turned out his merchandise 
to supply Clark's destitute soldiers, and sustained the credit of the Virginia 
continental money by taking it at par or guaranteeing its redemption, at its 
face, to those who exchanged their provisions' or supplies for it. His advances 
or liabilities incurred in this way amounted to more than twenty thousand 
dollars, which with Hamilton's, the British Commander's confiscations at Vin- 
cennes and losses through reprisals of Indians hostile to his side of the war, 
reduced him to poverty. •' • *■ He was never recompensed for his pecuniary 
sacrifices, though the United States made a tardy and partial restitution to his 
heirs." H. W. Beckwith in "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., Reynolds, p. 
423. 

■t Moore says: "Clark gladly accepted and quickly made use of Vigo's 
services, by sending him to Vincennes with supplies for Captain Helm. Accom- 
panied by a single servant, Vigo set out with a pack of goods, but on reaching 
the river Embarras ho was seir.t-d by Indians, his goods were stolen, and, a 
prisoner, he was taken before Hamilton." "Northwest Under Three Flags," p. 
232. 

"And now there appears on the scene a man of whom I wish I could speak as 
his memory deserves, Francis Vigo. Spanish trader, though a Sardinian by birth, 
he had commercial interests at St. Louis Kaskaskia. and Vincennes, was a man 
of wealth, and had almost unbounded influence amonsr the French. Without the 
semblance of selfish motive, he came forward and cast himself and his fortune into 
the scale of American Freedom. His name is enrolled with DeKalb and Steuben and 
Lafayette. He supplied Clark with specie to the extent of more than ?12,0l)0, sus- 
tained the credit of the well-nigh worthless continental currency by receiving it 
at his stores at par value, gave Clark the support of his great influence, imperiled 
his life in a trip to Vincennes to get exact information as to the situation of affairs 
and to win the inhabitants to the American side. He was made prisoner, but was 



410 

finally releaser! on a condition, which having fulfilled to the letter he hastened 
to Clark and furnished him with information which alone made success possible." 
"Indiana's First Settlement" — By E. A. Bryan, In Magazine of American History, 
Volume 21 — Page 400. 

5 Law. Colonial History of Vincennes, p. 29. 
" "Father Gibault interested himself in Vino's behalf (while Vigo was held 
prisoner by Governor Hamilton) and after services one Sunday morning, the 
latter part of .January, went to the tort attended by a large number of parish- 
loners and notified Hamilton that they would not sell any more supplies to his 
troops until Vitro was released." (Pioneer History of Indiana, Coekrum, p. 37.) 

o Moore. "The Northwest Under Three Flags," p. 232. 

7 Moore. "The Northwest Under Three Flags," p. 232. 

s Law. "Colonial History of Vincennes," p. 30. 

"It has always been conceded that the information Viero conveyed to Colonel 
Clark of the friendship of the Vincennes inhabitants for him and the weakness 
of Hamilton's forces were of immense import: nee and materially aided in influ- 
encing him to make the great mid-winter campaign which resulted in the capture 
of Fort Sackville and all its garrison and the final overthrow of English rule in 
the Wabash and Illinois country." (Conquest of the Northwest, p. 275.) 
s Law. "Colonial History of Vincennes." p. 51. 

10 Law. "Colonial History of Vincennes." p. 3fi. 

11 Law. "Colonial Plistory of Vincennes." p. 49. 

"Colonel Vigo was looked up to by the French inhabitants in matters of 
credit and finance, as Gibault was in matters of religion. Both were popular 
and both were potential in their respective lines." William H. English. "Con- 
quest of the Northwest." p. 2b". 

12 H. W. Beckwith in "Pioneer History of Illinois." Reynolds, p. 423. 

13 H. W. Beckwith in "Pioneer History of Illinois." Reynolds, p. 423. 
li "Conquest of the Northwest." English, p. 273. 

"That the financial troubles which finally came upon Colonel Vigo grew out 
of his advances and credits to the American army and efforts to sustain the 
valuation of the American paper money which became worthless in his hands 
there can be no doubt. He could not collect debts due him from the government 
in such money as would pay his debt; in fact, could not collect at all. As a 
result, he became embarrassed and although he struggled along by extensions 
and renewals for some years, finally failed to meet his obligations." (Conquest 
of the Northwest, pp. 272-275.) 

15 See ffic simile of note op. p. 275. "Conquest of the Northwest." English. 

is "So reduced in finances was Colonel Vigo that, although he died in 1S35, 
it appears from the books of the undertaker that his funeral expenses remained 
unpaid until 1S7C." (Conquest of the Northwest on the authority of Cauthorn, 
p. 239.) 

it "Conquest of the Northwest." English, p. 271-2. 

is "Conquest of the Northwest." English, p. 270. 

United States Senator Daniel W. Voorhees is likewise authority for the state- 
ment that Vigo had requested that if his claim should ever be paid that a portion 
of it should be used to purchase a bell for the courthouse of the Indiana County 
which bears his name. It was done, and the distinguished Senator who resides 
in that county, adds with characteristic eloquence that "Now the courthouse 
bell daily proclaims that Indiana is the last resting place of the brave, the 
gentle, the patriotic friend of freedom and humanity. Colonel Francis Vigo." 
(Conquest of the Northwest, p. 272.) 

is Vigo was a practical Catholic and one of the trustees of the Catholic 
Church in Vincennes from 1810 to 1821. He is buried in what is called the 
Catholic Protestant Cemetery or the public cemetery. English, "Conquest of 
the Northwest," p. 271. 

"In 1875, the Court of Claims of the United States rave judgment on a bill 
of exchange drawn by George Rogers Clark in favor of Vigo for army supplies 
in the sum of SS.GIB. principal and .$41,282.00 interest, being the interest at 
five per cent from Marcli 20. 1779, to January IS. 1S75, making a total of 
SIP, SOS. GO." (Acts of the Second Session, 42d Congress, p. 49 (Reports Court 
of Claims. Vol. 10.) 

Note. — Much interesting history in regard to Vigo and the Illinois campaign 
is to be found in House of Representatives Report, No. 122, Twenty-third Con- 
gress, second session, and No. 513. Twenty-sixth Congress, first session. The 
former of these reports contain most complimentary letters on Vigo and his 
services by George Rogers Clark. William Henry Harrison. Judge J. Burnet 
General Anthony Wayne and Secretary of War Knox. Vigo was a trader during 
"Wayne's campaign of 1795 and performed services for that general akin to those 
performed for Clark. ' 

The following extracts from letters found in the Congressional Reports above 
indicated will give some idea of the esteerfi in which Vigo was held by his 
contemporaries: 



411 



"I have knowa 
: I., li.ve liim to &e a.s 1 
Western country." — . 

••I have- boec a 
y.ars and during :> 
»-m>' town with r. ~ 
With respect to t_ -: 
hhn utti-rly inea. --.••: 
pre U may be his .r. 
morv respectable r> 
Hi'' irrity than couii 
other person. 

"His whole ". :~ 
acts of kindness sis .-. 
la the institiit*K!s ; 



r.eral character of Co!or.«l Vitro since the year 1796 and 
cnorabie and hish niinditi a. man as anv other in the 

^:~n:-. Dec. 2$. }<>). 
: .. .-. r.t--.i v.:;':. Colonel Vigo of Vincenn.es for thirty-nine 

:". :r;een years I was Governor of Indiana I lived in the 
s.nd 'jr>n terras of. the most intimate friendship. * * * 
:rea:biiity of Colonel Vigo's. siat«Eient. I solemnly declare 
e of niakir.tr a misrepresentation of the facts, however 
rest in the matter, and I am also confident that there are 
~s.~ns in Indiana who would become guarantees of his 
be induct:; to lay under a similar responsibility for any 

s long as his circumstances were prosperous was spent in 

;r.svo ".er.ee to individuals and his public spirit and attachment 

cur country proverbial." — YV. H. Harrison, December 22. 



To Francis Vi-ffO. 

"Srsi Major Pe" 
Which you have re 
the United States :r_ 

"Your condu .-: : 
I am directed by r.: 

"It is wifn the 
Informed that the ■ 
the consequences e: 

"You have also 
and the troops I'.r.h: 1 

"I have the host 



"War Djpahtmkxt. June 20, 1190; 

z'-\y has in express words tciven an account of the services 
--rred him and the zeal which, you have manifested for 

the difficult business which has been committed to his care. 

:-erein. sir. has attracted the attention of the President and 

'. :: lender to you his acknowledgment thereof. 

r--;a:est pleasure, sir. Chat I discharge that duty, being well 

serstial services you have rendered to Major Doughty were 

your zeal for the public welfare. 

r.stanced it in your 'oroceedir gs towards Major Hamtramck 
his command as I have been informed by General Harmar. 

r to he your most humble and obedient servant, 

"II. Knox, 
Secretary of the ~\Var Department." 



"Sir : As you 
the United Stales, 
rind as the United .- 
and devotion to lh- 
said Chickasaws ar 

"You will be r l 

"You will s; : r- 
tho aforesaid Chiel- 
the treaty of Hove 
If anybody endeavt* 
slder such persons 
of the United State 

"You will p!- a: 
it only to Govern* 
persons in whom y 

"I am, sir. rest 



'War D^ap.tmext. December 30, 1730. 
save already received by the special order of the President of 
a commission to trade with the Chickasaws and Choctaws, 
tares have received complete (satisfaction) of your integrity 
ar interests. I entrust to your care two talks for the afore- 
d Choctaws signed by the President of the United States. 
eased to deliver both talks to each of these two nations. 
1 any convenient opportunity to impress upon the minds of 
asaws and Choctaws the adherence of the United States to 
■ ■'.'.: that the United States does not want their lands; that 
rs to inspire them with different sentiments, they must con- 
ia t-.o other light than that of their enemies, and the enemies 



-■ to make a discreet use of this letter and to communicate 
- St. Clair. Prigadier General Harmar, and to such other 
u can rla.ee full confidence, 
eetfully. 

"Your most obedient servant. 

"H. Knox, 
Secretary of the War Department." 



"Uocust Grove, near Louisville. August 1, 18-11. 

"Dear Sir: A letter from a man who has always occupied a distinguished 
place in my af'ect ; -■-. and esteein must ensure the warmest and most cordial 
'"'■• ption — an a'feeti.r.. the result, not so much of being associates in the placid 
.stream of tranquility, and the benism sunshine of peace, as companions amidst 
Ihe din of war and those strusslcs where the indefatigable exertion of every 
muscle and nerve was demanded. 

"I'r.t it may be enoutrh to rerrrark that while the one is the effect of your 
uniformly dfecreet and irreproachable conduct in t tie intricate path of civil 
nnd domestic life, the other is wrought by a strong sense of that gratitude due from 
your adopteil country: hiving myself both witnessed and experienced the signal 
advantages flowing to our common country from your inestimable conduct, and, 
what is more enhancing to such services, having rendered them at a time when 
the cloud on which our fate hung, assumed the most menacing aspect. 

• * * * * * * 

"With sentiments of the warmest regard. I remain, " 

"George Rogers Clark," 



412 

"Headquarters, Greenville, May 27, 179.}. 

"Sir: From the uniform character you support, of being: a gentleman of 
integrity and influence, and a steady and firm friend of the United States, and 
perfectly acquainted with all the trading people passing between Post Vincennes 
and Detroit, as well as from St. Louis and Cahokia to that place, will it be 
practicable for you to procure one or two trusty people, either Frenchmen or 
Indians, to go as far as Roche de Bout, in order to discover the number and 
designs of the enemy, and particularly what number of British troops are there 
and whether they have built any fort or fortification at that place? 

"Whatever sum of money it may cost to obtain this important intelligence 
shall be paid to your order upon sight, from $100 to 3 or $400. 

"Perhaps some resident at Roche de Bout or at Grand Glaize, might be pre- 
vailed upon to send the necessary information from time to time. 

"Would it be practicable to bribe or purchase the Spanish Express from St. 
Louis to Detroit to deliver his dispatches to Captain Pasteur? 

"This is a delicate business and requires address and secrecy. Pray let me 
hear from you as soon as convenient, and depend upon the best services I can 
render you upon all occasions. 

"Interim, I am, your most humble servant, 

"Anthony Watne." 



"Headquarters, Greenville, July 5, 179}. 

"Sir: I have to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 24th ultimo, and 1 
thank you for the measures you have already taken and mean to pursue, in order 
to gain intelligence. . 

"The conduct of the Spaniards in attempting to establish a Post at the Chick- 
asaw bluffs, so far within the acknowledged boundaries of the United States, is a 
very extraordinary conduct and an expression of the highest nature. I therefore 
Wish, if possible, that the express as mentioned in my letter of the 27th of May, 
could be obtained, either directly or indirectly, because it might be a means of 
throwing light upon a subject which at the present is rather dark and mysterious. 

"It would appear from that part of the information from Number I, which 
mentions that the British or Simcoe told the Indians, 'You have fought by your- 
selves a long time, now I come to help you ; take courage ! You go before, surround 
the garrison, and 1 will follow you with the cannon. After that, I will show you 
what I will do with them,' that the credulous savages, to the amount of at least 
1,51*0 warriors, surrounded and attempted to carry Fort Recovery by a coup de 
main 021 the 30th of June, but were repulsed by that gallant garrison, and compelled 
to retreat with disgrace and slaughter from the very same field where they were 
proudly victorious on the 4th of November, 1791. 

"Captain Pasteur will give you the particulars. Mr. Simcoe has actually forti- 
fied at Roche de Bout ; It is more probable I shall shortly reconnoitre that place. 

"Interim, with respect and esteem, 

"Your most obedient and humble servant, 

"Anthony Wayne." 



"Headquarters, Miami Villages, Sept. 29, i79}. 

"Sir: I have acknowledged the receipt of your letter of the 6th ultimo, by 
Mr. Evans, which met me at Grand Glaize, where I have established a strong post 
and have another of great forwardness at this place. You will, probably before 
this reaches you, have heard of the brilliant success of the army under my com- 
mand in a general action on the 23rd ultimo, on the banks of the Miami, at the 
foot of the Rapids, against the combined force of the hostile Indians and Militia 
of Detroit. 

"Captain Pasteur is instructed to communicate the contents of my letter to 
him of this date, to you. which will give you the particulars. 

"By the best information, the force of the enemy amounted to 2,000 men who 
were beat and totally routed by less than half that number. 

"The front line only of our army was engaged, who charged the Indians with so 
much impetuosity, and drove them with such velocity, as prevented the second line 
and main body to arrive in time to participate in the action — the savages being 
drove at the point of the bayonet near three miles in the course of 1 hour, through 
a thick brushy wood, where they abandoned themselves to flight, leaving the 
ground strewed with their dead bodies, intermixed with Canadians and other white 
men, painted and dressed like savages. 

"I wish your agents may succeed in obtaining the dispatches, and etc., which 
may eventually lead to important discoveries. 

"Interim, I am your most humble obedient servant, 

"Anthony Wayne." 



17--r-^",f ■'■:.-• <','^f^~W 



f^T r :T'-"- i / . : :y>y ;j w g! ^ B Wy jjroa 



• 



V 



i'»JVK&KJ - 



PIERRE GIRAULT. 

"The People's Tribune of the Northwest." 

Born in Quebec, I7:i7. Died at New Madrid, Mo., 1804. 



413 






GIBAULT. 

Vigo provided the financial resources of the new terri- 
tory. In Pierre Gibault it possessed the embodiment of cor- 
rect moral conceptions — religion pure and undefined. 

Father Gibault was American born. He was one of the 
early patriots that was native to the soil, his birth occurring 
at Montreal, April 7, 1737. He was raised and educated on 
American soil, 1 and perhaps no man of his day had a clearer 
insight into the feelings and aspirations of his American con- 
temporaries. He was ordained a priest in 1768, and imme- 
diately upon being ordained was called to this region with 
the consent and upon the request of General Gage and the 
English authorities. 2 

He was but thirty-one years old when he came to this 
new wild region, and devoted himself to the spiritual leader- 
ship of the frontier inhabitants. At that time his labors were 
directed as well to the shepherding of the Indian flock as to 
the guidance of white men. How eagerly he was sought by the 
red children of the forest is indicated by the fact that while 
upon his way to the Illinois country, he was earnestly be- 
sought by the Indians at Michilimackinac to remain amongst 
them, and during his stay of over a week, he was occupied 
with the confessions of the Indians until late every night in 
order to accommodate all. 3 

It was the original purpose that Father Gibault should 
take up his residence at Cahokia and minister to the Tamaroa 
Indians, but Kaskaskia being a more prominent place and the 
resident pastor, Father Meurin, being old and inactive, he 
removed to Cahokia and Father Gibault was established in 
Kaskaskia. 4 

The inhabitants of Kaskaskia were then in a very dis- 
turbed condition, not alone civilly but religiously. The echo 
of the trouble involving the Jesuit order in the old country, 
had reached America, and influenced by the dominant party 



414 

in Louisiana, the French people in the Illinois country became 
hostile to Father Meurin, and, it is stated, many of them had 
ceased attending church. 

The young Canadian priest entered upon his duties with 
zeal and energy and by having prayers every night in the 
church and instructions lour times every week, he revived 
faith and devotion. From Kaskaskia he traveled to the other 
villages and hamlets and sought out the Catholics everywhere 
in his neighborhood. The English soldiers in the garrison 
from the Eighteenth Koj r al Irish Regiment were chiefly 
Catholics, and with the consent of the British authorities, 
Father Gibault ministered to them as chaplain. He gathered 
up the scattered remnants of religion and knitted the people 
into a homogeneous community. He not only established 
good relations between the people of the Illinois country, 
French, Americans and even Indians, but exchanged courte- 
sies with the Spaniards across the Mississippi, and in the 
second year after reaching his new mission, dedicated the 
little wooden chapel which had been erected at Paincourt, as 
it was then known, St. Louis, as we now know it. 3 

His ministrations extended all the way to Vincennes on 
the Wabash, where the eighty or ninety families who dwelled 
there had not seen a priest since Father Devornei was carried 
off in lTo.3, and to the St. Joseph River, Peoria, Ouiatanon 
and other points. 

We have a picture of this saintly young man within a 
few years after his ordination to the priesthood, starting off 
on a perilous journey from Kaskaskia to Vincennes. He is 
not enabled to take passage on a Pullman and travel in state, 
as ministers of the most modest pretensions of the present 
day may do. He must dress himself in the rudest of home- 
spun, cover his head with the skin of some wild animal, cap- 
tured in the wilder forests, mount a horse and take care that 
the flint lock gun and pair of pistols, which are an essential 
part of his equipment, be in good order. It was so accout- 
ered that the yowig priest started from Kaskaskia to Vin- 
cennes in the winter of 1769-70. Hostile Indians lined the 
trace. Within the short time he had been in the new country, 
twenty-two of his people had fallen victims to the Indian foe. 
Yet he pursued his way, re-civilized the people of Vincennes 



415 

and for some years passed his time between the settlements in 
what we now know as Illinois and Indiana, doing- good wher- 
ever he went, and loved and respected by all who knew him. 7 

Finally the time comes when the great work which he 
had done amongst his humble people is to be of transcendant 
value to the Nation. With the approval of the legislature of 
Virginia, George Rogers Clark, has set out for the conquest 
of the western frontier. As is well known his ragged and 
exhausted army surprised and took possession of Kaskaskia 
on July 4, 1778, and although physical domination was gained 
by Clark's coup, the more important work of securing civil 
allegiance was yet to be done. A nation or a state may gain 
ascendancy by force, but such domination is of little value if 
unaccompanied by the fealty of the people. 

Historians are agreed that Father Gibault was the chief 
instrument in securing the allegiance of the people of the 
Illinois country, including Kaskaskia and its surroundings as 
well as Vincennes. 8 

The story of the calling of the people of Kaskaskia to the 
church after Clark's arrival, the consultation there and the 
satisfaction with which the French people accepted citizen- 
ship in the Commonwealth of Virginia after Father Gibault 's 
exortation to them to do so, is a most familiar one. 9 

Mr. Dunn in his able address before the Historical 
Society of Illinois 10 pays a deserved tribute to the patriotism 
of Father Gibault. In the course of his address he said: 

"Certainly Gibault was heart and soul with the Ameri- 
cans * * *. He promoted the movement for bringing the 
French in the Illinois settlements into allegiance. He volun- 
teered to go to Vincennes and win over the people there. In 
company with LaFont he made this journey, administered the 
oath of allegiance to the French settlements, secured posses- 
sion of the fort and urged the Indians to take sides with tbe 
Americans as the French were doing. After Hamilton had 
recaptured Vincennes when Clark started on his desperate 
winter march to retake it, Gibault made a patriotic address 
to the troops and gave his blessing to them and their enter- 
prise. ' ' 

And Law, in his history of Vincennes, says: 

"To him next to Clark and Vigo, the United States are 
more indebted for the accession of the states comprised in 



41G 

what was the original Northwest Territory, than to any other 
man." 

Let us adduce the evidence of a bitter and uncompromis- 
ing enemy of American freedom. "We are told that on July 
3, 1778, but one day before George Rogers Clark took Kas- 
kaskia and imprisoned him, Rocheblave, the resident gover- 
nor for the English wrote the English governor at Quebec: 11 

"I am, monsieur, discouraged. No words in English can 
fittingly express my despair. Those settlers — Mon Dicu! 
What settlers they are; there is not one among them loyal to 
our great and good Majesty, King George; and they are bold-; 
they converse much concerning the running away to join Mr. 
"Washington's army, helped thither by the Indians and 
traders. Why, this very day, Governor, I heard with my own 
ears my daughter singing a rebel song as she sat at her wheel. 
And when I questioned her as to where she got the ballad she 
made answer that it had been writ by the priest and then by 
him set to a melody. Now, if the shepherd is so minded, what 
will the sheep do? Voila! The sheep they follow. And that 
my Governor may behold the spirit of Kaskaskia, I copy the 
song:" 

"Twas a day in May, the sky was fair 
A wealth of fragrance filled the air, 
From wildwood blossoms on bank and tree 
All the birds were singing; the drowsy bee 
Was abroad and taking his hoard 
From the deep-throated flowers of Kaskaskia. 

"In a trapper's hut, in a forest glade, 
Beside her wheel sat a little maid ; 
She was singing a ballad quaint and sweet, 
And these are the words she did repeat 
That morning in Kaskaskia : 

"Dear heart, sweetheart, where'er thou be, 
'Tis dreaming ever I am of thee, 
Praying that love like a guiding star 
May bear you this message where'er you are; 
Here in the woods of Kaskaskia. 
I love you there as I loved you here 
Here in the woods of Kaskaskia." 



417 

"0 Monsieur, there is, I fear me, more than billet 
d 'amour in this singing. It comes to me that when sweet- 
hearts inarch to meet a foe to such iove-ladened encourage- 
ment that God alone can save those they go to do battle 
with," 

Pierre Gibault was the shepherd and we have seen how 
the sheep followed him. 

Gibault 's own words respecting his attachment to the 
American cause have never been disputed. He says: 12 

"That from the moment of the conquest of the Illinois 
country by Colonel George Sogers Clark (your memoralist) 
has not been backward in venturing his life on the many 
occasions in which he found that his presence was useful and 
at all times sacrificing his property which he gave for the 
support of the troops at the same price that he could have 
received in Spanish milled dollars and for which, however, he 
has received only paper dollars of which he has had no infor- 
mation since he sent them, addressed to the Commissioner of 
Congress who required a statement of the depreciation of 
them at the Ohio River in 1783 — with an express promise in 
reply that particular attention should be paid to his account 
because it was well known to be in no wise exaggerated. In 
reality, he parted with his tithes and his beasts only to set 
an example to his parishoners. * * * The love of country 
and of liberty has also led your memoralist to reject all the 
advantages offered him by the Spanish government and he 
endeavored by every means in his power by assertions and 
exhortations and by appeals to the principal inhabitants to 
retain every person in the dominion of the United States in 
expectation of better times giving thern to understand that 
our lives and property having been employed twelve years in 
the aggrandizement and preservation of the United States 
would at least receive an acknowledgement and be compen- 
sated by the enlightened and upright masters who, sooner or 
later, would come to examine into and relieve us from our 
situation." 

During all the troublous times, Father Gibault was the 
wise, steadfast friend and counselor of all the rulers and all 
the people of the Illinois country, the prop and mainstay of 
order and rectitude. It was at the door of his church and in 



418 

his presence and under his guidance that every public action 
was taken and he was in truth "the power behind the 
throne." 13 

It should be noted, too, that Father Gibault played a 
most important part in the financial world of that day. If 
Vigo was the financial rock upon which the structure of the 
new country was reared, Father Gibault is at least entitled 
to be regarded as the mortar in which the rock was laid, for 
he not only ably seconded Vigo in his efforts of persuading 
the inhabitants to accept the continental scrip, but himself 
took it at par and eventually sold every earthly possession, 
beggared himself to sustain the worthless currency that the 
officers of the commonwealth were obliged to foist upon the 
community. 14 

After speaking of his patriotism, as before indicated, Mr. 
Dunn further remarks: 

"Perhaps even more important were his services in a 
financial way, for he publicly sold his own property to the 
Americans, accepting for it Virginia scrip, at face value, and 
by his example he induced the French settlers and merchants 
to do the same." 15 

It has been established that out of his meager resources 
he raised in some manner and sacrificed 7,800 livres in money 
and goods to aid Clark and the Virginia government. 10 

How well did Pierre Gibault fulfill all the conditions of 
the sentiment with which we have opened this paper? It is 
plain he undertook an occupation of great toil and great 
danger for the purpose of serving, defending and protecting 
his country. He conducted himself with valor, fidelity and 
humanity and amidst the horrors of war, cultivated the 
gentle, manners of peace and the virtues of a devout and 
holy life. 

Our authority says that such an one is a most valuable 
and respectable member of society and most amply deserves 
and will assuredly receive, the esteem, the admiration and the 
applause of his grateful country and what is of still greater 
importance, the approbation of his God. 

Beyond doubt Gibault believed in and relied upon an 
eternal reward for good and we can confidently believe that 
he had the approbation of his God and has for long years 



419 

been in the enjoyment of the eternal reward, but we are 
humiliated by the knowledge that his country has signally 
failed in the exhibition of its gratitude to him. 

"When reduced, to poverty and indigence and when his 
country through the cessation of hostilities was able to give 
such matters attention, he petitioned the government to repay 
the moneys which he had lost in an effort to sustain the pubJic 
credit and also made the modest request for a tract of land, 
of " three acres in front, three-quarters of which was a great 
morass" upon which he might erect a dwelling and plant an 
orchard as a retreat for his declining years. 17 

To the everlasting discredit of the country, the extremely 
modest request for the repayment of moneys due him and 
for a miserable patch of swamp for a home in his old age 
was never granted. Thousands and tens of thousands of 
acres of what is now the most fertile lands in the world were 
bestowed upon men who did not nearly so much for their 
country, but Father Gibault was destined to go to his grave 
wholly unrequited. 

In speaking of the ingratitude shown Father Gibault, 
Mr. Dunn says : 18 

"In truth, our French friends fared hardly under the 
American rule and none so badly as Father Gibault who did 
not get any return in land as a militiaman or the head of a 
family and lost his ecclestical support on account of the 
change of jurisdiction. He never received a particle of coin- 
pensation from Virginia or the United States for his services 
and he never received one cent of repayment for money and 
goods actually furnished to our troops. The situation seems 
almost incredible but it was a horrible reality." 

Mr. English, in his valuable work, "The Conquest of 
.the Northwest," says: 19 

"There was no reason, however, why his great services 
should not have been properly recognized, but they never 
were. As far as the author is advised, no county, town or 
post office bears his name; no monument has been erected to 
his memory, and no headstone marks his grave, as its loca- 
tion is entirely unknown. It is well for him that he could 
turn to the religion of which he had been so faithful a 



420 

servant and find consolation in the trust that there was a 
heaven where meritorious deeds, such as his, find reward 
since they were so poorly appreciated and requited on earth." 



NOTES. 

PIERRE GIBAULT. 1737-1S04. DIED AT NEW MADRID, MISSOURI. 

1 Peter Gibault, son of Peter Gibault and Mary St. Jean Tanguay, "Repertorie" 
p. 124, "Very Rev. Pierre Gibault. the Patriot Priest of the West" in "Washington 
Catholic" Sept. 30, 1SS2. Father Gibault was educated at the (Jesuit) Seminary of 
Quebec and his education paid for out of the rents of the Cahokia Mission Property. 
The Hotel dc Ville amounting at that time to 333 livres annually. Cardinal Tas- 
chereau "Historie du Seminarre de Quebec" incdite Rev. P. Gibault to Bishop 
Briand, July 28, 1768, 177a. 

a Rev. Edm. J. P. Schmitt, Weltes, Indiana in "Conquest of the Northwest." 
English p. 184. 

3 Letter of Rev. P. Gibault to Bishop Briand July 28, 1768. "Registre de 
Michilin.ackinac, July 23, 1768. 

4 Letter of Rev. P. Gibault to Bishop Briand Feb. 15, 1769. "Registri de 
l'Eglise Paroissole de l'lmmacculec Conception do Notre Dame des Kaskaskias." 

5 Letter Rev. I'. Gibault to Bishop Briand June 15, 1769. "Pennsylvania 
Packet," Oct. 5, 1772. 

Doherty "address on the centenary of the Catholic church in St. Louis." St. 
Louis, 1876, p. 6. 

6 "Conquest of the Northwest." English, p. 187. 

7 "History of Catholic church in America," Shea. Vol. II, pp. 124-128 

8 "During the long period beween Father Gibault's arrival in the Illinois coun- 
try and the capture of Kaskaskia he was a leading character in everything per- 
taining to the spiritual, social, educational and material prosperity of the ancient 
French Villages. The good priest and these unsophisticated, humble but honest 
and loving people, were bound together by the closest and tenderest of ties, and it 
is not at all surprising that he had great influence with them.' "Conquest of the 
Northwest." English, p. 190. See also "Pioneer History of Illinois." Reynolds 
2d Edition, pp. 96-9 7. "A History of the City of Vincennes." Cauthorn, Chapters 
XII and XIII. "Illinois Historical Collections," Alvord, Vol. II. p. XXV. Dunn, 
"Father Gibault" in Transaction of the Illinois State Historical Society for 19U5. 
Clark's letter to Mason, "Conquest of the Northwest." English. 41S 

To Mr. Gibault this country owes many thanks for his zeal and services. 

Patrick Henry in letter to George Rogers Clark Dec. 15, 1778. published in 
"Kaskaskia Records." Vol. V, Illinois Historical Collections, pp. 60-63. 

"Father Gibault during the years of his residence had gained a great influence 
over the people of the region which he used at a critical moment to change their 
destiny. Alvord, Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. II. p. XXV. 

"He (Father Gibault) enlisted Francis Vigo, a trader at an Indian village 
upon the site of the present city of Saint Louis, in the enterprise and induced 
him to furnish means to carry it on." Cauthorn. p. 93. 

Cauthorn says that Father Gibault was fully acquainted with the situation 
concerning the Revolutionary war and long before Clark's arrival had urged 
the French inhabitants to espouse the American cause. 

Regarding the capture of Kaskaskia he says: "In accounts originating from 
Gen. Clark and his command, it is stated that when his (Clark's) small force 
appeared before the walls of the town of Kaskaskia, from indications observed, 
they feared they would meet with resistance, but a Catholic priest opened the 
gates of the fort and approached General Clark and had an interview with him. 
This priest was undoubtedly Pierre Gibault. the patriot priest of the West. 
This priest returned to the fort and advised the admittance of the strangers 
and soon after the gates were opened and General Clark entered the fortified 
town and the bloodless capture of Kaskaskia was accomplished without firing 
a gun or losing a man, even before the British commander was aware of the 
fact." History of the City of Vincennes, Cauthorn. pp. 86 and 87. 

Of the Vincennes campaign. Cauthorn says: "It was represented to General 
Clark (by Father Gibault) that the fort here (at Vincennes) was the real key 
to the possession of the Northwest Territory. That the capture of Kaskaskia 
was not so important as the capture of the fort on the Wabash would be. 
which was in the heart of the Northwest, while Kaskaskia was only an outpost 
on the frontier and adjoining a foreign if not a hostile state. He therefore 



421 

urced upon General Clark to undertake the capture of the fort on the Vv'abash 
fife He represented to him how easy it was of accomplishment and how the 
Lame conditions on the part of the inhabitants in the fort here would operate 
In his favor as they had operated at Kaskaskia. He promised and offered to 
furnish him additional men and means to render the expedition successful. 
General Clark was convinced and agreed to command the expedition and thus 
was organized at Kaskaskia the expedition to capture the fort at Vincennes," 

P " This scheme was suggested, it is safe to assert, by Peter Gibault. No 
oilier character of whom any account has reached us was to be found in the 
(■ntlre Northwest Territory possessed of the necessary knowledge, influence and 
atiility to plan and hope to successfully carry out such an expedition. The fort 
h>re at Vincennes was not known to General Clark or any of his command until 
after the capture of Kaskaskia. If it had been within the scope of General 
Clark's objective point he could have reached this place by a march of only fifty 
miles from the Ohio river, and from here he could have proceeded to Kaskaskia 
by a shorter, better and well-known route, than the one he took from the Ohio 
River, pp. 32-93. 

This does not completely accord with certain other accounts of the circum- 
stances attending the conquest of the Northwest but undoubtedly has the weight 
of reason to support it. In all accounts, however. Father Gibault appears as an 
indispensable factor in the conquest. — The author. 

9 "Conquest of the Northwest," English, pp. 191-2. 

to J. P. Dunn, author of the History of Indiana — in publication No. 10, 
Illinois Historical Society, pp. 26-29-31. 

n Mrs. Laura Davton Fessenden in Transactions Illinois Historical Society, 
Vol. 6, 1901, pp. 66-71. 

u Memorial addressed to Governor Arthur St. Clair from Cahokia, May 1, 
1790. See Colonial History of Vincennes, pp. 55-56. 

13 See note S. "He had been laboring at all these French settlements for 
more than ten years. He was unquestionably the ablest man m the entire 
Northwest Territory. He labored day and night, not only on Sunday, nut on 
week days. He was so successful that in about six months after his arrival 
there in September. 1768, he brought them all back within the fold." Cauthorn — 
"A History of the City of Vincennes." p. SS. "He was without question the 
most learned and influential man in the Northwest at that early day. He had 
almost unbounded influence over the inhabitants here." Cauthorn — "A History 
of the City of Vincennes," p. 90. 

Elections were held at the church door. See Court order September 7, 1781, 
on petition Janis "to cause the inhabitants to assemble at the close of mass to 
proceed to a new election of new Magistrates" Kaskaskia Records — Illinois 
Historical Collection. Vol. V, p. 268. "The suppliant has the honor to show 
that he was elected syndic by the votes of the people at the door of the church 
* * * April 3'.». 17S2. Kaskaskia Records, Illinois Historical Collections, 
Vol. V. p. 276. See also p. 299. 

" * * * The conduct of agricultural operations had been regulated by vil- 
lage assemblies, held usually on Sundays before the door of the church and pre- 
sided over by a syndic elected by the inhabitants." Illinois in 1818. Buck, p. 92. 

"Each village had its Catholic church and priest. The church was the great 
place of gay resort on Sundays and holidays, and the priest was the advisor and 
director and companion of all his flock." Ford's History of Illinois — quoted in 
Illinois in ISIS. Buck, p. 91. 

14 "Father Gibault * * * disposed 'of all his cattle and the tithes of his 
parishioners' in order to sustain Clark and his troops, without which aid (that 
of Vigo and Gibault) they must have surrendered, surrounded as they were by 
the Indian allies of the British and deprived of all resources but those furnished 
by the French inhabitants, through the persuasion of Vigo and Father Gibault," 
Law — Colonial History of Vincennes, p. 54. 

"Dunn. Transactions of Illinois Historical Society, 1905. 

is Memorial to Governor St. Clair. Law — Colonial History of Vincennes, 
p. 56. 

it Memorial to Governor St. Clair. Law — Colonial History, p. 57. 
is Transactions of Illinois Historical Society, 1905. 
19 Conquest of the Northwest, pp. 1S9-90. 



422 



CLARK, 

Let us sketch briefly Clark's career. The very name of 
George Rogers Clark has a military sound. To think of Clark 
is to think of war, honorable, for 

"War is honorable 
In those who do their native rights maintain; 
In those whose swords an iron barrier are 
Between the lawless spoiler and the weak." 

There is a fascination about Clark's youth. With a high 
degree of satisfaction, one can contemplate the ragged farm 
home in which George Rogers Clark was reared, with its 
strong father, virtuous mother, six sturdy sons, Jonathan, 
George Rogers, John, Richard, Edmund and William, and 
four amiable daughters, Ann, Lucy, Elizabeth and Frances. 
Around the wholesome board and happy fireside, gathered this 
typical American farmer's family and conversed on the topics 
of interest in the even then new and strange country. They 
dwelled in the Old Dominion, in the county of Albemarle, not 
far distant from the home of the man who afterwards became 
the chief exponent of democracy, Thomas Jefferson. Clark 
and Jefferson were contemporaries and whether childhood 
companions or not, they, in later life, became fast friends. 1 

It would be most interesting to trace the youth of the 
Clark boys, for all of them were worthy and several of them 
became great in the affairs of their country and especially to 
trace the youth of George Rogers Clark. But his youth was 
curtailed. From boyhood almost, he was plunged into vir- 
tually supreme leadership of the whole western frontier. 
Born in November, 1752, we find him extremely active in the 
affairs of Kentucky, the western extreme of the Virginia 
dominions, as early as 1776, when he was just past twenty- 
three. Before reaching his twentieth birthday, he had made 
an extensive trip into the interior, which the diary of the 




GEORGE ROGERS CLARK. 

"The Conquerer of the Northwest." 

Born at Monticello, Va., 1752. Died at Clarksville, Indiana near Louisville. 

Kentucky, ISIS. 



Rev. David Jones, who accompanied him, shows to have been 
an interesting journey. 2 

As the young men of a generation ago who have made 
something of their lives, almost invariably started their 
careers as school teachers, so the young men of Clark's gener- 
ation usually began as surveyors, advanced to military men 
and finally became statesmen. Washington and Clark are 
examples of young men who began brilliant careers as sur- 
veyors. 

If Clark was anything, he was a patriot. In his western 
journeys, he came upon the Kentucky settlers and in an 
incredibly short time is recognized as the leading man of the 
community. He finds that the Henderson Company has set 
up virtually an independent state, under the high sounding 
title of Transylvania, and wonders by what authority the sov- 
ereignty of Virginia is thus violated. 3 

On June 6, 1776, we find him selected by the citizens of 
the locality, in a meeting called through his influence, but 
from the early part of which he was absent, due to some unex- 
plained cause, with John Gabriel Jones to represent Kentucky 
in the Virginia Legislature. Thus began his public career at 
the age of twenty-three. 4 

The journey to the seat of government at Williamsburg, 
of over seven hundred miles, during an extremely wet season, 
over mountain trails lurking with savages and by the most 
primitive means of travel 5 was enough to daunt a less fearless 
party than the little band of Kentucky representatives. 

At the end of their journey, they found that the Legis- 
lature had adjourned some five days previous, but Clark was 
not of the kind to be balked in a meritorious purpose. Jones 
went back to the settlers in Kentucky, but Clark, determined 
to persevere and at least confer with the Governor, the silver- 
tongued Patrick Henry. Henry received him courteously 
and gave him a favorable letter to the Executive Council of 
the State. 

Clark's principal request to the government was for 
gunpowder, necessary to the defense of the frontier, and by 
his earnestness and winning address, he secured compliance 
with the request. It is said that he pointed out to the execu- 
tive council that if Virginia claimed the Kentucky country, 



424 

then Virginia should aid in its protection from the savages, 
and that "a country that was not worth defending, was not 
worth claiming. ' " ; 

On August 23, 1776, an order was entered that 500 pounds 
of gunpowder be forthwith sent to Pittsburg and delivered to 
the commanding officer at that station, by him to be safely 
kept and delivered to George Rogers Clark or his order, for 
the use of the inhabitants of Kentucky. 7 

The story of the shipment of this same gunpowder, in 
which not alone Clark but other notable men in the history 
of Illinois especially John Todd, the first county lieutenant, 
were concerned, is an interesting one 8 and the transaction 
served another valuable purpose besides furnishing a means 
of defense, namely to establish the sovereignty over the Ken- 
tucky region, of Virginia, and to fix upon Virginia responsi- 
bility for it. 9 

When the legislature met again, Clark and Jones were 
present. They were not admitted as members of the body, 
but were permitted to maintain close relations with it in an 
advisory way. Their influence is shown in the fact that they 
obtained what they sought in the way of dethroning the 
Henderson Company and its powerful proponents, Colonel 
Henderson and Arthur Campbell. Legislation was secured 
recognizing the Kentucky country and providing for its organ- 
ization as a county with the same name and boundaries as 
it now has as a State. 10 Thus was the first great act of Clark's 
public life achieved. 

Clark had now secured a regularly organized government 
for Kentucky and a supply of ammunition for the several sta- 
tions. Thus far his work had involved preparation and 
defense. He now turned his thoughts to an aggressive war- 
fare against the enemies of the country. 

The trouble between the colonists and the mother coun- 
try had broken out. The Declaration of Independence had 
been promulgated and under the guidance of the Continental 
Congress, the Revolutionary War was progressing. George 
Rogers Clark, when barely twenty-two, had won his first 
military honors in the Dunmore War, either as a member of 
Dunmore's staff or in command of a company. In whatever 
capacity he acted, he discharged his duties with such satisfac- 



425 

tion, that it is said he was offered a permanent position in the 
English military service, but, declined the offer because of 
what he knew of the trouble between England and the Colo- 
nies. !: Thus early had the young warrior made his choice. 
He had " since the beginning of the war taken pains to make 
himself acquainted with the true situation of the British posts 
on the frontier. He knew the commandants at these posts 
were inciting the Indians to hostility against the settlers. 
The capture of these posts was, therefore, his first object." 12 
How he sent spies into the country to learn of the condition at 
these posts" and how he traveled again to the seat of govern- 
ment and conferred with Thomas Jefferson. George Mason 
and George Wythe, and to what purpose/ 4 is a most familiar 
story, as well as his efforts to raise an army, 15 his memorable 
march, with the "Long Knives" out of Kentucky and across 
the river at Com Island, now Louisville, 10 and over the 
swamps of Southern Illinois, until he reached and took pos- 
session of Kaskaskia, on July 4, 1778, on the second anni- 
versary of our natal day. 17 

It would be a repetition to trace the course of events 
which rapidly succeeded the securing of possession of Kas- 
kaskia. Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher'and Vincennes. In speak- 
ing of Vigo and Father Gibault, we have covered most of that 
ground, but there is a temptation to dwell upon Clark's con- 
duct during all these spirited times. 

To all intents and purposes he became the absolute ruler 
of the region he had captured. The greatest and the smallest 
affairs of the people were brought before him for solution, 
and to his lasting credit, it may be said, that he demeaned 
himself with the highest evidences of justice and humanity. 18 

The intense suffering of Clark and his men in the terrible 
journey from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, for the purpose of 
retaking that post, after it had been captured from the small 
garrison established there by Clark, has excited not alone the 
sympathy but the wonder of the world. "Writers have found 
language inadequate to express the horrors of that journey, 
undertaken in the middle of winter, when excessive rains had 
converted almost the entire region into a swamp. The picture 
of this band traveling on foot, much of the time through water 
frequently reaching as high as their armpits, and so cold that 



426 

it was sometimes necessary to break the ice in advance of the 
party, and this, day after day, on extremely short rations is a 
most distressing one. 19 What must have been the magic of 
the man who could command such fealty and prevent his fol- 
lowers from exercising the natural instinct to shrink at such 
hardships. 

Reading the record of this great march and remembering 
the character of men composing this daring band, we can well 
imagine that one of the many songs which they are said to 
have sung as they plunged into the untraced floods, might be 
that of Charles Kingsley: 

"Dreary east winds howling o'er us, 
Clay lands knee deep spread before us; 
Mire and ice and snow and sleet; 
Aching backs and frozen feet; 
Knees which reel as marches quicken, 
Ranks which thin as corpses thicken-; 
While with carrion birds we eat, 
Calling puddle-water sweet, 
As we pledge the health of our General, 

who fares as rough as we; 
What can daunt us, what can turn us, 

led to death by such as he ? ' ' 

Fortunately for Clark and his little band, the words of 
Pierre Gibault had sunk deep into the hearts of the inhabi- 
tants of Vincennes, and through the renewed British 
dominion, they have remained faithful to the fealty pledged 
in the little church to the American cause. 20 When Clark and 
his troops discover themselves to the inhabitants, they are 
received with rejoicing and a repast more delicious to these 
starving soldiers than the finest epicurean feast ever spread 
is served by the citizens during a brief cessation of firing 
upon the fort. 

The boldness of this expedition and attack, beggars 
description. Many of the greatest writers and orators of 
subsequent years have attempted to characterize it. James 
Parton, in his life of Thomas Jefferson, has said of Clark : 21 

"This hero is not as famous as Leonidas or Hannibal, 
only because he has not had such historians as they, but he 



427 

defended the western homes of Virginia precisely as Hannibal 
would have done." 

It is well remembered the assurance with which Clark 
demanded of the commander of a well-fortified garrison 
unconditional surrender, and how, despite the disadvantages 
under which he labored he compelled and eventually received 
such terms. 22 

Although Clark wished to do more, especially to proceed 
against Detroit, it is now plain that such a step was unneces- 
sary. He had, by the conquest of the Illinois country and St. 
Vincent, gained virtually everything there was to gain. 

In his negotiations with the Indians, he proved himself 
not less a statesman than a warrior, and in all his subsequent 
activities in connection with the Northwest, he displayed the 
highest character of ability. 23 Indeed, he was the Washing- 
ton of the West. Every man who has written intimately of 
Clark, speaks of the personal resemblance between Washing- 
ton and Clark, and Senator Turpie has stated that: 

''General George Rogers Clark ranks second only to 
Washington among the great soldiers and statesmen of our 
Revolutionary era." 2 ' 

That his services were highly appreciated is shown by 
the laudatory letters transmitted to Congress and the General 
Assembly of Virginia by the Governor, Patrick Henry, and by 
the feeling resolutions adopted by the Virginia Assembly. 
And well might Virginia and the Nation entertain a high 
opinion of Clark's achievements, for he added to the 
dominion of the United States, a territory equal in area to the 
original confederation. 

Understanding the benefits conferred, the services ren- 
dered and the sacrifices made by Clark to his country, it is 
in v order to inquire into the nature of his reward. 

It is true that in partial fulfillment at least of the prom- 
ises made by Jefferson, Mason and Wythe, a tract of land was 
set apart for Clark and his soldiers. 25 But in Clark's circum- 
stances, land was of about the same value as was the gold 
which Robinson Crusoe found in the wreck of the boat and 
which was useless to appease his hunger. All that Clark got 
from the land voted him was expense and trouble. 



423 

Like Vigo and Gibault, the country was indebted to 
Clark in large sums, which he spent years in an endeavor to 
secure. He rendered his accounts which, as he said, were "as 
just as the hook we swear by/' but not a dollar of such sums 
was ever repaid to Clark in his lifetime, but years after his 
death were wrung from an unwilling government, by his 
heirs. 20 

The war being over and peace restored, it was easy to 
forget or overlook men so far away from the seat of govern- 
ment, and so Clark and all his services and sacrifices were for- 
gotten. With little ado, General Clark was relieved of his 
command on July 2, 17S3. The then Governor of Virginia, 
Benjamin Harrison, announced Clark's dismissal to him in 
the following language : " 

"The conclusion of the war and the distressed situation 
of the state with respect to its finances, called on us to adopt 
the most prudent economy. It is for this reason alone I have 
come to a determination to give over all thoughts for the 
present, of carrying on an offensive war against the Indians, 
but before I take leave of you I feel myself called upon in the 
most forcible manner to return you my thanks and those of 
my council for the very great and singular services you have 
rendered your country in wresting so great and valuable a 
territory out of the hands of the British enemy, repelling the 
attacks of their savage allies and carrying on a successful war 
in the heart of their country. This tribute of praise and 
thanks, so justly due, I am happy to communicate to you, as 
the united voice of the executive." 

Clark's biographer says that at the very time this crush- 
ing blow was inflicted by Virginia upon her son, who had 
won for her a vast territory, and for himself imperishable 
renown, he was in dire distress for even the common decen- 
cies and necessaries of life. 2S 

In 1783, the exact time not being known, the conqueror 
of the British forces at Kaskaskia and at Vincennes, made a 
long and lonesome journey in a condition of poverty from the 
West, through the wilderness to Richmond, Virginia. On his 
arrival at that place in his forlorn and pitable situation, he 
addressed, on the 27th of May, the following touching appeal 
to the Governor of Virginia. 29 



429 

"Sir: Nothing but necessity could induce me to make the 
following request to your Excellency, which is to grant me a 
small sum of money on account; as 1 can assure you, Sir, that 
I am exceedingly distressed for the want of necessary cloth- 
ing, etc., and do not know of any channel through which I 
could procure any except of the Executive. The State, I 
believe, will fall considerably in my debt. (And when the 
accounting was complete, the State was shown to be $30,000 
in his debt, but the debt was never paid until fifty years there- 
after and twenty years after Clark was in his grave.) Any 
supplies which your Excellency favors me with, might be 
deducted out of my accounts. 1 have the honor to be, your 
Excellencv's obedient servant. 

G. R, Clark." 

What a sorry figure his country cut in its attempts to 
show its gratitude to one of its most illustrious sons. The 
incident of the second-hand sword approaches the ludicrous. 30 
The $400 pension voted to him twenty years after the render- 
ing of his signal service and at a time when he was a helpless 
paralytic, and the high-sounding but empty praises that were 
from time to time poured out upon him, were all calculated 
to inspire righteous indignation. Prom all accounts, George 
Rogers Clark's old age was perhaps more forlorn than that of 
any man who has been deservedly popular and prominent in 
our country's history. Forced to depend upon the charity 
of relatives, a helpless paralytic,- as a result of extreme ex- 
posure in the interests of his country, one leg in the grave, he 
passed many years of his declining life in extreme misery. 

Some men and women of stunted mentality, who lack the 
sense of proportion, regarding trifles as crimes, and again, 
. crimes at trifles, during his lifetime and since his death, have 
condemned him because it was said that on occasions he 
drank to excess. In all fairness, it may be asked, how many 
are strong enough to bear up under misery, suffering and 
degradation such as were visited upon George Rogers Clark, 
and remain staunch and steadfast? 

Exteriorly, Clark was a bold and might possibly be 
thought a rough man. He had the reputation of being a 
man's man. He never married. Little mention is made of 
the gentler sex in connection with Clark's life, yet there was 



430 

a sister, Mrs. Croghan, in whoso family he spent many of the 
closing years of his miserable life. Re is represented in 
pictures with little children about him We are justified in 
believing that internally he was as true and tender as he was 
bold and blunt externally. 

There is, too, a pretty tradition. 31 that may, in a sense, 
furnish the key to the loneliness and barrenness of his 
life. It would be strange that such a dashing, courageous and 
handsome young man would have no affair of the heart. This 
elusive tradition has it that Clark had his great, affair, the 
object of his love being a Spanish beauty, demure, we can 
believe, but all too serious. Tradition has it that she chose 
the convent, and instead of the bridal veil, that of the nun. 
We can conjecture that a difference with respect to religion 
may have blighted this romance and that the taking of the 
veil was the end of romance for both. Who will immortalize 
himself or herself by worthily weaving into the history of 
the conquest of the Northwest, the romance of George Rogers 
Clark and his Spanish sweetheart 1 ? 

Around the presentation of a sword to George Rogers 
Clark in recognition of his services to the State, has arisen 
much discussion. 32 It is said that after Clark had been 
humiliated by his government, when he was in great misery 
and destitution, when "he felt keenly what he considered the 
ingratitude of the Republic in leaving him in poverty and 
obscurity and when the State of Virginia sent him a sword, 
he received the compliments of the committee in calm silence, 
and then exclaimed: 'When. Virginia needed a sword I gave 
her one; she sends me now a toy; I want bread.' " 33 

Another version of what he said on that occasion is: 
"Damn the sword, I had enough of that; a purse well filled 
would have done me some service. ' ' 34 

His good friends seek to disprove these declarations or 
to excuse them on account of his mental and physical condi- 
tion, but there is a species of satisfaction in such an outburst 
of righteous indignation. 

Out of the chaos of conflicting statements regarding 
Clark's sword, it appears that there were two swords pre- 
sented, the last being both worthy in itself and worthily 
presented. Upon this occasion, it is said that after the presen- 



431 

tuition by General Mercer, Clark took the beautiful unsheathed 
sword, and holding it before him on his two open hands, 
looked at it long and earnestly and simply said in a feeble 
voice, broken by tears : 

"You have made a very handsome address, and the 
sword is very handsome too. When Virginia needed a sword, 
I gave her one. I am too old and infirm, as you see, to ever 
use a sword again, but I am glad that my old mother State has 
not entirely forgotten me, and I thank her for the honor and 
you for your kindness and friendly words." 35 

On February 13th of the very year in which Illinois, the 
seat of his principal activities, was admitted as a State into 
the Union, George Rogers Clark yielded up his spirit to his 
Maker and was released from pain and privation, his chief 
inheritances in this world. 



NOTES. 

CLARK. 

I Born November 10, 1752, in Albemarle County, Virginia. Died February 
13", 1818. English in his "Conquest of the Northwest" says he was of English 
ancestry but states that his ancestry beyond his grandfather who is first known 
in America is traditional only. Robert A. Gray in an address before the Illinois 
Historical Society says he was "the son of an Irishman." Publication No. 9, 
1901, pp. 30S-313. And 90 to the 150 men -who followed Clark into Illinois were 
Irish. Cauthorn. 

The birthplace of Clark was about one and one-half miles north of Monti- 
cello, the home and burial place of Thomas Jefferson. English — Conquest' of the 
Northwest, pp. 5-1, 55. 

'Conquest of the Northwest. English, pp. 60, 61. 

3 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 70. 

* Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 71. 

5 Conquest of the Northwest. English, pp. 73, 72. 

6 Conquest of the Northwest. English, pp. 73, 74. 
' Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 75. 

s Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 78. See also discussion in Illinois 
Historical Collection Vol. V. Alvord, p. XVIII et seq. 

• Conquest of the Northwest. English, p., 75. 
10 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 65. 

II Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 65. 

12 Clark's letter to George Mason. Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 84 

13 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 84. Ben Linn and Samuel Moore 

were the spies. 

14 Conquest of the Northwest. English, pp. 88. 89. 

15 See Chapter IV. Conquest of the Northwest. English. 

16 See Chapter V. Conquest of the Northwest. English. 

17 See ChaDter VI. Conquest of ihe Northwest and Pioneer History of Illinois. 

Reynolds, 2d ed.. p. 90 to 98. 

19 See Clark's memorial : "I * * * took every step in my power to cause 
the people to feel the blessings enjoyed by an American citizen which I soon dis- 
covered enabled me to support from their own choice almost a supreme authority 
over them. Illinois Historical Collection II. p. 235. 

"Pioneer History of Illinois, Reynolds, pp. 102, 103, 104, 105, 106. Clark's 
Memoir — Conquest of the Northwest, p. 293 et seq. 

" "It was in the old St. Xavier Church building that Father Gibault assembled 
the inhabitants of Vincennes shortly after Clark's capture of Kaskaskia and by 
his influence and persuasive eloquence induced them, in a body, to declare alle- 
giance to the American cause ; and it was in this church that there was soon to 
be negotiated terms of capitulation of the British garrison, which carried with it, 



432 

for the Americans, ultimately, the perpetual sovereignty of an empire." — Conquest 
of the Northwest, English, 322. 

"Col. Legras and Major Bosseron and others had buried the greatest part 
of their powder and ball. This was immediately produced and we found ourselves 
well supplied by these gentlemen." Clark's Memoir — Illinois Historical Collection 
II, p. 281. 

"With drums beating, the main division of Clark's force marched up the vil- 
lage street, the people greeting them joyfully." James — Illinois Historical Col- 
lection II. p. LXXXII. Law — Colonial History of Vincennes, p. 34. 

21 Life of Thomas Jefferson. 

82 Clark's Memorial and letters demanding surrender of Vincennes. Conquest 
of the Northwest. English, p. 335 et seq. 

23 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 791 et seq. 

"Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 920. 

26 Hening's Statutes, Vol. X, p. 565; Blackford's Indiana Reports. Vol. I, 

Appendix ; Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 826, et seq. 
x Conquest of the Northwest. Enslish, p. 785. 

27 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 783. 
B Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 7S4. 
20 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 784. 

20 Letter of John Page, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia. Conquest of the 
Northwest. English, p. 875. 

"For less services than George Rogers Clark rendered his country, men of 
inferior merit have been ennobled by other go\-ernments and granted great pen- 
sions and vast estates ; but Clark, a poor young man when he entered public 
service, not only made nothing out of his position, but expended all he had, and 
involved himself in debt in forwarding the interests of the government, which 
indebtedness caused him great trouble and loss. He had not, in his life, even the 
half-pay or five years full pay in lieu of it which was granted to all the officers 
of the Continental Army. He was on the Virginia establishment only, and Vir- 
ginia turned him adrift, poor and in distress, with absolutely nothing but the 
vague promise of a few thousand acres of land in the future, out of the almost 
innumerable millions he had conquered." English — Conquest of the Northwest, 
p. 787. 

31 Conquest of the Northwest. English, p. 868. Note. 



33 Conquest of the Northwest. 
33 Conquest of the Northwest 
31 Conquest of the Northwest 
35 Conquest of the Northwest 



p. 871 et seq. 

p. 871 et seq. 

p. 871 et seq. 

p. 884. 






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ARTHUR .ST. CLAIR. 

"The Law Giver of the Northwest." 

Born in Scotland, 1734. Died at Ligonier, Pa., 1818. 



. 



433 



ST. CLAIR. 

We now turn to one of the most unique figures in Ameri- 
can history; the handsome, polished accomplished, profound 
St. Clair. The appearance and conduct of the men we have 
been considering were influenced by their rugged and rustic 
surroundings, but St. Clair was the product of culture and 
fashion. Like all the others, when he first challenges our 
interest, he was a young man. Born in Scotland in 1734, he 
spent his youth and early manhood profitably. He is said to 
have descended from a noble family. He attended the Uni- 
versity of Edinburg and when twenty-three years of age, 
through influential friends, he obtained an ensign's commis- 
sion in the Sixtieth Royal American Regiment of Foot and 
came with that military organization to America. He was 
with Wolfe on the heights of Abraham and acquitted himself 
creditably. 1 

The polish and romance of the young Scotchman is indi- 
cated in the events immediately succeeding the great battle 
near Quebec. Immediately after that significant event, young 
St. Clair obtained a furlough, repaired to Boston and married 
Miss Phoebe Bayard, daugher of Belthazar Bayard and Mary 
Bowdoin, his wife — who was half-sister of Governor James 
Bowdoin — a young lady who is described as thoroughly edu- 
cated, with amiable disposition and agreeable manners. Her 
husband, as he was at that time, is described by a biographer 
as a favorite of popular British commanders, a descendant 
of an ancient and distinguished Scotch family, tall with 
blonde complexion, master of all the accomplishments of the 
drawing room, including the art of entertaining conversa- 
tion. 2 

In 17G2, St. Clair resigned from the British army and 
removed with his wife and family to the Ligonier Valley, 
Pennsylvania. 3 

Plainly, he was a man of great capacity. In 1770, he was 
appointed surveyor for the district of Cumberland and also to 



434 

the offices of Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions and 
Common Pleas and member of the Proprietary or Governor's 
Council. In 1771, the governor appointed him a justice of the 
court, recorder of deeds, clerk of the orphans' court and pro- 
thonotary of the Court of Common Pleas. 4 

When differences arose between the colonies and the 
mother country, St. Clair, without hesitation, cast his lot with 
the former and he was a valuable acquisition. We have 
another picture of him at this period. He is spoken of in the 
correspondence of contemporaries, as a man of imposing 
appearance, aggressive, cultivated, whose agreeable and intel- 
ligent conversation captivating manners and honorable 
appearance won all hearts. 5 

He was, at this time, in the enjoyment of everything 
essential to secure happiness. Wilkinson, in his memoirs, 
says, that the American Revolution found him (St. Clair) sur- 
rounded by a rising family in the enjoyment of ease and inde- 
pendence with the fairest prospect of affluent fortune, the 
foundation of which had already been established by his 
intelligence, industry and enterprise. 6 

From this peaceful abode, this sweet domestic enjoyment 
and the flattering prospects which accompanied them, he was 
drawn by the claims of a troubled country. 

In December, 1775, a colonel's commission was sent him 
by General Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, 
and a request that he repair immediately to Philadelphia. 
Without hesitation, St. Clair obeyed the summons, writing 
his friend Wilkinson: "I hold that no man has a right to 
withhold his services when his country needs them. Be the 
sacrifice ever so great, it must be yielded upon the altar of 
patriotism. ' ' 7 

The story of St. Clair's activities and achievements as 
well as all the studied attempts to visit upon him disgrace 
and contumely, are so familiar as to need no repetition. The 
glory that came to him at Princeton and Trenton, the disa- 
greeable duty of superseding the traitor, Benedict Arnold, 
and the distressing task of meting out punishment to the spy, 
Andre, as a member of the court martial, which condemned 
him to death, are all familiar to the readers of history and all 
reflect credit upon the man. 8 



435 

As one reads the record of the great revolutionary strug- 
gle, he must gain the impression that no man in the American 
army was closer to Washington than St. Ciair, and be also 
impressed with the idea that no man in that army, save, per- 
haps, Washington, was more persecuted. 

That he came through the war with his reputation un- 
scathed and as a man of great popularity, is evidenced by the 
fact that in 1787 he was elected to Congress, and by Congress 
chosen president of the Congress, at that time the chief execu- 
tive officer of the government. 

It was as the result of legislation by this Congress that 
St. Clair became of special interest to the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Whilst he was president of the Congress and under his 
guiding hand, the great ordinance of 1787 was passed, and on 
October 5, 1787, St. Clair was elected by Congress, Governor 
of the Northwest Territory. 

From this moment Arthur St. Clair's life was a complete 
sacrifice to his country. From the joys and comfort of cul- 
tured society, a luxurious home, the happiness, peace, and 
quiet of a family fireside, he struck into the uncharted wil- 
derness, barren of the first elements of comfort and a stranger 
to culture. 

We can easily believe what St. Ciair himself said, namely, 
that the acceptance of the Governorship was the most im- 
prudent act of his life, but we can appreciate the man when 
we understand, as he himself declared, that he had "the am- 
bition of becoming the father of a country and laying the 
foundation of the happiness of millions; then unborn." 3 

Many men, even of his day, would have greatly rejoiced 
at the opportunities for speculation which the appointment 
offered but as he himself said he had ''neither the taste nor 
genius for speculation in land, nor did he consider it consist- 
ent with the office." 1 " His salary as Governor would barely 
cover his traveling expenses. He had a large family, and his 
wife who had been accustomed to every comfort, was not well 
ntted for a pioneer life, and in fact did not accompany him to 
his new home. His son, Arthur, twenty-one years of age, and 
three daughters,' Louisa, Jane' y and Margaret, with a middle- 
aged colored woman, who acted as cook and housekeeper, 






436 

with himself, constituted the family of the Governor of the 
Northwest Territory. 11 

It would take us too far afield to recount the various act- 
ivities of Governor St. Clair in the organization of the terri- 
tory. As we well know, his headquarters were fixed at Mari- 
etta, Ohio, and from there he traveled almost continuosly in 
the rude fashion of that day; now setting up county govern- 
ments, again in the thick of battle quelling Indian distur- 
ances and withal joining with the territorial judges in the 
enactment of laws. 

Unprejudiced readers of history must conclude that in 
all his activities, St. Clair was capable, and the lawyer, when 
informed upon the subject, must conclude that with respect 
to law, he was profound. 12 

So far as St. Clair was able to influence action, the ad- 
ministration of government was wise and in the best interest 
of the governed. At times he differed materially with the 
judges appointed under the ordinance to cooperate with him, 
and in such differences, the unbiased student of the questions 
at issue, must conclude that St. Clair was right. 13 

The visit of St. Clair to old Kaskaskia on February 2, 
1790, is a memorable occurrence in the history of Illinois. He 
found the inhabitants in an impoverished condition, incapable 
of taking any action looking to permanent improvements. 
In reporting the condition of the' country, he said: "The 
Illinois country as well as on the Wabash, lias been involved 
in great distress ever since it fell under the American domin- 
ion." He stated that the inhabitants had contributed supplies 
liberally to the support of the troops under General Clark, 
for which they received certificates, which have been repudi- 
ated by the state of Virginia, and after the Illinois regiment 
had been disbanded "a set of men pretending the authority 
of Virginia, embodied themselves, and a scene of general dep- 
redation and plunder ensued." To this succeeded three suc- 
cessive and extraordinary inundations from the Mississippi 
which either swept away their crops or prevented their being 
planted. The loss of the greatest part of their trade with the 
Indians, which was a great resource, came upon them at this 
juncture, as well as the hostile incursions, of some of the 
tribes, which had ever before been in friendship with them, 



437 

and to these added the loss of their whole last crop of corn 
by an untimely frost. Extreme misery could not fail to be the 
consequence of such accumulated misfortunes." 11 

As indicating that another character included in this 
sketch, namely, Father Gibault, was all that we have claimed 
for him, it is interesting to note here that when St. Clair 
proposed a survey of the lands, in accordance with the orders 
of Congress, Father Gibault representing the people, invoked 
St. Clair in the following terms: 15 

"Your Excellency is an eye witness of the poverty to 
which the inhabitants are reduced, and of the total want of 
provisions to subsist on. Not knowing where to find a morsel 
of bread to nourish their families, by what means can they 
support the expense of a survey which has not been sought 
for on their parts, and for which it is conceived by them, 
there is no necessity. Loaded with misery and groaning un- 
der the weight of misfortunes accumulated since the Virginia 
troops entered their country, the unhappy inhabitants throw 
themselves under the protection of your Excellency, and take 
the liberty to solicit you to lay their deplorable situation be- 
fore Congress." 

Without casting any new or unnecessary burdens upon 
the inhabitants, St. Clair organized the first county, naming 
it St. Clair, established courts and appointed officers and was 
by his other and exacting duties soon again called away. ie 

How the Governor and the judges proceeded with the 
enactment and administration of law and how the territories, 
one after another, passed from one to another stage of terri- 
torial government, how the Indian uprisings were quelled 
and how material prosperity came, are all interesting, but 
too familiar to need repetition. 

The recital of the cabals and conspiracies to discredit 
the painstaking and sacrificing Governor, is a painful one, 
and his final unjustified removal, by order of President Jef- 
ferson, is one of the saddest pages in our history. There was 
at no time the justification for even a pretense that St. Clair 
was subject to just criticism for any act in connection with 
the government of the Northwest Territory, but his enemies 
at last encompassed his removal. 17 



438 

In this connection a strong contrast is apparent between 
St. Clair and the men who conspired against him. These con- 
spirators and others high in their counsels felt justified in 
speculation of almost any character, w r ith little consideration 
for the public interest or the positions they occupied. In gen- 
eral, they became rich, while year by year St. Clair spent not 
only his ability and energy, but his substance, in the service 
of his country, and after long years of such fealty, went out 
of office a poor man. 

Let us now take a glance at the private life of this early 
soldier-statesman. We have noted his breeding, tastes, cul- 
ture and early surroundings, himself a man of independent 
resources, his wife, the daughter of the rich and accustomed 
to luxury. We have had a glance at his children, and it must 
be that American women will take an interest in contrasting 
two women of St. Clair's family. We have had a view of the 
wife, and while in no place is there to be found a single reflec- 
tion upon that good woman, nor is it intended to pass any 
reflection here, it is of interest to note that while her husband 
toiled in the depths of the wilderness the wife did not share his 
privations. We learn that such was not the case with Louisa, 
the daughter of General St. Clair, who should be well known, 
and should stand out as a romantic and heroic figure in Amer- 
ican annals. Here is a picture of what Louisa St. Clair was 
as a girl. She is described by Professor Hildreth, as: 

"A healthy, vigorous girl, full of life and activity, every 
way calculated for a soldier's daughter; fond of a frolic, and 
ready to draw amusement from all and everything around 
her. She was a fine equestrienne, and would mount the most 
wild and spirited horse without fear, managing him with ease 
and gracefulness; dashing through the open woodlands 
around Campus Martins at full gallop, leaping over logs or 
any obstruction that fell in her way. She was one of the most 
rapid skaters in the garrison; few T , if any of the young men 
equaling her in speed and activity, or in graceful movements 
in this enchanting exercise. Her elegant person and neat 
dress showing to much advantage, called forth loud plaudits 
from both young and old. * * * * She w T as also an ex- 
pert huntress, and would have afforded a good figure of Diana 
in her rambles through the woods, had she been armed with 






439 

bow instead of the rifle. Of this instrument she was a perfect 
mistress; loading and firing with the accuracy of a back- 
woodsman, killing a squirrel from the highest tree, or cutting 
off the head of a partridge with wonderful precision. She 
was fond of roaming in the woods, and often went out alone 
in the forest near Marietta, fearless of the savages that occa- 
sionally lurked in the vicinity. She was as active on foot as 
on horseback, and could walk for several miles with the rapid- 
ity of a ranger. Her manners w T ere refined, her person beau- 
tiful, with highly cultivated intellectual powers, having been 
educated with much care in Philadelphia. Bom with a 
healthy vigorous frame, she had strengthened both her body 
and mind by these athletic exercises when a child; probably 
first encouraged by her father, who had spent the larger por- 
tion of his life in camps. She was one of those rare spirits, 
so admirably fitted to the times and the manners of the day 
in which she lived. " 1S 

There is a legend of Louisa St. Clair, so absorbing in in- 
terest that I canuot withstand the temptation to repeat it: 19 

"The purposed Indian treaty at Duncan's Falls in 1778 
being postponed and adjourned to Fort Harmar, the Indians 
prepared for peace or war, and were hostile to holding a con- 
vention to adjust peace measures under the guns of Harmar, 
and Campus Martins. Young Brant, son of the famous chief 
of that name, came down the Tuscarawas and Muskingum 
trail with two hundred warriors, camped at Duncan's Falls, 
nine miles below Zanesville, and informed Governor St. Clair 
by runner that they desired the treaty preliminaries to be 
fixed there. 

"The Governor suspected a plot to get him to the Falls 
and abduct him, yet nothing had transpired of that import. 
He sent Brant's runner back with word that he would soon 
answer by a ranger. Hamilton Kerr was dispatched to Dun- 
can's Falls to reconnoiter and deliver St. Clair's letter. 

"A short distance above Waterford, Kerr saw tracks and 
keeping the river in sight crept on a bluff and raised to his 
feet, when hearing the laugh of a woman, he came down to 
the trail and saw Louisa St, Clair on a pony, dressed Indian 
style with a short rifle hung to her body. Stupefied with 
amazement, the ranger lost his speech, well knowing Louisa, 



440 

who was the bravest and boldest girl in all the fort. She had 
left without knowledge of any one,, and calling 'Ham' — as 
he was known by that name — to his senses, told him she was 
going to Duncan's Falls to see Brant. Expostulations on his 
part, only made her laugh the louder, and she twitted him on 
his comical dress—head tuvbaned with red handkerchief, 
hunting shirt but no trousers, the breechclout taking their 
place. Taking her pony by the head, he led it up the trail, 
and at night they suppered on dried deer meat from Ham's 
pouch. The pony was tied, and Louisa sat against a tree and 
slept, rifle in hand, while Ham watched her. Next morning 
they pursued their way, and finally came in sight of the In- 
dian camp. She then took her father's letter from the ranger, 
and telling him to hide and await her return, dashed off 
on her pony and was soon a prisoner. She asked for Brant, 
who appeared in war panoply, but was abashed at her 
gaze. She handed him the letter, remarking that they 
had met before, he as a student on a visit from college to 
Philadelphia, and she as the daughter of General St. Clair at 
school. He bowed, being educated, read the letter, and be- 
came excited. Louisa perceiving this, said she had risked 
her life to see him, and asked for a guard back to Marietta. 
Brant told her he guarded the brave, and would accompany 
her home. In the evening of the third day, they arrived with 
Ham Kerr at the fort, where she introduced Brant to her 
father, relating the incident. -After some hours, he was es- 
corted out of the lines, returned to the Falls, and went up the 
valley with his warriors, without a treaty, but in love with 
Louisa St. Clair. 

"In January, 17S9, he returned, took no part in the Fort 
Harmar -treaty, was at the feast, and asked St. Clair in vain 
for his daughter's hand. In the fall of 1791, Brant led the 
Chippewas for a time during the battle at St. Clair's defeat, 
and told the warriors to shoot the general's horse but not him 
St. Clair had four horses killed, and as many bullet holes in 
his clothes but escaped unhurt." 

"We have recounted the invaluable services of Arthur St. 
Clair to his country, covering the core of his life and a quar- 
ter of a century of time. Apparently, he had complied 
with every requirement which entitled him to the esteem, the 



441 

admiration, the applause, the gratitude of a country, but, sad 
again to relate, he received them not. 

As his biographer states: 20 

"He had helped to secure from the old Continental Con- 
gress, the great charter which secured freedom to a vast em- 
pire, and made religion and education fundamental principles 
in the constitutions of five republics. He had given to the 
Territory, a code of laws better in all respects than any new 
country ever had before. He had seen that Justice tempered 
her decrees with mercy, and had infused into all the depart- 
ments of government, a spirit of benignity whose influence is 
still felt, and will continue to be felt as long as these republics 
exist." 

In the dark days of the Eevolution, when it seems as if 
Washington's army would melt away and leave him, he ap- 
pealed to St. Clair to save the Pennsylvania line. St. Clair 
at once responded by supplying from his own private re- 
sources the funds necessary to recruit a new army. After the 
close of the war, he sought repayment of the funds advanced, 
but in whatever manner presented his claims were denied by 
the government. 21 

In the management of the Indian's affairs in the territory 
in order to cany out the instructions of the Secretary of 
War, it was necessary for St. Clair to become responsible for 
supplies, which alone, exceeded $9,000.00. This he sought 
to have taken care of by the government, but for one cause 
or another, the government either refused or failed to do so. 
St. Clair was sued upon the obligation and every dollar's 
worth of property saving as he said, ' ' a few books of my clas- 
sical library and a bust of Paul Jones, which is sent me from 
Europe, for which I was very grateful, was taken from me 
upon execution." 22 

The sacrifice of his home drove St. Clair to the barren 
lands of Chestnut Ridge in his old age, where the few re- 
maining years of his life were spent in great privation. 23 

We have a picture of the grand old man and his faithful 
daughter, Louisa, at this period of their lives. The rest of 
the family are dead or elsewhere established. He and the 
faithful Louisa alone remain of the once happy family circle. 
In a log house, by the side of the timber trail, they lived in 



442 

poverty, seeking subsistence by the sale of grain and provis- 
ions for chance travelers who might pass that way. One of 
these tells us of St. Clair as he saw him in 1815. Hon. Elisha 
Whittlesey, a traveler, and three friends were journeying 
from Ohio to Connecticut on horseback. 24 

"I proposed," says Whittlesey, "That we stop at his 
house and spend the night. He had no grain for our horses, 
and after spending an hour with him in the most agreeable 
and interesting conversation respecting his early knowledge 
of the Northwest Territory, we took our leave of him with 
the deepest regret. 

"I never was in the presence of a man that caused me 
to feel the same degree of esteem and veneration. He wore 
a citizen's dress of black of the Revolution; his hair clubbed 
and powdered. When we entered, he rose with dignity, and 
received us most courteously. His dwelling was a common 
double log house of the western country, that a neighborhood 
would roll up in an afternoon. Chestnut Ridge was bleak and 
barren. There lived the friend and confidant of Washington, 
the ex-Governor of the fairest portion of creation. It was in 
the neighborhood, if not in view, of a large estate near Ligo- 
nier that he owned at the commencement of the Revolution, 
and which, as I have at all times understood, was sacrificed 
to promote the success of the Revolution. Poverty did not 
cause him to lose his self respect, and were he now living, his 
personal appearance would command universal admiration." 

How about the gratitude of his country, which all agree, 
such acts as he had performed earns? In the House of Rep- 
resentatives, on February 5, 1818, Mr. Mercer moved the fol- 
lowing Resolution : 25 

"Whereas, the Congress of the United States entertain 
a high sense of the tried integrity as well as the civil 
and military virtues of Arthur St. Clair, late President of 
the Congress and Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the 
United States, whom they learn, with regret, has been re- 
duced by misfortune, to extreme poverty." 

And upon a vote, the Resolution was lost, 61 ayes to 81 
nays. Such great men as Henry Clay, Charles F. Mercer and 
William Henry Harrison, eloquently championed his cause 
in Congress, but the debt the country already owed him, never 



,^*v. 



443 

was paid. By almost superhuman efforts, there was finally 
■wrung from Congress a pension, of sixty dollars per month, 
but not a dollar of it ever reached St. Clair, for a creditor 
seized upon it at the very door of the treasury. ::0 

During the last four years of his life, the family fre- 
quently were in great want. Some patriotic ladies of New 
York, hearing of St. Clair's necessities, sent iiim a remittance 
in money, out of the charity of their hearts. Thirty-nine 
years after his death, in 1857, Congress appropriated, 27 a con- 
siderable sum for the benefit of his surviving heirs, but Ar- 
thur St. Clair went to a pauper's grave, without either justice 
or gratitude from his country. 

Let us look at the last scene of this memorable life. On 
one of the closing days of August, 1818, the venerable patriot 
in his eighty-fourth year, undertook to go to Youngstown, 
three miles distant, for flour and other necessaries. He bade 
good-bye to his Louisa, who in good and evil report had been 
his constant companion, and started off with his pony and 
wagon, in good spirits. The authorities had changed the 
State road so that it passed along the Loyalhanna Creek, sev- 
eral miles north of the St. Clair residence, and the route to 
Youngstown was rough and dangerous. The pony and wagon 
moved safely along until within a mile of the village, when a 
wheel falling into a rut, the wagon was upset, and the aged 
general thrown with great force upon the rocky road. In 
the course of the day he was discovered lying where he had 
fallen, insensible, and the pony standing quietly at a short 
distance, awaiting the command of his old master— faithful 
to the last. He was carried tenderly back to the house but 
neither medical skill nor the tender care of loved ones could 
restore him, and, on the 31st. death came with his blessed 
message of peace forevermore. 28 

When I behold some temple of the past, 

Its marble pillars tottering to their fall 
Its idols shattered and its fanes o'ercast 

Its friezes shredded on the crumbling wall, 

I can but mourn. I cannot stop my tears, 
To think that beauty so sublime must die; 

And all the woes of grief- filled years, 

Drive down upon me like a cloud-washed sky. 29 



444 

We are shocked and depressed by the sad memory of 
the closing - years of those brilliant lives. Involuntarily, we 
exclaim, "ingratitude! Can it be that my country stands 
charged with such ingratitude! May the wrongs be righted!" 

Some have argued and yet may argue, that the indigence 
and helplessness of these great historical figures were to some 
extent at least, due to their own fault. It may be asked, 
""Why did they not take advantage of their opportunities?" 
Others, in similar circumstances, became independent; some, 
indeed, men of great wealth. No doubt this ivas a question in 
the days of Vigo, Clark and St. Clair, it has remained a live 
question to the present time. Year by year we see men who 
have served the public well, going out of office, and often to 
their graves, poor men. And in like manner we have seen 
men come to public service poor and leave it rich. Clark and 
St. Clair devoted themselves exclusively to the public inter- 
est. They evidently did not believe that they could serve the 
public interest faithfully and at the same time serve them- 
selves. There are, no doubt, many public servants like them, 
and we have it on the highest authority that: 

"No servant can serve two masters, for either he will 
hate the one and love the other, or he will hold to the one and 
despise the other." 30 

Enlightened statesmanship must find a means by which 
public servants may be relieved of the necessity of serving 
their own interests in order that they may devote themselves 
effectively to public interests. 

The lives of these four men hold another suggestion for 
us. Because past generations have failed to do justice to 
their memory, is no justification for this, likewise, failing. 
During the year 1918, we are to celebrate the 100th anniver- 
sary of the admission of Illinois to the Union of States. It is 
inconceivable that such a signal opportunity to do justice in 
a measure at least to the memories of the founders of our 
State, should be permitted to pass without appropriate action. 
The l<~>0th anniversaries of the death of George Rogers Clark 
and Arthur St. Clair falling in the same year might well be 
observed with appropriate memorial exercises in every city 
in the State. The exceptional services of Francis Vigo, the 
great Italian-American, ought to be acknowledged and in 



445 

some maimer, marked and made known to all the people of 
this State. Pierre Gibault ought to be brought out from the 
obscurity and oblivion into which he sank after assisting in 
the establishment of an empire through peace and piety; 
his name made a household word and a suitable monument 
erected to his memory. 

Some little recognition has been given Clark, St. Clair, 
and even Vigo, in other States, but so far as public action is 
concerned, so far as the public historical records exist, so 
far as the general public is aware, Pierre Gibault might never 
have lived. 

All lovers of justice, all those who have a tender patriotic 
regard for their country and who appreciate the efforts and 
the sacrifices of those who gave us the most fertile region 
upon earth and the best character of government known to 
man, will certainly wish to do justice to the memory of those 
their greatest champions and benefactors. 



NOTES. 

ST. CLAIR. 



Saint Clair Papers I. 4. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 6. 

; Saint Clair Papers I. K. 

1 Saint Clair Papers I. 8-9. 

1 Saint Clair Papers I. 12. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 12. 

Saint Clair Papers I. 14. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 106. 

•Saint Clair Papers I. 127. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 127. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 100. 
' See Laws of Northwest Territory. 
'See Saint Clair Tapers I. 146. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 1G5. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 165. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 166. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 220 to 247. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 161. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 179. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 2 IS. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 249. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 251. 

'Saint Clair Papers I. 232. 
1 Saint Clair Papers I. 
'' Saint Clair Papers I. 
5 Saint Clair Papers I. 
r Saint Clair Papers I. 
s Paint Clair Papers I. 
' Father Faber. 
Matthew, 6-24. 



:o3. 
151. 



253. 



Note. 
Note. 



446 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



FRANCIS VIGO. 

Baldwin, C. C Francis Vigo and General George Rogers Clark. 

(In Magazine of Western History. 1:230.) 

Bateman & Selby Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

Dunn, Jacob Piatt Father Gibault — The Patriot Priest of the North- 

wsst, 

(111. State Historical Library, Pub. No. 10, 1905, 

pp. 15-34.) 

English, William Hayden Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River 

Ohio. 1778-1783 and Life of General George 
Bogers Clark. 

(2 Vols., 1896. Indianapolis, Ind. The Bowen- 
Merrill Company.) 

Indiana Historical Society Fran'-is Vigo of Knox County, Indiana, elected 

honorary member of the Indiana Historical 
Society, December 15, 1830. 

(Proceedings of the Indiana Historical Society, 
1830-J8S6. Vcl. I, No. I. 1897.) 

Indiana Historical Society. Pub. A Dedimus was issued by the Governor to Col. 

Francis Vigo, of Knox County, to administer 
the oaths required by law to the officers of the 
militia of Knox County, Julv 23, 1806. 
(Vcl. 3, No. 3, 1900. Executive Journal of Indi- 
ana Territory 1800-18.16, p. 135.) 

PIERRE GIBAULT. 

Alerding, Rev. H Diocese of Vincennes. 1883. 

Alvord, C. W Pierre Gibault and Submission of Post Vincennes, 

1778. 

(In American Historical Review, 14:544-57, 

April, 1909.) 

Bateman & Selby Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

Catholic Historical Researches, II: 55, 117; V: 52; 
VI.-13C. 

Dunn, J. P Father Gibault. the Patriot Priest of the North- 
west, an address before the Illinois Historical 
Society, January 26. 1905. (Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society Transactions, 1905. p. 15-34.) 

English, William Hayden Conquest of the Northwest. 18S6. 

Herbermann, G Pierre Gibault, 1737-1804. (In U. S. Catholic His- 
torical Society. Historical Records and Studies, 
6. pt. 2. p. 130-63.) 

Law, John Colonial History of Vincennes. 1858. 

License for Illinois Priest Permit to Father Pierre Gibault, dated June 1, 

1768. Mss. in Chicago Historical Society. See 
pp. 292-293. 

(Wisconsin Historical Collection. Vol. CVIII, 
1908. Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, 
Wisconsin, 1908.) 

n'Rrion t t Pierre Gibault. (In Catholic Encyclopedia, v. 6, p. 

U e ' 548-9.) 

Peyton, Pauline Pierre Gibault, Priest and Patriot. (In Records of 

the American Catholic Historical Society XII 
No. 4. p. 452-98.) 

Shea, John Gilmary Life and Times of Arch-Bishop Carroll. 1888. 



447 

GEORGE ROGERS CLARK, 

(American National Portrait Gallery, p. 4.) 

Bradv, C. T Clark a-: the Great Xorthwest. (In McClure 

,,,.,.„»„ je. Selbv Historical E-.-ycIopedia of Illinois. 

!,,'. ;' .«pid C W History of .;;;r« Rogers Clark's Conquest, of the 

Btttterneia, «-. niinois an-.i Wabash Towns. 1778-1779. 1904. 

r'inrir OR Account of C-.e Caoture of Yincennes, 1 779. 

' ■ ' '" Conquest of :he Illinois, with notes. (111. Hist. Coll. 

1 :171-2> ? •> 

rlirk O R Intercepted letters and journals, 177S-1779. (In 

' " " Ame: fii an Historical Review. 1:90.) 

riirk G R Georsro K ge: s Clark papers. 1779-1781. ed. by 

J. A. James. (Illinois State Historical Library, 

Colleeucr.s. v. S. 1912.) (Review by O. M. 

Dickers.-:-, in Illinois State Historical Society 

journal. S :55i-4. t 

rir.nri<>nin H W Report of dedication of monument to George 

tienu.nin. n. Rogers Clark, Quincy, Illinois. May 22, 1909. 

(Illinois State Historical Societ}', Journal, Vol. 

2, No. :.i 
Coleman, R. E George Rcc.-;-s Clark. (In Harper, v. 22:784; 

Collet O \V George Rogers Clark and Lieut. Gov. DeLeyba. 

' ' (In Magazine of Western History, 1:230.) 

Cone M Expedition a:-.d Conquests of 177S-9. (In Maga- 
zine of Western History, 2:133; 3:735.) 

En-dish W. H Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River 

Ohio, and Life of General George Rogers Clark. 
1S96. 2 v ȣ 

Evans S Expedition f George Rogers Clark. (In Potter's 

Am. Mo. 6 :191-451.) 
George Rogers Clark. (In Harper's 28:302.) 
George Rocors Clark to Genet. 1794. (In Ameri- 
can Historical Review. 18:780-3, July. 1913.) 

Gray C. G Conquest of the Illinois Country. (In Journal of 

American History, 10:556-365. April-June, 1916.) 

Henry. W. W Expedition of George Rogers Clark. (In Potter's 

Am. Mo. 5;J»0S: 6:30S: 7:140.) 

Hulbert, A. B Military Roads of the Mississippi Basin. 1904. 

Hulbert, A. B .' Pilots of the Republic. 1906. 

James, J. A Problems of the Xorthwest in 1779. (In Turner, 

F. J.. Essays in American History, p. 57-83.) 

James, J. A Campaigns. 17*0-1, and Detroit. (In Mississippi 

Valley Historical Association. 3:291-317, 191L) 
James, J. A Campaigns in the West. (In Illinois State Histor- 
ical Library, Collections 8: LU-CLXVII, 1912.) 
Life and Times of Clark. (In Western Journal 
and Civilian 3:168; 216.) 

Lodge & Roosevelt Hero Tiles, p. 2°. 

Moses, J Expedition and Conquests of 1778-9. (In Maga- 
zine of Western History. 3:267.) 

Reynolds, J George Rogers Clark. (In Dawson's Historical 

Magazine. 1 :16S.) 

Roosevelt. T Stories of the Great West. 1909. 

Schuyler, R. D Transition in Illinois from British to American 

Government. 1909. 

Smith. W. H Vinoerines. Key to the Xorthwest. (Tn Powell, L. 

P. Historic Towns of the West. p. 169-96.) 

Sprague. L. T Clark and His Conquest of the Middle West. (In 

Outing; 49:474-81. January. 1907.) 

Stewart & Kidd Sketches of Clark's Campaign in the Illinois in 

177S- . 

Swem, E. G Newly Discovered George Rogers Clark Material. 

(In Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1:95-7, 
June. 1914.-1 
Thwaites, R. G How Clark Won the Northwest. 

Portrait in color. In Journal of American History. 4:37. January. 1910. 

An extensive bibliography of George Rogers Clark material is eiven in George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1779-17S1, ed. by J. A. James. (Illinois State Historical 
Library collections, v. 8) p. 633-63S. 



448 

Clark, George Rogers — 

Col. George Rogers Clark's sketch of his campaign in the Illinois in 1778-9 — 
With introduction by Hon. Henry Pirtle Louisville, and an appendix contain- 
■ ing the Public and Private Instructions to Col. Clark and Major Bowman's 
Journal of the taking of Post St. Vincent. 119, p. 80 Cinn. 1869. Robert 
Clarke & Co., publishers. 
Clark, George Rogers — 

Indiana Hist. Soc. Pubs. Vol. I. No. II. 1897. 

Northwest Territory — Letter of Walter Dare concerning the Ordinance of 1787, 
and Patrick Henry's Secret Letter of Instruction to George Rogers Clark. 
Lawson, Publius V.. L.L.B. — 

Bravest of the Brave. 
Captain Charles de Langlade. 257, p. 120, Menasha, Wis. 1904. George Bants, 
publishing company. 

Letter of George Rogers Clark concerning the Yellow Creek Massacre, and 
exculpating Captain Michael Creap. See pp. 149-156. Appendix No. I in 
Tah-Gah-Jute ; or Logan and Cresap, an historical essay, Major Brantz. 
Levering, Julia Henderson- — 

Historic Indiana, p. 538. 8vo. New York and London. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
publishers. 
Parrish Randall — 

Historic Illinois. The Romance of the Earlier Days. pp. 191-206. The foot- 
steps of George Rogers Clark, 479, p. 8vo, Chicago, 1905. A. C. McClurg & 
Co., publishers. 
Starr Merritt — 

George Rogers Clark — Memorial address before the Illinois Society of the Sons 
of the American Revolution, May 24, 1906. 15, p. 8vo. Publisher not given. 
Scott, Mrs. Matthew T. — 

Old Fort Massac. See pp. 38-61. In Pub. No. 8, 1903. Illinois State Historical 
Library. ._ -■ . - — 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold — 

How George Rogers Clark Won the Northwest and other essays in western 
history. 378, p. 12mo, Chicago, 1903. A. C. McClurg & Co., publishers. 
Virginia State Library — 

Copy of letters from Librarian, Virginia State Library, relating to George 
Rogers Clark Papers. 

ARTHUR ST. CLAIR. 

Adams, H. B Arthur St. Clair. (In Nation 34:383.) 

American National Portrait Gallery, v. 3. 

Bateman, N. & Selby, Paul Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, p. 497. 

Burnet, Jacob Notes on the early settlement of the Northwestern 

territory. 

Douglas, Albert Major-General St. Clair, 1734-1818. (In Ohio 

Archaeological and Historical Society. Publi- 
cations XVI, 455-476.) 

Greenleaf, K. V Major-General Arthur St. Clair. (In American 

Historical Register, 3:367.) 

Headley, J. T Washington and His Generals, v. 2, p. 201-24. 

Lossing, B. J Eminent Americans, p. 242. 

McClung, J Sketches of Western Adventure, p. 263. 

Nash, G. J Arthur St. Clair (In Ohio Archaeological and 

Historical Society, centennial anniversary, p. 
53-8.) 

Neven, D. R. B Pennsylvanians, p. 104. 

Pennsylvania archives, ser. V, v. 2, 2d Battalion Pennsylvania, Col. Arthur St. 
Clair, 1776-7. 

Poole, W. F Arthur St. Clair. In Dial (Chicago) 2:227, 251. 

Smith, W. H St. Clair papers. The Life and Public Services of 

Arthur St. Clair. 1882. 2v.-Cinn. 1S82. Robert 
Clarke & Co.. publishers. 

Stone, W. L Life of J. Brant, v. 2. 

St. Clair — Portrait in color (In Jcurn.il of American Historv. 4:56.) 

St. Clair and Ordinance of 1787 .. ( W. W. Williams — in Macazine' of Western His- 
tory, 1:49.)" (W. F. Poole, in Dial (Chicago) 
3:13.) 

St. Clair at Princeton and 

Ticonderoga (W. H. Smith — in Magazine of American His- 
tory, 8:680.) 



449 

Defeat of St. Clair, 1791 (American Historical Record, 1:481); (in Dawson 

Battles of U. S., 2:7); (by F. E. Wilson, in 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical publications, 
10:378-80; 11:30-13.) 

St. Clair Papers (American 4:10). (By H. P. Johnston, in Maga- 
zine of American History, 8: 538). (Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine, 6:119). (Literary World 
(Boston) 13:131). 












450 



REV. COLIN DEW JAMES, 
A Pioneer Methodist Preacher of Early Illinois. 

[A Biographical Sketch with Eeminiseences by his son, 

Edmund Janes James, President of the University 

of Illinois.] 

Rev. Colin Dew James was one of the early pioneer 
preachers of Illinois, a younger contemporary of and worker 
with Jesse Walker, Peter Cartwright, John Dew, S. H. 
Thompson, Jonathan Stamper, George Rutledge, John S. 
Barger, TV. I). R. Trotter, J. C. Finley, Peter Akers, Hooper 
Crews, and the men of their generation, and an elder brother 
and counsel to men like Hiram Buck, J. L. Crane, J. C. 
Rucker, W. S. Prentice, and so forth. These men and the 
like of them founded and developed the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in the State of Illinois. 

Colin Dew James was an active member, with a brief 
interruption, of the Illinois Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church for a period of thirty-eight years, from 
1834 to 1872, continuing in a superannuate relation to the 
same conference to his death in 1888 at 80 years of age. 
When he entered the Conference it included the entire State 
of Illinois and portions of Indiana. When he passed away 
the State had been divided into four conferences ; — Southern 
Illinois, Illinois, Central Illinois, and Rock River — but Rev- 
erend James remained with the Illinois Conference, the par- 
ent stock, from the beginning of his ministiy to the end. 
He served in widely separated portions of the State, the 
region extending from Jo Daviess County and Rock Island 
County in the extreme northwest corner of the State, and 
Cook County in the northeast, down through Vermilion and 
Edgar Counties in the middle-eastern portion to St. Clair 
and Washington in the southwestern part of the State. He 
was appointed at one time to work at Eugene on the upper 
Wabash, just beyond the Illinois line at another was sent to 



sin - 

- 



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.v 






1 a ; » 



CT 



X 



-1 

COLIX DEW JAMES AXD HIS WIFE, AMAXDA K. CASAD, 185G. 



451 

Grafton on the lower Mississippi. He was stationed during 
his term of service in sixteen different counties of the State. 
He was presiding elder — the highest administrative officer of 
the church next to bishop — for eight yearly terms, was dele- 
gate to the General Conference of the church at Boston in 
1852, was trustee and member of the visiting board of George- 
town Academy, McKendree College, Illinois Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, and the Woman's College at Jacksonville, for which 
latter he was financial agent in a very critical period of its 
history and is generally regarded as one of the numerous 
saviors of the institution; for like many other weak and 
struggling colleges the Woman's College was in a continual 
process of being saved, as crisis after crisis occurred in its 
development. He was builder and renovator of many 
churches of his denomination, was agent of the church at 
Normal, Illinois, and raised most of the money for the erec- 
tion of the older portion of the fine church now in that city. 
He set the example of calling on the whole church to assist 
in the support of churches at educational centers, such as 
Normal had become, where there were several hundred 
students but where the local membership of the church was 
not financially able to provide the necessary church facilities. 
A lover of his family, his church, and his country, he was a 
leader in all valuable enterprises of the Methodist Church in 
southern and central Illinois, a good preacher, an excellent 
administrator of church matters, not only in the local 
churches but in the church in general, an ardent friend of 
education, lower and higher, church and secular, a wise and 
valued counsellor in affairs of private or public import, a 
public-spirited citizen, a cheerful giver; he died lamented 
not only by his family and friends and the church of his 
choice, but also by the many communities in which he had 
lived and which had been made better by his presence and 
his work. His benefit to a community did not lie merely in 
his active participation in matters of public interest, though 
he never failed in this duty, but above all, by his simple, 
straight-forward, and blameless life — an example of the good 
citizen in every aspect of his relationship to individuals, to 
the family, and to the community. 

He was born in Randolph County, Virginia (now West 
Virginia) near Beverly, January 15, 1808, and died at the 



452 

residence of his daughter, Cornelia Hawk, Bonita, Kansas, 
January 30, 1888. 

A brief account of his life as that of a typical Methodist 
circuit rider of the early days will throw some light on the 
kind of men and the kind of activities by which the founda- 
tions of the commonwealth were laid. 

Little is known of his remote ancestry. His father, Rev. 
William B. James, was an inhabitant of Hampshire County, 
Virginia, in the last decade of the eighteenth century, where 
he bought land on New Creek of one Thomas Noble, October 
19, 1796. He removed with his wife, Elizabeth, to Randolph 
County, Virginia, shortly after, where he sold this same land 
to John Feater, November 1, 1799, while a resident of Ran- 
dolph County, his wife joining in the deed. He was at this 
time already a Methodist preacher, local or traveling, for he 
received in January, 1797, according to a record at Romney, 
West Virginia, a permit from the County Court of Hamp- 
shire County to solemnize marriages according to the form 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

According to the traditions of the family, William B. 
James was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, where 
his father, a recent immigrant from Wales, had settled, about 
1750. He is reputed to have had three sons — Thomas, Isaac, 
and William B. Thomas remained in eastern Virginia, Isaac 
went to North Carolina or Tennessee, William B. became a 
physician and local preacher in the Methodist Church, re- 
moving later to Hampshire County. He was bom in 1769; 
married about 1797 to Elizabeth Duling, who was born about 
1782; and died of the cholera in June, 1826, at Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, while on a trip to New Orleans. 

Isaac James seems to have later gone to Hampshire 
County also, as one Isaac James living in Hampshire County 
applied for a revolutionary pension October 28, 1833, being 
75 years of age. He received it on the ground of service as 
a private in the Virginia troops. A part of the time he served 
under Captain Spencer Kirkpatrick and Colonel Thomas 
Gaskin. He enlisted from Northumberland Countv, Virginia, 
from which Westmoreland County had been cut off. He was 
born in Northumberland County March 16, 1758. 



453 

Elizabeth Duling, first wife of William B. James, was 
the daughter of William Duling who was born in England 
April 27, 1748, and died at New Creek in Hampshire County, 
Virginia, November 4, 1839. His first wife was a Campbell 
and a descendant of Sir Colin Campbell. His second wife 
was a Marsh. He is thought to have come to Hampshire 
County, Virginia, from Caroline County sometime before 
1798. It is not known where in England he was born. The 
name is a very uncommon one. It occurs, however, in Devon- 
shire. There is a will of one John Duling of Crediton, Devon, 
yeoman, recorded in the probate registry in Exeter, Devon- 
shire, England, dated July, 1761. In the list of Devon wills 
there is a statement that in 1G91 letters of administration 
were granted on the estate of William Dewling of Tiverton. 
In the visitation of the County of Devon for the year 1620, 
edited by F. T. Colby, it is noted under the head of Newcourt 
genealogy that J. Newcourt married Elizabeth Duling, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Duling of Heanton Pounchard. Heanton 
Pounehard is a hamlet near the north bank of the River Taw 
in Devon about three or four miles west of Barnstaple and 
two or three miles from the coast. It is near Braunton, a 
station on the Great Western Eailway. 

As I have not been able to find this name in other parts 
of England, I think the Dulings must have come from Devon 
where there were several families of that name, long settled 
in that region, worthy and sturdy farmer stock, describing 
themselves as yeomen. William Duling had six children by 
his first wife and five by his second. Elizabeth was his third 
child by his first marriage. 

William B. James and his wife Elizabeth Duling lived 
in Randolph County, Virginia, from about 1797 or 1798 to 
about 1811. They had ten children, of whom seven were born 
in Randolph County, including Colin Dew, the subject of this 
sketch. About 1S11 they removed to Jefferson County, Ohio,, 
and after three or four years they moved again to Mansfield,. 
Ohio, in 1814 or 1S15, where they lived until the death of 
Elizabeth Duling James in 1818. William B. James was 
married a second time March 2, 1S20, to Mary Waston, and 
shortly after moved to Butler County, Ohio, then to Rich- 
mond, Indiana, and finally to Helt's Prairie, on the Wabash 



454 

in Vermilion County, Indiana, near what is now the village of 
Summit. This last move occurred probably in the year 1822 
or 1823. He died, as said above, while on a trip to New 
Orleans to dispose of a flat boat loaded with corn. 

William B. James bought land in Mansfield, Ohio, on 
August 19, 1815. He resided at the corner of Third and 
Water Streets, now called Adams Street, in a log cabin which 
he erected and which was still standing in good condition in 
1895, though clapboarded over. In 1895 it bore the number 
99 East Third Street. He dug here on this lot the first well 
in Mansfield, and in this cabin he probably preached the first 
sermon in Mansfield. The tradition is that the frame of the 
first Methodist Episcopal Church in Mansfield, erected largely 
through his efforts, was raised the day of the birth of his 
youngest daughter, Mary Ann. March 4, 1817. He was active 
in laying out the town of Miffiinsburg or Petersburg, near 
Mansfield, and seems to have been an alert, "wide-awake 
specimen of the American pioneer, restless and progressive, 
for in about thirty years he had lived in Westmoreland, 
Hampshire, and Randolph Counties in Virginia; in Jefferson, 
Richland, and Butler counties in Ohio ; and Wayne and Ver- 
milion counties in Indiana; practicing his profession of far- 
mer, preacher, and physician with marked success. 

After he settled at Summit Grove, Helt's Prairie, he was 
active in starting a Methodist center, grouped as usual about 
a class meeting. He was a frequent attendant at camp meet- 
ings and participated in the religious exercises of the same. 
He was described by one who knew him at that time as a "tall, 
straight man and an excellent preacher. ' ' 

Colin Dew James was about 14 years of age when his 
father settled at Helt's Prairie, which was to be his home 
for some time. His education had been that which an average 
boy of that period would get from continued moving about 
through a sparsely settled country under pioneer conditions 
— little schooling and that of an inferior character. He told 
me of one teacher, named Timberlick, who, true to his name, 
"licked" the boys unmercifully with a weapon which re- 
sembled a club much more than a switch, and who was in the 
habit of getting so drunk in the course of the day that he 
was maudlin by the time for school to close and oftentimes 



455 

fell from his chair before he actually dismissed the pupils. 
This man seems to have made the deepest impressicm on my 
father of all his teachers — perhaps by the aid of his club. 

My father remembered well the trip over the mountains 
from Randolph County, Virginia, where he was born, to 
Jefferson County, Ohio. There were no wagon roads over the 
hills and consequently no wagon could be used. Everything 
was either loaded on horses or carried on the back of the 
pioneer. Young Colin Avas put into a basket slung on one 
side of a horse, and his sister in a corresponding one on the 
other side to balance him; and thus they trekked out of the 
dark and steep valleys and canyons of the Virginia high- 
lands into the open and sunny hill country of eastern Ohio. 

After the style of the country, he had already become a 
valuable member of the producing force of the family before 
his father died in 1826, when he was 18 years of age. In cer- 
tain respects his education corresponded to the ideals which 
some of our best pedagogues arc arguing for to-day. In fact, 
he was a product to a large extent of a system which re- 
sembled in some respects the famous school of Doctor Squiers 
of Dotheboys Hall, who, you will remember, had already 
described and applied some of the most advanced principles 
of modern pedagogy. li Winder, w-i-n-d-e-r, — go and wash 
the winder." This was the principle underlying Squiers 
and it was the principle which found a practical application 
in the lives of pioneer boys. If they were not utterly thrift- 
less, as many of them were, if they desired to come along and 
amount to something, they found it necessary to qualify in a 
number of different occupations. The young Colin had all the 
advantage which comes from being bound out to a trade at an 
early day, except that he did not have the advantage of very 
great skill on the part of his teachers, though to make up 
for that he had to get training in a number of different voca- 
tions. He became a skillful artisan. He was tailor for his 
family, shoemaker, plow maker, hoe handle maker. By the 
time he was a man grown and could set up for himself he had 
become, if not a jack-of-all-trades, at any rate a fairly effi- 
cient workman at a few, and in addition to all he was con- 
sidered a competent young farmer. 

All this skill and trained ability became of vital im- 
portance to him in the career of a Methodist preacher, upon 



456 

which he was destined to enter. The life itself gave him full 
information as to the life of the people among whom he was 
to work. His marked skill in helping himself do whatever 
had to be done in the life of the members of a growing com- 
munity attracted the attention and commanded the respect of 
his parishioners, while the fact that he could do all these 
things made it unnecessary for him to employ a tailor or 
shoemaker or plow maker, and thus he saved the wages that 
would otherwise have gone to skilled artisans. He could shoe 
his own horses, for example, if a shoe came off, and when 
his various appointments failed to pay him the small sum 
which they were assessed for by the authorities of the church, 
he was still able, like St. Paul at his tent making, to earn 
his own living. He was as nearly independent of the ordi- 
nary exigencies of human life as a man could well be, and 
all this made him the kind of man who was destined to have 
large influence among the people who built this common- 
wealth. 

I remember distinctly that during the darkest days of 
the Civil War, when prices were so high and provisions and 
materials so scarce, it was a great comfort for us youngsters 
who were continually wearing out our shoes that father, by 
a few skillful stitches, could save the boots that might other- 
wise have been hopelessly full of holes. 

Perhaps as the result of the loss of his father, Colin 
Dew James' attention was turned about this time toward re- 
ligion in a very serious way. He was converted at a camp 
meeting near Paris, Illinois in 1827, the year after he lost 
his father, and from that time Iris attention was drawn more 
and more powerfully in the direction of the ministry. A 
Methodist class meeting had been started in the local school 
house of Kelt's Prairie in the spring of 1828, and among 
its members were Edmund James and wife, and Colin James, 
and John James and wife. With increasing seriousness Colin 
prepared himself by study and participation in religious 
work, so far as the necessity of earning a living from the 
rather hard soil of Vermilion County permitted him to do 
so, until finally at the age of 26, in 1834, he applied for per- 
mission to enter the Illinois Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church as a travelling preacher. He was admitted 



457 

October 1, 1834, at the Conference held at Mount Carmel, 
Bishop Roberts presiding - . Tie was assigned to the Rock 
Island mission, Galena district, where he was continued for 
the year 1835-6. He was assigned for the year 1836-7 to 
Plattsville, Galena district, and 1S37-8 to Apple River in the 
same district. In September 1838 he was appointed to Paris, 
Illinois. The distance from the place of the Conference 
meeting in Mt. Carmel on the lower "Wabash, to Rock Island 
on the Mississippi, was over 250 miles. There was no way to 
reach his assignment except .by a boat down the Wabash and 
up the Mississippi or by horseback across the state. The 
latter method was chosen, for my father was a great lover of 
a good horse and found a real companionship with the animal 
as he rode across the lonely prairies and through the forests, 
along the streams. Providing himself with a "pair of sad- 
dle bags and leggins," with a book or two prescribed in the 
course of conference studies which he would be expected to 
learn during his first year of service, he started off on his 
first long trip in the service of the church. 

He represented in his activity, in his attitude toward and 
outlook upon life, the typical circuit rider. The Bible, of 
course, was his chief book, his guide, his friend, his solace, 
his first work on theology. He was not only a preacher. He 
was also an agent, a book agent for the publications of the 
Methodist Book Concern, and after he had once fairly gotten 
to work, he made it a principle to get a few good books even 
if they were onl}* three or four, which he could leave around 
with the families whom he visited and pick up again as he 
visited them in his regular round at intervals of four or 
eight or twelve weeks. He performed the functions in this 
way of a circulating library, and when he could he sold the 
book to the family that had been interested in it, and thus he 
was an agent for good literature. Where families were un- 
able to afford it and he could rake up "two bits" he would 
leave a bible or testament of his own purchase. He took an 
active part in the theological debates in which the people of 
that early time were much interested. He could make a great 
argument in favor of freo will and free grace, could refute 
Calvinism at all the strategic points, and lay solid and true 
the foundations of a sound Arminian theology. His theo- 



458 

logical library consisted chiefly, next to the Bible, of treatises 
on predestination and on baptism, and its proper mode, such 
as Campbell and Rice's debate on the Correct Mode of Bap- 
tism; Bledsoe's Theodicy, Wesley's Entire "Works, Adam 
Clark's Commentary on the Bible, etc., etc. By a diligent 
study of these and similar books he was always ready to par- 
ticipate in the kind of theological arguments which interested 
so greatly the pioneer mind. 

He never lost sight, however, of the fact that after all to 
the Methodist preacher theology was a secondary matter. His 
fundamental purpose was to save the souls of the men and 
women with whom he came in contact, was to alter not their 
theological beliefs but their mode of life, and so he utilized 
to the best of his ability the various forms of evangelization 
known and approved by the circuit riders of this great State. 
He held revivals, conducted camp meeting services, followed 
up the people upon whose minds and hearts he seemed to have 
made impressions, and when he passed out of the active work 
there were few men in the great State of Illinois who could 
look back upon a larger or more satisfactory group of con- 
verted and reclaimed and regenerated men and women than 
he. And this was his great pride and great cause for satis- 
faction and thankfulness, that he had been of use in helping 
to pluck some wandering feet out of the miry clay and put 
them upon the solid rock. 

It was a strenuous and toilsome life he led in the four 
years he was on mission work in the Galena district. There 
was hardly a lonely cabin on the prairie or along the edge of 
the streams in northwestern Illinois to which he was not a 
welcome visitor, and to which lie did not bring solace and com- 
fort and inspiration. 

He had worked there under the supervision and direction 
of Hooper Crews and Alfred Brunson and Bartholomew 
Weed as presiding elders, and he found in them strong sup- 
porters of his general policy. He labored to stimulate an 
interest in education wherever he went, and he got out of this 
life for himself a training in all those qualities and habits 
of mind and body which were to prove useful to him when 
he was returned to the more settled portion of the State. 



459 

It was doubtless due to Hooper Crews who had been his 
presiding elder in the Galena district during his first year of 
service there that he was now sent to Paris in September, 
1838. He was returned again to Paris in 1S42 and 1843, after 
serving one year at Eugene, one year on Georgetown cir- 
cuit, and one year in Shelbyville, He had thus spent four 
years in the extreme northwestern part of the State, from 
1834 to 1838; he then spent four years, from 1838 to 1842, 
in the southeastern portion of the State, centering about Paris 
and Shelbyville; he was then sent, in 1843 to the Jerseyville 
district, living at Grafton, over on the Mississippi River, 
where he remained two years. Having thus served for ten 
years at settled stations or on circuits, he was made presid- 
ing elder at the age of 37, and was appointed to the Sparta 
district, where he remained for three years, living at Nash- 
ville during the period. 1845-4S. For two years, 1848-49, he 
was presiding elder of the Lebanon district, residing at Leba- 
non; and for one year, 1850, of the Alton district, living at 
Edwardsville ; and then for two years, 1851 and 1852, pre- 
siding elder of the Bloomington district, where, as a man of 
mature years, he made as a delegate to the General Confer- 
ence of the Church at Boston in 1852 his first long trip out 
of the territory of Illinois. He served thus as presiding elder 
for eight years. For the next nine years, from 1853 to 1861, 
he was appointed to positions in and about Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois; for two years, from 1853 to 1854, to the east charge of 
Jacksonville; 1855 at Winchester; 1S56 and 1857 on the Jack- 
sonville circuit ; 185S at Greenfield ; 1859 and 1860 at Island 
Grove; 1S61-62 the agent of the Female College at Jack- 
sonville. 

In September, 18G2, he was returned to the Bloomington 
district, in charge of Oldtown circuit for two years, 1862 and 

1863, and then in succession for one year each, beginning in 

1864, at Heyworth, Normal, Atlanta, McLean, and Shirley; 
was then for two years a superannuate, and finally closed 
his active conference career as the agent for the Normal 
church in 1S71. 

It will thus be seen how, generally speaking, the so- 
called absolute power of the Methodist bishops in assigning 
a minister to given appointments, is evidently determined 



460 

by geographical as well as other considerations. As noted 
above, the Reverend Colin Dew James was first stationed in 
the northwestern part of the State, then in the southeastern 
part, then in the southwestern, and then in the central por- 
tion, for considerable periods, being moved about from one 
station to another, yet so as to diminish as much as possible 
the expense of time and money and energy incident to mov- 
ing. But even so, the number of "moves" a Methodist 
preacher had to make in those early days was very consider- 
able. Orer twenty times he was compelled to remove be- 
tween 1834 and 1863. 

In the autumn of the last year he decided to locate per- 
manently, and bought a small farm two miles north of the 
junction of the Illinois Central and the Chicago and Alton 
Railroads, to which in the autumn of 1863 he removed his 
family and where he lived until 1875 when the family moved 
to Evanston, Illinois. From this permanent home he served 
four of the districts besides Normal, before he was super- 
annuated, and accepted a permanent location. I was born 
May 21, 1855, at Jacksonville. TVe had moved five times 
before I was six years old. One can get some idea as to the 
fearful strain upon the women folks of the family involved 
in these continued removals, for while the furniture was 
not very abundant and the articles of bric-a-brac not very 
numerous, the mere fact of having to tear up everything, col- 
lect all one's belongings, pack them away in wagons, and 
drive from 15 to 25 or 40 miles, unpack them again, replace 
them, and tear them out at the end of another year, or at 
the most at the end of a second year, meant that a large part 
of the available energy of the family was devoted to packing 
and unpacking. 

This experience, of course, was not without its interest., 
and possibly its value, to the younger members of the family. 
I still remember with keen pleasure riding on the top of the 
wagon loaded with furniture on a beautiful September day, 
1861, from Island Grove to Jacksonville. What a luxury it 
was for me asa six-year-old to survey the country from the 
vantage point of the top of a load of furniture, and when I 
got tired to lie down on the mattress which had been arranged 
for my comfort on the top of the wagon and take a nap; and 






461 



riding thus, hour after hour, through the beautiful autumn 
air and what to me was a pleasing and interesting land- 
scape. With a still keener interest the following year — the 
last of September, 1862 — I drove with my father from Jack- 
sonville to Bloomington, to which he had been sent. We used, 
so far as I know, the railroad for the first time in moving 
our effects in that year. Mother and the baby went by pas- 
senger train. My two brothers, with the cow and the furni- 
ture, went by slow freight— awfully slow it was, too, three 
days, if I remember rightly, getting from Jacksonville to 
iBloomington — and father and I took the carriage and the 
team of horses and drove through Island Grove, where we 
stopped to see our old friends, the Browns — the head of the 
family Captain A. N. Brown of agricultural fame; then 
through Springfield — in crossing the Sangamon at one of the 
fords the water came up so high that I had to climb up on 
the seat of the carriage in order to keep my feet from getting 
wet, and the pleasing excitement from fear that the rapidly 
flowing current would sweep horses and carriage and father 
and me away; and finally, then, driving into the new town, 
wondering what was going to happen to us in this new place. 

There were, of course, many inconveniences in this kind 
of life. School life was much disturbed and many claims had 
to be made upon the children which interfered with their 
regularity of attendance. But this being compelled to take 
part in the active support and active life of the family was 
certainly an educational element of no mean influence. This 
constant removal to new scenes was also a source of intel- 
lectual stimulus and may well account for the fact that 
Methodist preachers' children figure so frequently among the 
successful men and women of the community. 

An occasional trip in carriages or on the cars brought a 
greatly appreciated change into the monotony of pioneer 
life. I remember a visit which in September, 1860, we made 
to Summerfield, Illinois, from Island Grove, where we were 
then living. We took one large double carriage with seats 
for four people; one buggy with seats for two (sometimes 
three crowded in when too tired to walk) ; and one horse. 
It was about 100 miles by the road we went. We drove all 
day and stopped where we could for dinner and a night's 



462 

lodging. Father knew nearly everyone in that part of the 
State. When we came home we found the house had been 
robbed, which gave us children a delicious sense of terror. 

Again in 1864 in the month of February my mother and I 
went down to Summerfield by rail to visit her family, then 
breaking up to go to Kansas. 

Rev. James' participation in the organized educational 
life of the community began with an early association with 
the Georgetown Academy, and became very real and direct 
when he was sent to the Sparta District as presiding elder, 
living at Nashville; and subsequently when as presiding elder 
of the Lebanon District he came to live in the town where 
McKendree College is located. He here became, in 1849, a 
visitor, and in 1850 a trustee of the college for three years. 
He was elected president of the Joint Board of Trustees and 
Visitors July 17, 1850, and was actively interested in the pro- 
motion of the prosperity and development of the college. 

His later father-in-law, Anthony Wayne Casad, and 
Casad's father-in-law, Samuel Stites, had been interested in 
the early days in the foundation of McKendree. (See Jour- 
nal of State Historical Society for July, 1914.) 

During his term of service as presiding elder of the 
Bloomington District, the Illinois Wesleyan University was 
organized. He was one of the charter members of the board 
of trustees, and took a keen interest in helping to launch the 
enterprise which after so many vicissitudes has resulted in 
what seems to be the permanent establishment of an excel- 
lent institution of college grade. He was trustee of the uni- 
versitv for three years, from 1851-54, with such men as W. 
D. R, Trotter, William J. Rutledge, John Magoon, J. E. Mc- 
Clun, Jesse W. Fell, Isaac Funk, John S. Barger, Reuben 
Adams, and others, and later sent two of his sons to the in- 
stitution. 

When he went to Jacksonville he was interested in the 
same way in the Woman's College and was subsequently a 
visitor and member of the board of trustees, and finally he 
was designated to be the financial agent of the institution in 
September, 1861; While" holding that office the main building 
of the institution was burned, and it became necessary for 
him to sign up with other men notes in what was a very large 



463 



amount for those clays in order to secure the reconstruction of 
the building. He was occupied during that year in raising 
the money necessary to pay off these notes. Ke contributed 
himself what amounted to his entire income for three years, 
thus setting the example for the other devoted members of 
the board of trustees. 

He was official visitor to the Jacksonville Female College 
in 1853-4; was present at the meeting of the board of visitors 
on June 29, 1854; and became a trustee of the college in Sep- 
tember, 1851. At his first meeting, November 6, 1854, also at 
the meeting of November 9, 1854, he was appointed chairman 
of a committee to draft a set of by-laws for the government 
of the board; and he reported for this committee December 
5, 1854, the report being adopted. He resigned his position 
as trustee November 13, 1855, when he went to AVinchester. 
He was official visitor in 1856. He was reappointed trustee 
in September, 1857, and continued to serve until 1866, re- 
signing November 9 of that year. He was officially appointed 
financial agent at a meeting of the trustees held October 7, 
1861. 

He never lost his interest in these educational enter- 
prises, and though the Georgetown Academy disappeared in 
the course of time, by becoming the first public school of the 
place, it did an extremely necessaiy and useful work in pro- 
viding educational facilities for the people of that region at a 
time when the community was not willing to tax itself, even 
for the support of an elementary school. The other three in- 
stitutions to which he contributed of his time and money and 
energy — McKendree, the Woman 's College, and the ATesleyan 
— all seem likely to become permanently establishd features 
of our modern educational system. They have not only per- 
sisted, not only kept alive, but they have adapted themselves 
more or less successfully to the changing conditions of edu- 
cational organization and educational work to such an extent 
that it looks as if they were likely to prove permanent ele- 
ments in the educational life of the commonwealth. 

Reverend James did not regard the fact that he was a 
minister of the Gospel as interfering in any way with his 
duties and rights as a citizen in the world of politics. Al- 
though he never ran for public office until after he had 



4:64: 

practically retired from the ministry, and then only for the 
rather mild ofiice of town collector or town road master, he 
was always deeply interested in the large problems of national 
policy. His father had left Virginia on account of his oppo- 
sition to slavery and his desire to secure for his children 
the benefits of the larger liberty and wider outlook charac- 
teristic of the free states, although the fact that two of his 
slaves refused to accept their freedom and followed him 
wherever he went as long as he lived, one of them continuing 
until her death with one of his children, testifies to the fact 
that his treatment of the slaves was humane, to say the least. 

Rev. Colin Dew James was an old-line Whig until the 
Republican Party was formed, when he became one of the 
most ardent members of that organization. Although born 
in Virginia he was a very strong Union man. Possibly he 
got this sentiment from the atmosphere, so to speak of West- 
ern Virginia, which contained many men of the same general 
type who were strongly devoted to the American Union and 
ultimately organized the Randolph County in which my 
father was born, and the surrounding counties, into the State 
of West Virginia. 

My father was a strong Lincoln man. My mother, al- 
though of eastern descent, was a strong sympathizer with the 
South. Taking my cue from both, as the soldiers marched 
by the house on the State road between Springfield and 
Jacksonville, I would run and climb on the gatepost and 
shout first for Lincoln and then for Douglas for the sake of 
seeing the hats come off— a part for one and a part for the 
other as I called the names. 

At one time, in 1863, there was a considerable dispute in 
the church at Old Town, and my father found it necessary to 
use rather strict measures in restoring discipline. Several 
members were ejected from the church, and one of the bit- 
terest of these told me years afterwards, in a laughing tone 
which showed that the fierceness of the contest had died away, 
that after the dust of battle cleared it was found that every 
man whom my father expelled from the church was a Demo- 
crat and every man whom he left in there was a Republican. 
This, of course, was a joke, though it expressed the general 
feeling of the community that my father was a Union man 



465 

of no uncertain decision. To me as a young man my father's 
attitude toward the first election of Grover Cleveland was 
very interesting. He felt it as so seriously a blow to the 
very fundamental interests of National welfare that he wept 
like a child. I tried to console him by sawing that if as a matter 
of fact Mr. Cleveland and those who voted for him really 
desired to destroy the American people, it would be a striking 
proof to my mind that the American people was hardly worth 
preserving, for if as the result of a century's development 
half of the people wished to destroys the other half or to 
destroy the Nation, there was certainly something "rotten 
in Denmark." As my father followed the course of events 
and saw that nothing happened that was really alarming he 
gradually detached himself from all Ids previous relation- 
ships and ultimately became a strong Prohibitionist, though 
I do not think he voted for any Prohibitionist for president 
of the United States. Certainly, however, pledged as he was 
to the Union, he would have felt that to a certain extent his 
life had been in vain if he had lived to see some of his young- 
est sons voting for a democrat for president of the United 
States. 

Mr. James shared the current opinion of Methodist 
preachers of his time that novel reading was an idle, if not in- 
jurious, occupation, and condemned it in his official capacity 
as presiding elder as late as 1851. The minutes of the Quar- 
terly Conference of the Bloomington Station of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church for December 27, 1851, C. D. James presid- 
ing, have the following entry : 

"Besolvcd, that it is the sense of this Quarterly Meeting 
Conference that Brother Cobbey is reprehensible under the 
circumstances for being engaged as a christian man in selling 
novels or books of light reading known as such, and that he be 
most affectionately admonished to avoid the same in time to 
come." The record does not show whether Brother Cobbey 
reformed or not. 

In this matter also my father received a sudden shock in 
his old age similar to that received in his political experience 
by the election of Mr. Cleveland. I came into the room one 
day after he had become an old man, and found him busily 
interested in reading a book of several hundred pages. I 



466 

said, "Father, what is that book that interests you so much?" 
He then turned and gave me a very interesting - account of the 
story. I recognized it immediately as "Oliver Twist." The 
book had had the back torn off, and the title page was gone, 
so that there was nothing about it to show really that it was 
not a Sunday school book of orthodox type. When I ex- 
plained to him that he had been reading one of Dicken's 
novels he was quite indignant and threw the book across the 
room, but I observed afterwards that he picked it up and re- 
sumed his reading; and from that time on his attitude toward 
novel reading was entirely different. 

During the year we lived in Bloomington, 1862-63, and 
the first year at Normal on the farm before mentioned, father 
was in the habit of leaving home on Thursday afternoon, 
driving the rounds of his circuit, and getting back on Tues- 
day of the following week. If the roads were at all usable 
he drove in his carriage with two horses, but if they were 
impassable, as they often were in the winter, then he trav- 
elled on horseback. During the summer and autumn while 
the roads were in good condition, I was his usual companion 
on these trips. As I had not yet started to school because of 
my rather feeble health, I got from these trips with my 
father impressions and a training which in their value to me 
were far beyond Avhat any school would have given me for 
the same days or weeks or months. His love of nature, his 
love of animals, his humaneness and love of his fellow human 
beings, not talked about or prated about, but showing itself 
by every act, the most insignificant as well as the most im- 
portant, all made a deep and abiding impression on my youth- 
ful mind. The evident respect and love which not only his 
parishioners had for him but everybody who lived along the 
roads where he travelled, were an evidence to me of the 
means by which men gain the confidence and affection of 
their fellowmen. The bright and genial spirit and almost 
jovial outlook on life, combined with a natural sternness 
which quelled all undue familiarity without the necessity of 
a word or a look, were things which I consciously attempted 
to cultivate because they impressed me as something worth 
having if they could only be acquired. 

The Methodist preachers of the early days, when they 
got together, were a rarely jovial and happy crowd. They 



467 

wore most of them good story tellers, and many an hour was 
passed about the open fireplace of a winter evening, listening 
to the great fund and range of stories, each one suggesting 
to each of the men about the fire a new and better one. 

I remember distinctly a visit we received while we were 
living at Island Grove, a little hamlet of three or four 
houses half way between Springfield and Jacksonville. "Cal- 
ifornia" Taylor, as he was called, a distinguished street 
preacher of the early days in San Francisco, stopped to call 
upon us on his trip from the West to the East. He was after- 
wards a very distinguished administrator of the church, 
elected first missionary bishop, organizing many of the mis- 
sions in different parts of the world. To hear him and my 
father trade stories was an experience which was far more 
valuable than many hours or days of instruction in school, 
and I am afraid that in order to hear these men talk while 
they walked about the yard or strolled down the country 
road,,X avoided, as far as I dared, the lesson hour which my 
mother always set for me. 

Opportunities for rather rare intercourse with men of 
power occasionally came to these pioneers of the early days. 
My father rode in the autumn of '5-i across the State from 
Quincy to Torre Haute with Bishop Edmund Janes, one of 
the most powerful preachers and able administrators of the 
Methodist church. He was so impressed by the bishop's per- 
sonality and his knowledge and insight and character that 
he saddled his name into me when I appeared the next spring! 

Reverend James had very strong feelings on the subject 
of drinking, card playing, dancing, horse racing, etc. I do not 
believe that he had ever tasted intoxicating liquor, except 
possibly as a medicine in the early days when quinine and 
whisky were given in heavy doses to counteract malaria. 
He certainly did not know one card from the other at the 
time when I became acquainted with him and with cards; 
though judging from my own experience he may have known 
the games very well at one time and completely forgotten 
them in after years. His real mortification, however, I have 
no doubt, was his feeling that he ought not to take part or 
countenance in any way horse racing, for he was a great lover 



468 

of a good horse and he liked to have a horse which no other 
horse on the road could pass. Yet as he thought horse racing 
was had as a matter of principle because he did not sec how 
it could be divorced from the bad practices characteristic of 
the horse racing field, he was opposed to it. But he did love 
to see the horses compete with one another because he really 
believed that the horses themselves enjoyed it as much as he. 

Wherever he went, as noted above, he carried with him 
a strong, vigorous, genial personality which, because it was 
so sincere and honest, commanded the respect, affection, and 
following of his fellow men. There was nothing mean in his 
make-up, nothing underhanded in his methods, and there 
was a sustaining force and power in the man himself that 
made him easily like a rock in the shade of which people could 
sit as in a dry and thirsty land; or like the anchor by which 
men held their places against the force of destructive winds. 

My father was twice married, first to Eliza Ann Plasters, 
of Livingston, near Marshall, in Clark County, Illinois, by 
Rev. Hooper Crews, May 15, 1839. She was the daughter of 
James Plasters and Hannah, his wife, and was born at Lees- 
burg, Loudoun County, Virginia, September 24, 1822, and died 
at Lebanon, Illinois, February 20, 1849, and was buried in the 
village cemetery back of McKendree College. She was fair, 
with gray eyes, brown hair, and pleasing countenance; alto- 
gether a very pretty and attractive woman she was consid- 
ered by all who knew her. She liked nice clothes and brilliant 
colors, and had a much greater love for finery in dress and 
hats than was considered entirely suitable in those days for 
a Methodist preacher's wife. But she seemed to suit her hus- 
band exactly. 

A year and eight months after her death, November 27, 
1850, Colin I). James took as his second wife, my mother, 
Amanda K. Casad, born at Lebanon, Illinois, August 18, 1827, 
died at Evanston. Illinois, September 23, 1878. They were mar- 
ried by Rev. Dr. Holliday at the home of W. TV. Mitchell, pas- 
tor of the First Methodist church in Alton Illinois. They 
had to run away from home to get married as the father and 
her brother were much opposed to their daughter and sister 
getting married to a Methodist preacher. Nothing but the 
excellent qualities of my father's horses enabled them to 



469 

keep ahead in the active pursuit. My mother was a mild and 
gontlespoken woman. She wore curls in her younger days, 
after the old-fashioned style. Rather reserved in her manner, 
she was not popular with the many; but held her real friends 
to her as by hoops of steel. She seldom gave orders or made 
demands but always had her own way finally — for hers was 
best and husband and children always came to see it. She 
had litle chance for schooling- in the early days in St. Clair 
County, though she did go to school for a short time to Lucy 
Larcom, the American poet, when the latter taught a coun- 
try school in southern Illinois. What my mother failed to 
get in school she made up by reading and study at home. 
She knew Shakespeare by heart. She could tell you play and 
act for any two consecutive lines you might quote to her. She 
was a great admirer of John Stuart Mill's writings, and was 
a very pronounced advocate of woman suffrage from the very 
early days of this movement. She had a rare taste for the 
really good things in English literature and tried to stimu- 
late the interest of her children in all these things. 

As a young woman she had been a sort of assistant to her 
father in his medical practice and read his books and mixed 
his medicines until she was reputed in the neighborhood to 
be a ''knowing young woman" and an excellent nurse, all 
of which redounded to the benefit of her own children and 
husband in later years. 

As noted above, Rev. C. D. James and his family removed 
from Normal in 1S75 to Evanston, Illinois, where the younger 
children all attended the Northwestern University, either 
in the academy or college department, or both. Here his 
second wife died and is buried at Rose Hill. xVfter her death 
in 1878 the family continued to live in Evanston until as the 
children grew up and left home one by one, Rev. Colin Dew 
began to spend more time with his married children and 
finally took up his residence with his second daughter, Mrs. 
George Hawk, of Bonita, Kansas, where in a neighboring 
sanitarium the welcome call came to him on the 30th of Jan- 
uary, 1888. 



470 



SOME BEGINNINGS IN CENTRAL CASS COUNTY, 

ILLINOIS. 

[By William Epler.] 

As far as is certainly known, Eli Cox was the first per- 
manent white settler within the present borders of Cass 
County. He relates that in 1818 he entered a beautiful grove 
of timber; upon a tree carved his name and the date, thereby 
giving notice of his squatter claim, as was customary in Ken- 
tucky. This was during the first term of President James 
Monroe, the year Illinois was admitted as a State. In 1820 he 
returned to the grove and to his claim and began his improve- 
ments. He resided at this place until age and loneliness made 
it necessary for him to seek a home elsewhere, his family hav- 
ing grown to maturity and established homes of their own. 
The grove in which he had settled took his name, and today is 
known as Cox's Grove. 

It is located in sections 4, 9, 17 and 8, four miles north of 
the nice little city of Ashland. It can be said of Eli Cox that 
he was a good citizen, attending strictly to his own affairs, 
developed a fine farm, became wealthy, was highly respected, 
dying at an advanced age in his new Ashland home. 

Beardstown was first permanently settled in 1820. 

Archibald Job settled at what was afterwards known as 
Sylvan Grove in 1821, sections 7, 17 and 9. He came to Illinois 
from Maryland, in which state, it is presumed, he was born. 
We have the authority of the late Judge William Thomas of 
Jacksonville that he represented Greene County in the Illinois 
Legislature in 1824, but this is not confirmed by a search of 
the official records. Greene County at that time embraced 
both Morgan and Cass Counties; however, in 1824 he repre- 
sented Greene and Morgan Counties in the Legislature, Mor- 
gan County having been established in 1823. Again in 182G 
he was elected to the Illinois State Senate from the district 
embracing Morgan, Pike, Adams, Schuyler, Fulton and Peoria 



471 

Counties. He was a Whig. The Jackson sentiment which 
now set in closed his political career, not from any want of 
patriotic attention to his official duties, but changed political 
conditions left his party in the minority. His business ability 
and integrity were recognized later, when he was chosen one 
of the three Commissioners to superintend the erection of the 
State's Capitol building at Springfield, the new State capital 
city, and tradition says he was the active member of the com- 
mission. He died in Cass County in March, 1874, at the ad- 
vanced age of 94 years, and was buried in the John Robinson 
graveyard near his Sylvan home. 

Peter Conover came to Illinois from "Woodford County, 
Kentucky, in 1822, settling at what has since been known as 
Walnut Grove, one of the many groves that lend their charm 
and stately beauty to central Cass County. Though from 
Kentucky, he was born and reared in New Jersey, near Mon- 
mouth Court House, was of Revolutionary stock, his brothers, 
older than himself, having rode as cavalrymen in Washing- 
ton's immediate array throughout the war. He was one of the 
first three commissioners of Morgan County when organized 
in 1823 ; was president of first Bible Society in Morgan County, 
always standing for the best in the affairs of the early settlers ; 
resided at his pioneer home until his death in 1837, at an ad- 
vanced age, greatly respected. He was buried near where 
stood his first cabin home, but all traces of his last resting 
place have long since disappeared, and many crops of grain 
and clover have grown over the same. 

The writer, knowing of this, has often asked himself, who 
could be better put away, to await the coming of the last day, 
than the old pioneer, Peter Conover? His pioneer home is 
still in the Conover name and has been continuously since its 
first settlement. These three old and distinguished settlers, 
at least, were among the first in central Cass County, if not 
the very first. 

•In the first beginning of fruit culture in central Cass 
County, two orchards should receive special mention, one 
developed by Page Williams on his settlement in section 33, 
17, 9; the other, that of John Epler on his farm one-half mile 
west of old Princeton, in section 36, 17, 10. Besides, there 



472 

could be properly mentioned the peach orchard of Henry 
Hopkins in section 5, 17, 9. 

There were oilier early small apple orchards, but of the 
seedling variety. The two above mentioned were of grafted 
fruit, the first of the kind and it can be said they were among 
the very best ever in the county. 

Page Williams must have been a resourceful far-seeing 
man, as may be inferred from his short, efficient, business life, 
besides his good name has come down to us. It is not known 
when he made his settlement in section 33, 17, 9, though 
it is certain at a very early date, as the records show he 
entered his land in 1826. 

He married Miss Myra Eucker, a daughter of Rev. John 
Rueker, a very early settler, in Jersey Prairie, Morgan 
County, near the present village of Literberry. 

Page Williams went to Ohio, doubtless the state of his 
nativity, on horseback. On his return to Illinois he brought, 
with him his saddle bags filled with cuttings from best varie- 
ties of apple trees. These he grafted into seedling roots pro- 
vided previously. Let it be written, the Ohio varieties of 
apples, originally coming from Virginia, Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania, in quality have never been excelled, if equaled, in 
the W'est. In due time, after grafting, he set out his orchard 
of a number of acres, having enough left to supply his near 
neighbor, Fenton Van Deventer, a Virginian, and others with 
small ones. This orchard prospered, became abundantly 
fruitful, was far and widely known as "Apple Hill," and bears 
that name to. this day, though every vestige of the famous 
orchard has long since disappeared. 

At a later date Page Williams built a large, nice looking 
brick house for his residence, which was destroyed by fire in 
recent years. He died August 12, 1843, at the early age of 
40 years. His remains now rest in a lost grave, overgrown 
with weeds, briars and trees, in a countrvside graveyard, 
located at the foot of "Apple Hill." 

Gridley relates in his Historical Sketches: "The sand- 
stone slab that once stood at the head of the grave of Mr. 
Williams was leaning a.uainst a tree, on October 28, 1906, the 
day the writer (Mr. Gridley) visited the place. The exact 
spot of his burial place can not now be located. He was an 



473 

influential and much respected citizen. That his last resting 
place has thus been neglected is certainly a reproach to those 
who should have cared for it." 

His widow, Mrs. Myra Eucker Williams, in after years 
became the wife of Mr. Samuel Sinclair, whom she long sur- 
vived. She was highly respected and loved for her many 
womanly virtues, is still affectionately remembered, though 
long since gone home, and still called Aunt Myra. 

In 1829-30 and '31, there came from Clark County, Indi- 
ana, the four Epler brothers — John, Jacob, David and Isaac — ■ 
and settled in Morgan County. The three-mile strip taken 
from Morgan County in 1845 and added to Cass left them all 
on the Cass County side of the dividing line. The year follow- 
ing — 1832 — the parents, Abraham and Anna Oldwiler Epler, 
came from Indiana, settling in the north edge of Indian Creek 
timber, in Morgan County, on the NE. y± of section 2, T. 16 
N., E. 9 W. The clipping of the three-mile strip left them 
still in Morgan by about one-fourth of a mile. They brought 
with them their two youngest children — George and Mary. 
When Abraham Epler came he brought each one of his sons 
an apple orchard from his own Indiana nursery; he, among 
his other activities ; was a nurseryman there. He came by the 
rivers, down the Ohio, up the Mississippi, up the Illinois to 
Beardstown. To his son John, his oldest son, he brought a 
large stock, consisting of apple, pear and cherry trees. It is 
to be presumed John desired to develop a large money paying 
orchard. He had assisted his father in nursery and orchard, 
therefore understood the business. Abraham Epler also 
brought an orchard for his oldtime friend and Indiana neigh- 
bor, Capt. Charles Beggs, who had come to Illinois from Clark 
Countv, Indiana, in 1829, settling in Morgan County, on the 
NW. y 4 , section 1, T. 16 N., E. 10 W. The clipping of the 
three-mile strip from Morgan did not change the county resi- 
dence of Captain Beggs by about 40 rods. 

.John Epler planted out his orchard with great care. It 
matured rapidly and came into early bearing. 

The two orchards of Page Williams and John Epler were 
prolific bearers by the early 40 's, possibly by the late 30 's, and 
at once became known. 



474 

The fruit was of the best quality, not only because the 
varieties were good and the trees young, but it was before the 
invasion of insect pests and fungi diseases, the fruit maturing 
perfectly. Insect pests and fungi diseases did not appear in 
central Illinois much, if any, before 1850. The caterpillar, 
probably, we always had with us, at least he first attracted the 
attention of the orchardist, but he was easily managed. A 
boy with a greased swab on the end of a pole and it properly 
applied quickly eliminated him, as the writer knows by 
experience. 

These two orchards soon became widely known. Every 
fall, for years, people with teams would come for their winter 
supply of apples, not only from surrounding neighborhoods, 
but from beyond the Mississippi River, from the Black Hawk 
country, as Iowa was then called, a commercial transaction 
hard to believe by people of to-day, so accustomed to quick 
dealings, automobiles and railroads, thinking the long journey 
would cost more than their load of fruit could be worth. As 
one can readily see, the journey, going and coming, could be 
made quite inexpensive. Those men would leave their Black 
Hawk homes with ample supplies from smoke house, crib and 
field, to last the round trip, the only cash outlay would be ferry 
charges across the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. Coming 
at a season of the year — Indian summer — when weather was 
pleasant and roads good and farm work not pressing, instead 
of a laborious task, it was a coveted outing, for who does not 
like to travel, camping out by the wayside, under such favor- 
able conditions ? 

In the Epler orchard was a remarkable pear tree. It grew 
rapidly to a great size, Avas a prolific bearer of most excellent 
fruit, in favorable years yielding from 30 to 40 bushels, keep- 
ing this up until every other pear tree in the orchard had long 
since disappeared and until it was split down one stormy night 
in about 1880. John Epler started a nursery about 1845, which 
he conducted successfully a number of years, supplying many 
orchards of choice grafted fruit to farmers, not only in central 
Cass County, but throughout that immediate section of 
country. 

In later years other fine orchards were developed, notably 
the Phineas Underwood orchard, located in NW. Y+, section 



475 

28, 18, 9, that of Conrad Funk in SE. %, section 34, 18, 11, 
and the large Freeman orchard near Virginia, hut none ex- 
celled the Page Williams and John Epler orchards. 

Ahraham Epler, father of the five before mentioned 
brothers, was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvainia, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1769. Married Anna Oldwiler. They, with their 
three children, emigrated to Kentucky in 1798, floating down 
the Ohio River in a flat boat to the Falls, settling six miles 
south of the present city of Louisville. In 1800 they moved 
across the Ohio on to Clark's Grant, Indiana. In 1832 moved 
to Morgan County, Illinois, where he died January 22, 1837. 
Was buried in the old Baptist graveyard on Indian Creek, 
near by his home, now the beautiful "Yatesville Cemetery." 
Anna Oldwiler, his wife, died May 3, 1847, and was laid by 
his side. 

The five brothers were thrifty farmers, became wealthy 
and were highly respected in the communities in which they 
lived. Capt. Charles Beggs, though not properly an actor in 
these relations, never having lived in Cass County, was closely 
identified with the Epler family by marriage, business and 
social associations, was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, 
in 1775, emigrated with his young wife, Dorothy Trumbo, to 
Kentucky in 1797, thence to Clark's Grant on the north side of 
the Ohio River, in 1799, thence to Morgan County, Illinois, in 
1829. 

The segregation of the "three-mile strip" from Morgan 
in 1845 did not change his county citizenship, leaving him still 
in Morgan County by about 40 rods. 

Before coming to Illinois he had been a member of both 
Territorial and State Legislatures of Indiana, member of its 
State Constitutional Convention, was captain of a company of 
light horse and was with Gen. Harrison in his campaign 
against the Indians on the upper Wabash, participating in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, November 7, 1811. 

He died in Morgan County in 1869, reaching the great age 
of 94 years; was buried in Zion Church Cemetery, one mile 
east of Little Indian, railroad station in Cass County. 

Henry Hopkins, born and reared in Delaware, going 
West he first settled in Woodford County, Kentucky, thence 
f o Clark County, Indiana, thence to Morgan County, Illinois, 



476 

passing his first year, 1825, in Jersey Prairie, thence in 182G 
to Sugar Grove about eight miles north, where he settled per- 
manently in section 5, 17, 9. 

Here he had a peach orchard paramount to all others in 
what is now central Cass County. Why it was so superior to 
others, it can not now be said, possibly because it happened to 
be planted in the right kind of soil and was amply protected 
by a heavy wood to the west and north, and in part doubtless 
to the fact that he was reared in Delaware, where peach grow- 
ing, then as now, was well understood and carried to per- 
fection. At any rate, he had an early day orchard that for 
quality and constant bearing was widely known. 

Something more should be said of this early pioneer, 
especially noted for his hospitality. "His latch string was 
always out. ' ' No hungry man ever went from his door. The 
newcomer, and he was cf frequent occurrence, was free to sup- 
ply his immediate wants without charge from his smoke house 
or crib. He resided on his farm about 50 years, then moved to 
Virginia, five miles distant, where he died April 20, 1S79, at 
the advanced age of 83 years and 6 months. Was buried in 
Walnut Eidge Cemetery, Virginia. 

After the covered wagon and tent came that boon to the 
pioneer, the log cabin. The log cabin was a shelter easily and 
quickly provided, the material standing in the adjoining grove 
and willing neighbors to help put it in place. As time passed 
and new abodes were required, the brick house was frequently 
resorted to. Why the brick instead of the frame, at so early 
a day? It was because of the absence of manufactured lumber, 
saw mills not yet introduced, or were far between. The new- 
comer from old communities, east and south, could make brick, 
and they did. The writer remembers as many as nineteen 
brick dwellings on as many farms in central Cass County 
(two of which were in Morgan County, though close to the 
dividing line), besides two brick churches and three brick 
schoolhouses — the majority of which were built during the 
30 's, a few in the 40 's, a less number in the 50 's. Only two 
can be called to mind that were constructed since the Avar. 

The first brick church was erected by the Baptist denom- 
ination in old Princeton in 1834. It was freely used by all 
denominations. Several terms of school were taught in it, 



477 

in it elections were held, in it the writer cast his first vote on 
his 21st birthday — April 15, 1856. This pioneer church stood 
until the Civil War, possibly a short time after. Its member- 
ship had largely disappeared, by deaths and removals, when 
it was demolished, its records removed to Literberry, Morgan 
County, where a new church building was erected. In 1846, 
one year after the old Walnut Grove schoolhouse was swept 
away by a tornado, a brick church and schoolhouse, combined 
under the same roof, was erected, one mile east of Little Indian 
Station in Cass County. It Avas known as Zion church and 
school. Large folding doors were built in to separate the 
schoolroom from the church part. On special church occasions 
the doors could be folded back, thus increasing the church's 
capacity. Some time during the 60 's it was destroyed by fire. 
Immediately thereafter a frame schoolhouse was built upon 
its site for school and a church building erected on the north 
end of the lot. Both are still known as Zion Church and Zion 
school. 

To illustrate the gradual introduction of the frame dwell- 
ing and the difficulties and delays attending the same: Mr. 
John Epler, father of the writer in 1837 and 1838, built a 
frame house to succeed his log cabin, in which the writer was 
born. He found it necessary to burn his own brick, burn his 
own lime and built a saw mill on Little Indian Creek, section 
35-17-10 to saw the necessary lumber, the first saw mill prob- 
ably in that vicinity for miles. It required two years to get 
ready and complete the house. The house is still standing and 
inhabited, though in a sorrowfully neglected condition, occu- 
pied, as it has been, by tenants for forty years. Other houses 
of similar style followed, framed barns were built, and the 
country seemed to adopt a more pretentious dress. Just pre- 
ceding the lumber built house, a style of framed house was 
occasionally met with, very enduring and comfortable, though 
generally small. It was a product of the broad axe and frow 
— the frame parts, including rafters and studding, were hewn, 
the -roof and siding were riven, lumber for flooring and doors 
was whip-sawed, or hauled from some distant mill. 

The opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in April, 
1848, ushered in a new era of building, by supplying the coun- 
try with all kinds of cheap pine lumber of the best quality. 



478 

The quality of that early Lake Michigan lumber is worthy 
of special mention. Mr. John Epler built a large barn in 1850. 
The siding was of this Lake Michigan pine. Every plank is 
still in place, not in any sense decayed, though weather worn 
about 25 per cent; that is to say, the inch siding is weather 
worn to % of an inch. There is plank fencing on the George 
Conover farm near Virginia, Illinois, the plank of which has 
been doing duty since 1870 — 17 years. 

To keep this fencing standing, additional posts had to be 
set, as the original ones decayed. Now they are scattered 
along at intervals of three or four feet. It would be inter- 
esting to note the evolution of the farm fence, through all 
its phases, from the Virginia rail fence, which was generally 
adopted in the beginning, to the present woven-wire and con- 
crete post fence, which is rapidly coming into use, but to do so 
here would be at the risk of becoming tedious. It can not be 
recalled that any church building antedated the brick Baptist 
church in old Princeton, erected in 1834, mentioned before in 
the review of brick houses. It is true there had been religious 
meetings for years previous, but those meetings had been 
held in schoolhouses and in private homes and at various 
camp meetings. 

Peter Cartwright came into the Sangamo Country in 1824, 
and it is well known, in the regions embracing his activities, 
old Lucifer had few spare moments for repose. Wherever he 
found new settlers he organized Methodist classes and begun 
his fight. And there came to his aid those earnest advocates 
of the primitive Gospel, the old Baptists, from Kentucky and 
Tennessee, who founded their places for worship wherever 
there was promise of doing good, and let it be said the good 
works of those early Methodist and Baptist pioneers remain 
with the people, leaving their impress stamped deeply on all 
generations since. 

The first schoolhouse in central Cass County was located 
one-fourth of a mile west of Little Indian Station in the north 
part of the NE. % of section 34-17-10, was erected in 1829 for 
school purposes. There had been schools years before, but 
they had been held in abandoned settlers' cabins and private 
houses. 



479 

In this review of some of the beginnings in central Cass 
county, something is due to be said of early mills, an im- 
portant factor with the first settlers. It has been written that 
Eli Cox, Archibald Job, Peter Conover and their few neigh- 
bors were compelled to go to Cahokia, in St. Clair County, for 
their grist. It is not probable they often journeyed to Caho- 
kia before resorting to some method, even if very primitive, 
to serve their purpose nearer home. 

The first mill, or rather the first suggestion of one, was 
the hominy block — diminutive horse mills for grinding corn 
quickly followed. The first one to be installed within the 
present limits of Cass County, it is said, was that of Eoland 
Shepherd in 1S21, located on Indian Creek, in the western part 
of the county. A horse mill of a very early date in Clary's 
Grove, Menard County, then in Sangamon County, supplied 
the settlers in the central and eastern parts of Cass County. 
In 1829 Joseph McDonald built a horse mill in Panther 
Grove on section 11-17-9. Some years later, William Miller 
erected a mill on Indian Creek — that is, on the north edge 
of Indian Creek timber, in the southeast corner of section 
36-17-9. This mill was something different from those of 
its fellows, in other neighborhoods inasmuch as it was pro- 
vided with a large inclined wheel, upon which oxen trod 
to impart motion to the mill's machinery. It ground corn 
and probably wheat to a limited extent. Large posts, 
used in the substructure of the mill, were standing as 
late as 1869. A small, primitive one-horse corn cracker was 
on the farm Mr. John Epler bought of Peter Conover in 1831, 
which answered its purpose until something "better presented 
itself. 

Ogle's water mill was built on Big Indian Creek in Mor- 
gan County before the "deep snow," just below the present 
village of Arcadia, grinding both wheat and corn. In the 30 's 
Hall's mill, Emerson's mill and Knapp's mill, all water mills, 
were built on upper Big Indian Creek, all in Morgan County, 
and all grinding wheat and corn. Emerson's and Knapp's 
mills sawed lumber, possibly Hall's did too. While these mills 
were in Morgan County, they are worthy of mention here, "as 
they served the settlers in central Cass County. On Little 
Indian Creek, which rises in the eastern part of Cass County, 



480 

flowing west, southwest, crossing into Morgan County on south 
line of section 34-17-10, emptying into Big Indian in section 
10-16-31, were four saw mills. Those of William Carver and 
John Epler were in Cass County. Those of Marshall and 
Captain Yaple in Morgan County. Mr. Epler's mill was built 
in 1836. All the others were of early dates. Epler's mill, 
probably the first built. Carver's mill was located on the NE. 
y±, section 30-17-9. Epler's mill was located on the SE. 14, 
section 35-17-10. 

Dr. H. H. Hall, founder of Virginia, the county seat of 
Cass, built a grist and saw mill about 1840 on Job's Creek, 
about a mile north of Virginia. Jacob Shoopman in the late 
30 's built a saw mill on Clear Creek, about three miles west 
of Virginia in south part of section 6-17-10. The mills built 
to date, assisted by a portable circular horse mill, operated 
by Messrs. Gatton and Heslip, supplied central Cass County 
with native lumber until the opening of the Illinois and Mich- 
igan Canal in April, 1848, when they all went out of commis- 
sion, or soon after. 

Bobison's mills for grinding and sawing were built on 
Clary's Creek, in Menard County, in 1836. The mills were 
located near the line dividing Menard and Cass. These mills 
were deservedly popular, became widely known and for years 
served a large section of country for miles around. When 
the writer was a boy there was a steam flouring mill at old 
Sangamo town, on the Sangamon Eiver, a few miles below 
Springfield. There was, also, one in Beardstown on the Illi- 
nois Eiver. It was the happy lot of this boy to be permitted 
to go to these mills with the teams, sent thither by his father, 
with grist. The man who did not "go to mill," when he was 
a boy, missed a great deal. 

In the foregoing relations there are doubtless mistakes, 
especially as to dates, as the writer had to rely upon a mem- 
ory clouded by many intervening years. Most of the data 
are of his own personal knowledge, others are from statements 
made by old pioneers themselves, and may be considered en- 
tirely reliable. He has had access to the atlas map of Cass 
County, which contains a short history of the county, pub- 
lished in 1874 by W. R. Brink & Co., Chicago, also to-a history 
of the county published by O. L. Baskin & Co., of Chicago in 



481 

1882, also to the interesting Historical Sketches by Hon. J. N. 
Gridley and others, published in 1907, by the "Enquirer," 
Virginia, Illinois. 

Elizabeth Hall— An Afterthought. 

The writer, walking through this old Baptist graveyard, 
a mile west of Yatesville, Morgan County, and before men- 
tioned, noticed a fragment of stone concealed in the grass. 
On examination it proved to be a part of an old brown sand- 
stone such as were used in early days in central Cass County 
to mark graves. On further examination he discovered traces 
of an inscription. After brushing off the mould, he was en- 
abled to decipher the follcvdng: "Elizabeth Hall, Deceased, 
Oct. 11, 1830. She was born December 4, 1757." Who was 
Elizabeth Hall! In this ancient burial place, somewhere, is 
her grave. Where is it! When did she come to central Illinois 
and from whence! Maybe she had heard the boom of Revo- 
lutionary guns! Maybe she had seen the Continentals march- 
ing to death and victory ! Such thoughts passed through his 
mind. Over on Indian Creek, a mile or more south and west, 
in very early days, was Hall's grist mill, Elizabeth Hall, pos- 
sibly, was the mother or the wife of this pioneer miller. 

This, and this only, is all that can now be known of this 
pioneer woman, whose brave and useful life, along with others 
of her class, deserve pages in our country's history. 

The saw mill of John Epler, previously mentioned, was 
well and strongly built. It was razed in 1850. Some of the 
timbers, which were a foot square, were incorporated in the 
new barn, before mentioned, which he was then building up 
on his farm. My parents wishing something extra for mantels, 
my father sent to St. Louis for enough clear white pine for 
two. This, too, when the richest and most beautiful black 
walnut stood on the hillside opposite the house. Carpenters 
in those days included in their kit of tools planes for molding 
different designs, as planing mills had not yet appeared. The 
mantels were built in and were handsome, and are in place to 
this day as nice as ever, needing only a touch of the brush. 

• All the doors of the house were made of walnut, also some 
paneling under the windows in the nice room. This paneling 
and the inside doors are as beautiful as when first fashioned, 
after 80 years, needing only a going over with the brush. 



482 

I might add the weather boarding was kiln dried black 
walnut; to prevent splitting gimlet holes were bored in the 
ends of eacli piece for nails. Those gimlet holes were bored 
by the late Judge Cyrus Epler of Jacksonville in 1837, then a 
boy fourteen years old. The nails were driven by Milton 
Trotter, a well known early day carpenter. 







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REV. LILY HL'XRY, BUXKER HILL. ILLS. 



483 



EARLY WOMEN PREACHERS OF ILLINOIS. 

[By Mes. Katherine Stahl„] 

In writing up the last two decades of the first one hun- 
dred years history of Illinois Statehood, we can proudly name 
quite a number of brilliant women who are occupying pulpits 
in churches as regular pastors — preaching the gospel, teach- 
ing advanced Bible classes and leading in missionary work 
at home and abroad. In the light of this acceptable truth it 
seems unbelievable that our grandfathers and grandmothers 
could not give like testimony concerning the times in which 
they lived; but they could not so testify. 

It will never be disputed that women have always ex- 
celled in the matter of pointing out the upward way, but for 
hundreds of years they had to do it by example and private 
precept. The gospel as taught by women under discourag- 
ing limitations has certainly turned many men to righteous- 
ness and caused them to become gospel messengers, going 
about doing good. "When it came to women preaching the 
word in public! That was quite another story! Any woman, 
however pious and worthy she might be, who was brave 
enough to venture a pulpit delivery of the ''glad tidings of 
salvation," was at once beaten back with: "Let your women 
keep silence in the churches!" Men who had done little read- 
ing and much less writing; men who had no uplifting message 
to give; men who truly did not know whether this injunction 
on women came from Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, or leading 
teachers of the new testament, claimed to know that women 
must not speak to a congregation ! 

Each woman must teach the children of one man in one 
home regardless of the good she might do for the children of 
other men in other homes who could receive lasting benefit 
from'the words she might publicly speak and in no other way. 
But who ever knew a woman who felt her sufficiency was of 
God, who would flinch from any duty when once convinced 
she had a duty and was capable of performing it? Women 



484 

nave always done pioneer work in the way of civilization 
and gospel teaching in all our states. 

I do not know when women began to preach publicly in 
Illinois, but I do remember that about sixty years ago women 
preachers must have been scarce in the State because when 
one wanted to preach she was given a severe and discourag- 
ing examination by the elders and deacons of the churches 
to which application was made by her for permission to serve 
a congregation. 

I do not remember hearing my parents or any one else 
speak of any woman preaching in Illinois till in the late 
fifties, probably fifty-seven or fifty-eight. At that time a 
Mrs. Hubbard came into Madison County and preached on 
several different occasions in the old Mount Olive Meeting 
house which is still standing (1916) a deserted, but not a 
dilapidated building, in the south side of Foster Township 
on a farm owned by Mr. Samuel H. Culp. This meeting 
house was "put up" in the spring of 1851, and after the man- 
ner of the Deacon's Masterpiece it was made of the stoutest 
oak which couldn't "be split nor bent, nor broke." It is 
made of hewn timbers by men expert with the old time 
broad-ax. 

It is slightly beyond the text of pioneer women preachers 
to speak of this old church and its construction, but since it 
is where one of the first woman preachers did some preach- 
ing, I venture to speak of it. It is to be observed that "meet- 
ing house" is the expression used because in those days of 
old the folks had no churches and no salaried pastors of 
churches. Instead of these, there were "meeting houses" 
and "preachers," not clergymen or ministers of the gospel, 
but just preachers; mostly journeymen preachers who went 
from place to place and preached for love and not for money. 
Their mode of travel was usually on horseback. They were 
gladly entertained without money and without price and 
much of their preaching was done in private houses; even 
log houses where hospitality was seldom equaled and never 
excelled. Where a community had a real Simon-pure meeting 
house dedicated and held sacred to orthodox male preaching, 
that community was looked upon as one most favored of the 
gods. 



485 

It was in one of these favored places thai Mrs, Hubbard 
asked the privilege of preaching, and though I was a very 
young child at the time, my memory was stimulated by the 
furore that arose among men, the conferences they held to 
consider the effect on the community of letting a woman 
preach to men. They had doubts about their meeting house 
and their religion being able to stand the innovation. Their 
curiosity was stronger than their objections, and after de- 
ciding in favor of letting Mrs. Hubbard speak "in the assem- 
bly of the upright and in the congregation,*' the question 
arose: "Will it be wise for us men to allow our wives, sis- 
ters, daughters and especially our mothers-in-law to attend 
the service?" The decision must have been favorable for 1 
remember that the house was crowded with men, women and 
children. Many men came out from Alton — four miles dis- 
tant — also a few women. In those days people thought noth- 
ing of walking five miles or more to attend church services, 
and it was no drawback for everybody to take all the chil- 
dren to church from the least to the greatest. I know noth- 
ing of the doctrines set forth by Mrs. Hubbard, but pre- 
sume she was a Hardshell Baptist, since she was among men 
and women of that sturdy religion. She preached repeatedly 
and always to a crowded house. I do not know where she 
came from nor whither she went. 

Soon after Mrs. Hubbard's advent in Madison County, 
another woman preacher came and held services in a little 
meeting house called Antioch. It was located in the north 
side of Foster Township on land belonging to the Hamilton 
and Gray heirs. This church building has long since passed 
away. It was known as a "Campbellite Church," the sect 
termed disciples at the present day. 

It is claimed that this woman, Mrs. Henry, met with little 
opposition compared with that which met Mrs. Hubbard. She 
preached acceptably at Antioch in regular monthly meetings 
for several years; only ceasing her work there when the Civil 
War came on putting a blight on church work and every thing- 
else. While I was too young to remember definitely this lady's 
clerical successes in those days, I was fortunate enough to be- 
come personally acquainted with her some years later when 



48G 

she came to the town where I was teaching my first school in 
another state, and conducted a revival for a month or more. 

In this revival meeting she was very successful in turn- 
ing many to righteousness and also in removing much of the 
prejudice fostered by men who thought women must keep 
silence in the churches. 

Mrs. Henry was a woman of education, refinement and 
culture; magnetic in person, a talented elocutionist and a 
very sweet singer. She ]ed the singing in all her services 
and insisted on congregational singing, preferring that no 
musical instrument beyond a tuning fork be used. In those 
years there was about as much dispute over organs in 
churches as there was about women preaching. The organs 
could not speak for themselves, Mrs. Henry said; while the 
women could; and when the women got established the or- 
gans and other instruments of praise would come without 
controversy. Until then u ]ct everything that hath breath 
praise the Lord" with their voices. The woman preacher's 
prophecy of fifty years ago is fulfilled. The women are es- 
tablished and so are the organs. 

Mrs. Henry was well versed in the scriptures. She stud- 
ied the Bible daily, and if ever any one meditated on the laws 
of the Lord continually, she did. She not only meditated on 
the sacred law, but she applied it to herself and the people 
whom she met. I have been with her when some prejudiced 
egotist assailed her, falsely accused her and very despitefully 
used her, but never for once could any one ruffle her calm 
spirit. Nor did ever any assailant go from her without feel- 
ing abashed and ashamed. After listening to a tirade of 
invective and profanity, she would pleasantly ask: "Did 
you pray over me and get these messages you've been deliv- 
ering to me from the Lord?" then she would invite the of- 
fender to hear her preach and sing; such invitations were 
accepted and she usually brought her sinner to repentance. 

Mrs. Henry was truly a great preacher, having the propei 
spirit for pioneer work that would open the way and did open 
the doors for women to do good in every way and in every 
place. She was very modest, never put herself forward in 
any way; but she stood her ground well and suffered no one 
to put her to flight. She went into villages and small towns 



487 

to preach, she never could be prevailed upon to preach in 
cities or to go to eastern states. She only wanted to do good 
and had no desire to be a celebrity. Ker home, when I 
knew her, was in Bunker Hill, Illinois. She was a wife and a 
mother. Her husband delighted in her and her children arose 
up to bless her. All who truly knew her rejoiced in their 
knowldege of her. When the demands of the Gospel began 
to consume all her time, and her children had taken their 
places in the world, Mrs. Henry became an itinerant preacher 
and evangelist in the western states. She labored acceptably 
in Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska for a long time, then went 
to California, Oregon and Washington, the latter a territory 
then. For some years I kept in touch with Mrs. Henry, but 
eventually the cares of married life and the labor of helping 
my husband pay for our farm home, caused our communica- 
tions to default, and though I have tried to connect them 
again in order to give a proper finish to this meager sketch, 
I have failed in every effort. Rev. Lily Henry is probably 
not living now, but the good work she did in behalf of women 
still lives ; the trail she blazed for women to follow will never 
grow dim. 

Moro, Illinois, Hallowe'en, Ninet